Understanding Dying, Death, and Bereavement, 9th Edition PDF by Michael R. Leming, George E. Dickinson

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Understanding Dying, Death, and Bereavement, Ninth Edition

By Michael R. Leming, George E. Dickinson

Understanding dying, death, and bereavement

Contents

About the Authors xv

Preface xvii

CHAPTER 1 Studying Dying, Death, and Bereavement 1

Current Interest in Death and Dying 3

Why the Increased Interest? 4

The Mystery of Death 4

Terrorism 5

Ethical Issues 7

Popular Culture 8

Death Education 12

Thanatology Classes 12

Thanatology Publications 13

Mortality Statistics 15

Death Etiology and Life Expectancy 16

Gender Differences in Mortality Rates 21

Approaches to the Study of Dying and Death 22

The Biological Approach 23

The Psychological Approach 23

The Philosophical Approach 24

The Anthropological Approach 25

The Sociological Approach 25

Structural-Functional Theory 26

Conflict Theory 28

Social Exchange Theory 29

Symbolic Interaction Theory 30

Conclusion 33

Summary 34

Discussion Questions 34

Suggested Readings 35

CHAPTER 2 The American Experience of Death 37

Defining Death 39

International Definitions 40

American Definitions 41

The Meaning of Dying and Death 44

Deriving Meaning from the Audience 45

Deriving Meaning from the Situation 46

Death as a Lost Relationship 46

Creating and Changing Death-Related Meaning 48

The American Experience of Death 49

Living Death (1600–1830) 49

The Dying of Death (1830–1945) 50

The Resurrection of Death (1945–the Present) 51

Contemporary Attitudes Toward Death 54

Denial or Acceptance of Death? 54

Fearing Death? 58

Content of Death Fears 61

Death Fears 61

Relieving Death Anxiety Through Religion 63

Contemplating One’s Own Death 64

Conclusion 66

Summary 66

Discussion Questions 67

Suggested Readings 68

CHAPTER 3 Growing Up with Death/Growing Old with Death 69

Childhood 71

How Do Children Learn About Death? 71

Personal Experiences 73

Mass Media 74

Religion 77

Children’s Understanding of Death 78

Birth to Age Three 78

Ages Three Through Five 80

Ages Six to Twelve 80

Explaining Death and Dying to Children 83

Be Honest and Open 84

Avoid Euphemisms 84

Show Emotion 86

Adolescence 88

Identity Crisis and Death Anxiety 89

Media Influences 90

Learning Adult Rituals 91

Communicating About Death 92

Adulthood 93

Young Adulthood 94

Middle-Aged Adulthood 94

Panic and Denial 95

Reflection and Acceptance 96

Personal Growth 96

Older Adulthood 97

Achieving Integrity 99

Diminishing Death Fears 100

Choosing a Place to Die 103

Conclusion 104

Summary 105

Discussion Questions 105

Suggested Readings 106

CHAPTER 4 Perspectives on Death and Life After Death 107

The Need to Look Beyond Death 108

Diversity in Perspectives 110

Cross-Cultural Views 110

Religious Interpretations of Death 112

Judaism 113

Christianity 115

Islam 115

Hinduism 117

Buddhism 118

Temporal Interpretations of Death 121

Symbolic Immortality 122

Near-Death Experiences 125

Defining a Near-Death Experience 125

Explaining Near-Death Experiences 127

Conclusion 128

Summary 129

Discussion Questions 130

Suggested Readings 130

CHAPTER 5 The Dying Process 131

Death Meanings 133

Time Meanings: Dealing with the Prognosis 133

Space Meanings: Isolation and Confinement 136

Norm and Role Meanings: Expected Dying Behavior 138

Value Meanings: Reassessing the Value of Life and Death 139

Object and Self-Meanings: Accepting the Self as Terminal 139

Detachment from the Living 140

Kübler-Ross’s Five Stages of Dying 141

Social Situation Meanings: Definition of the Environment 144

