Biopsychology, 11th Edition PDF by John P J Pinel & Steven J Barnes

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Biopsychology, Eleventh Edition

By John P J Pinel & Steven J Barnes

Biopsychology, Eleventh Edition

Contents:

Biopsychology, Eleventh Edition

By John P J Pinel & Steven J Barnes

Contents:

Preface 16

To The Student 22

About The Authors 22

Part One What Is Biopsychology?

1 Biopsychology As A Neuroscience 25

What Is Biopsychology, Anyway?

The Case Of Jimmie G., The Man Frozen In Time 27

Four Major Themes Of This Text 27

Thinking Creatively About Biopsychology 27 •

Clinical Implications 27 • The Evolutionary

Perspective 27 • Neuroplasticity 27

Emerging Themes Of This Text 28

Thinking About Epigenetics 28 • Consciousness 28

What Is Biopsychology? 28

Defining Biopsychology 28

What Are The Origins Of Biopsychology? 28

How Is Biopsychology Related To The Other Disciplines

Of Neuroscience? 29

What Types Of Research Characterize The Biopsychological

Approach? 29

Human And Nonhuman Subjects 29

Experiments And Nonexperiments 30

Experiments 30 • Quasiexperimental Studies 31 •

Case Studies 32

Pure And Applied Research 32

What Are The Divisions Of Biopsychology? 33

Physiological Psychology 34

Psychopharmacology 34

Neuropsychology 34

The Case Of Mr. R., The Student With A Brain Injury

Who Switched To Architecture 34

Psychophysiology 35

Cognitive Neuroscience 35

Comparative Psychology 36

How Do Biopsychologists Conduct Their Work? 37

Converging Operations: How Do Biopsychologists

Work Together? 37

Scientific Inference: How Do Biopsychologists Study

The Unobservable Workings Of The Brain? 38

Thinking Critically About Biopsychological Claims 39

Evaluating Biopsychological Claims 40

Case 1: José And The Bull 40

Case 2: Two Chimpanzees, Moniz, And The Prefrontal

Lobotomy 40

Themes Revisited 42 • Key Terms 43

Part Two Foundations Of Biopsychology

2 Evolution, Genetics, And Experience 44

Thinking About The Biology Of Behavior

Thinking About The Biology Of Behavior: From

Dichotomies To Interactions 45

The Origins Of Dichotomous Thinking 45

Is It Physiological, Or Is It Psychological? 45 •

Is It Inherited, Or Is It Learned? 46

Problems With Thinking About The Biology Of Behavior

In Terms Of Traditional Dichotomies 46

Physiological-Or-Psychological Thinking Runs

Into Difficulty 46

The Case Of The Man Who Fell Out Of Bed 47

The Case Of The Chimps With Mirrors 47

Nature-Or-Nurture Thinking Runs Into Difficulty 48

The Case Of The Thinking Student 48

A Model Of The Biology Of Behavior 48

Human Evolution 49

Darwin’s Theory Of Evolution 49

Evolution And Behavior 51

Social Dominance 51 • Courtship Display 51

Course Of Human Evolution 52

Evolution Of Vertebrates 52 • Evolution Of

Amphibians 52 • Evolution Of Reptiles 52 • Evolution

Of Mammals 52 • Emergence Of Humankind 53

Thinking About Human Evolution 54

Evolution Of The Human Brain 56

Fundamental Genetics 58

Mendelian Genetics 58

Chromosomes 59

Reproduction And Recombination 59 • Structure

And Replication 60 • Sex Chromosomes And

Sex-Linked Traits 61

Genetic Code And Gene Expression 61

Human Genome Project 63

Modern Genetics: Growth Of Epigenetics 63

Epigenetics Of Behavioral Development: Interaction

Of Genetic Factors And Experience 66

Selective Breeding Of “Maze-Bright” And “Maze-Dull” Rats 66

Phenylketonuria: A Single-Gene Metabolic Disorder 67

Genetics Of Human Psychological Differences 68

Development Of Individuals Versus Development

Of Differences Among Individuals 68

Heritability Estimates: Minnesota Study Of

Twins Reared Apart 68

A Look Into The Future: Two Kinds Of Twin Studies 69

Twin Studies Of Epigenetic Effects 69 • Twin Studies

Of The Effects Of Experience On Heritability 70

Themes Revisited 70 • Key Terms 71

3 Anatomy Of The Nervous System 72

Systems, Structures, And Cells That Make Up

Your Nervous System

General Layout Of The Nervous System 73

Divisions Of The Nervous System 73

Meninges 74

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid 75

Blood–Brain Barrier 76

Cells Of The Nervous System 77

Anatomy Of Neurons 77

Neuron Cell Membrane 77 • Classes Of Neurons 77 •