Relating to the Dying Person 145

Medical Personnel 145

The Socialization of Physicians 146

Awareness Contexts 150

Family and Friends 150

The Stress of Dealing with a Dying Family Member 152

Helping Children Cope with a Dying Parent 154

Dying with Dignity 154

The Dying Child 157

Relating to the Dying Child 157

Helping the Child Cope with Dying 158

Parents of the Dying Child 160

Siblings of the Dying Child 161

Conclusion 163

Summary 164

Discussion Questions 164

Suggested Readings 165

CHAPTER 6 Living with Dying 167

Understanding and Coping with the Illness 169

The Loss of Physical Functions 169

The Loss of Mental Capacity 170

Dying of Cancer and Heart Disease 170

Cancer 170

Heart Disease 173

Treatment Options 173

Evaluating Treatment Options and Symptoms 173

Treating Drug Side Effects 175

Pain and Symptom Management 176

Pain Management 178

Managing Dehydration 180

Organ Transplantations 181

Palliative Care 184

The Hospice Movement 186

The Hospice Team 188

The Patient–Family as the Unit of Care 192

The Cost of Hospice Care 193

Public Attitudes 195

Conclusion 197

Summary 198

Discussion Questions 199

Suggested Readings 199

CHAPTER 7 Dying in the American Health Care System 201

The Medical Model Approach to Dying 202

Dying as Deviance in the Medical Setting 203

Labeling Theory 203

Deviance Results in Punishment 204

Normalization of Dying in the Medical Setting 205

Dying in a Technological Society 206

The Environment of the Dying Person 208

Hospital 208

Home 209

Nursing Home 210

Hospice Inpatient Care 211

End-of-Life Education in Medical and Nursing Schools 213

Gross Anatomy Lab in Medical Schools 214

Developing a Sensitivity to Social and Psychological Needs 216

Developing Communication Skills 216

The Cost of Dying 219

Conclusion 222

Suggested Research Topics Related to End-of-Life Issues 222

Summary 222

Discussion Questions 223

Suggested Readings 223

CHAPTER 8 Biomedical Issues and Euthanasia 225

Ethical Behavior 227

What Is Ethical Behavior? 227

Bioethicists 228

Use of the Body in Medical Research and Training 230

Organ Transplantation 231

Euthanasia 235

Sanctity-of-Life versus Quality-of-Life Debate 236

Sanctity-of-Life View 236

Quality-of-Life View 236

The Right to Die 237

Passive Euthanasia 240

Distinguishing between Ordinary and Extraordinary Measures 240

Nutrition and Hydration 241

CPR Versus DNR 242

Active Euthanasia 243

The Slippery-Slope Argument 245

Physician-Assisted Death 246

Conclusion 249

Summary 250

Discussion Questions 250

Suggested Readings 251

CHAPTER 9 Suicide and Other Sudden, Unnatural Traumatic Deaths 253

Changing Attitudes Toward Suicide 254

The Stigma of Suicide 255

Defining Suicidal Acts 257

Social Factors Involved in Suicide 258

Age, Gender, Region, and Marital Status 258

Socioeconomic and Cultural Factors 259

Opioids and suicide 262

Theoretical Perspectives on Suicide 263

Durkheim’s Theory 264

Conflict Theory 265

Dramaturgical Perspective 265

Existentialist Perspective 266

Psychological Perspective 266

Critical Sociology 267

Suicide Through the Life Cycle 267

Childhood Suicide 267

Adolescent Suicide 268

Warning Signs of Suicide 270

Explaining Adolescent Suicide 270

The Internet, Hotlines, and Suicide 272

College-Aged Students and Suicide 274

Middle-Aged Suicide 275

Older Adult Suicide 276

Causes of Suicide 278

Copycat Suicides and the Media 279

Rational Suicide 281

Other Sudden, Unnatural, Traumatic Deaths 283

Homicide 283

Accidental Deaths 287

Conclusion 289

Summary 290

Discussion Questions 291

Suggested Readings 291

CHAPTER 10 Diversity in Death Rituals 293

Understanding Death Rituals 294

Death Rituals as a Rite of Passage 294

Structural-Functional Explanations 296

Mourning Behaviors 298

Changes in Mourning Behaviors in the United States 300

Gender Differences in Mourning Behaviors 303

Customs at Death 304

Norms Prior to Death 304

Preparing the Corpse 305

Cleaning, Decorating, and Clothing the Body 306

Embalming 307

Final Disposition 311

Earth Burial 311

Cremation 312

Influence of Social Position and Gender on Death-Related

Behaviors and Rituals 314

Death Rituals of Major Religious Groups 316

Jewish Customs 317

Christianity 317

Hinduism 319

Buddhism 320

Islam 322

Conclusion 323

Summary 323

Discussion Questions 324

Suggested Readings 324

CHAPTER 11 The Business of Dying 327

The Business of Preparing the Dead 328

The Changing American Funeral 328

The Puritan Funeral 328

The Victorian Funeral 329

The Contemporary American Funeral: Meeting the Needs of the

Bereaved 332

The American Practice of Funeral Service 335

Education and Licensure 335

The Role of the Funeral Director 337

Funeral Expenses 337

Pricing Systems 338

Alternatives to the Funeral 341

New Trends in Funeral Service 345

Preneed Funerals: A “New” Trend in Planning Funerals 345

Aftercare: The Future Business Is to Be Found in Today’s

Customers 345

Funeral Services on the Internet 347

The Business of Burying the Dead 348

The Changing American Cemetery 348

The Puritan Cemetery 349

The City Garden Cemetery 349

The Rural Cemetery 350

The Lawn Park Cemetery 352

Graveyard Symbols of Death 353

Cemeteries Today 354

The Government Cemetery 355

The Not-for-Profit Cemetery 356

The For-Profit Cemetery 357

Conclusion 357

Summary 358

Discussion Questions 358

Suggested Readings 359

CHAPTER 12 The Legal Aspects of Dying 361

Establishing the Cause of Death 363

Death Certificate 363

Autopsy 366

Coroners and Medical Examiners 370

Advance Directives 371

Living Wills 371

Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care 372

Life Insurance 373

Life Insurance as Protection 375

Life Insurance as an Investment 375

Long-Term Care Insurance 376

Inheritance and Wills 376

Intestate and Inheritance 376

Wills 378

Holographic Wills 380

Probate 380

Conclusion 381

Summary 381

Discussion Questions 381

Suggested Readings 382

CHAPTER 13 Coping with Loss 383

The Bereavement Role 384

The Grieving Process 384

Normal and Abnormal Grief 386

Stages of Grief 389

Shock and Denial 389

Disorganization 389

Volatile Reactions 389

Guilt 390

Loss and Loneliness 391

Relief 391

Reestablishment 391

Disenfranchised Grief 393

Assisting the Bereaved 394

Practical Matters 396

The Art of Condolence 396

Coping with Sudden Death 396

Accidents 397

Disasters 399

Recovering from Tsunami or Typhoon 400

Murder 401

War 402

Conclusion 403

Summary 404

Discussion Questions 405

Suggested Readings 405

CHAPTER 14 Grieving Throughout the Life Cycle 407

Grieving Parents and the Loss of a Child 408

The Loss of a Fetus or an Infant 408

Fetal Death 410

Perinatal Death 411

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 416

The Loss of a Child 418

The Loss of an Adult Child 419

Grieving Children and Adolescents 419

Loss of a Parent 420

Loss of a Sibling 421

Loss of a Grandparent 421

Grieving Adults 422

Loss of a Spouse 422

Loss of a Parent 422

Loss of a Pet 423

Dying, Death, and Bereavement in the 21St Century:

A Challenge 425

Conclusion 426

Summary 426

Discussion Questions 427

Suggested Readings 427

References 429

Glossary 461

Index 473

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