Neurons And Neuroanatomical Structure 78

Glia: The Forgotten Cells 80

Neuroanatomical Techniques And Directions 82

Neuroanatomical Techniques 82

Golgi Stain 82 • Nissl Stain 82 • Electron

Microscopy 82 • Neuroanatomical Tracing

Techniques 83

Directions In The Vertebrate Nervous System 84

Anatomy Of The Central Nervous System 86

Spinal Cord 86

Five Major Divisions Of The Brain 86

Myelencephalon 87

Metencephalon 87

Mesencephalon 88

Diencephalon 88

Telencephalon 90

Cerebral Cortex 90

Limbic System And The Basal Ganglia 92

Themes Revisited 95 • Key Terms 95

4 Neural Conduction And Synaptic

Transmission 97

How Neurons Send And Receive Signals

The Lizard: A Case Of Parkinson’s Disease 98

Resting Membrane Potential 99

Recording The Membrane Potential 99

Ionic Basis Of The Resting Potential 99

Generation, Conduction, And Integration Of Postsynaptic

Potentials 100

Generation And Conduction Of Postsynaptic Potentials 100

Integration Of Postsynaptic Potentials And Generation

Of Action Potentials 101

Conduction Of Action Potentials 104

Ionic Basis Of Action Potentials 104

Refractory Periods 105

Axonal Conduction Of Action Potentials 105

Conduction In Myelinated Axons 105 • The Velocity

Of Axonal Conduction 106 • Conduction In Neurons

Without Axons 106

The Hodgkin-Huxley Model In Perspective 106

Synaptic Transmission: From Electrical Signals

To Chemical Signals 107

Structure Of Synapses 107

Synthesis, Packaging, And Transport Of

Neurotransmitter Molecules 109

Release Of Neurotransmitter Molecules 109

Activation Of Receptors By Neurotransmitter

Molecules 109

Reuptake, Enzymatic Degradation, And Recycling 111

Glia, Gap Junctions, And Synaptic Transmission 112

Neurotransmitters 114

Overview Of The Neurotransmitter Classes 114

The Roles And Functions Of Neurotransmitters 114

Amino Acid Neurotransmitters 114 • Monoamine

Neurotransmitters 114 • Acetylcholine 114 •

Unconventional Neurotransmitters 114 •

Neuropeptides 116

Pharmacology Of Synaptic Transmission And Behavior 116

How Drugs Influence Synaptic Transmission 116

Behavioral Pharmacology: Three Influential Lines

Of Research 117

Wrinkles And Darts: Discovery Of Receptor

Subtypes 117 • Pleasure And Pain: Discovery Of

Endogenous Opioids 119 • Tremors And Mental Illness:

Discovery Of Antipsychotic Drugs 119

Themes Revisited 120 • Key Terms 120

5 The Research Methods

Of Biopsychology 121

Understanding What Biopsychologists Do

The Ironic Case Of Professor P. 123

Part One Methods Of Studying The Nervous System 123

Methods Of Visualizing And Stimulating The

Living Human Brain 123

X-Ray-Based Techniques 124

Contrast X-Rays 124 • Computed Tomography 124

Radioactivity-Based Techniques 125

Magnetic-Field-Based Techniques 125

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 125 • Diffusion

Tensor Mri 126 • Functional Mri 126

Ultrasound-Based Techniques 127

Transcranial Stimulation 127

Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity 128

Psychophysiological Measures Of Brain Activity 128

Scalp Electroencephalography 128 •

Magnetoencephalography 130

Psychophysiological Measures Of Somatic Nervous

System Activity 130

Muscle Tension 130 • Eye Movement 130

Psychophysiological Measures Of Autonomic

Nervous System Activity 131

Skin Conductance 131 • Cardiovascular Activity 131

Invasive Physiological Research Methods 132

Stereotaxic Surgery 132

Lesion Methods 133

Aspiration Lesions 133 • Radio-Frequency

Lesions 133 • Knife Cuts 133 • Reversible

Lesions 133 • Interpreting Lesion Effects 133 •

Bilateral And Unilateral Lesions 134

Electrical Stimulation 134

Invasive Electrophysiological Recording Methods 134

Intracellular Unit Recording 134 • Extracellular

Unit Recording 134 • Multiple-Unit Recording 135 •

Invasive Eeg Recording 135

Pharmacological Research Methods 135

Routes Of Drug Administration 136

Selective Chemical Lesions 136

Measuring Chemical Activity Of The Brain 136

2-Deoxyglucose Technique 136 • Cerebral Dialysis 136

Locating Neurotransmitters And Receptors In

The Brain 137

Immunocytochemistry 137 • In Situ Hybridization 137

Genetic Methods 137

Gene Knockout Techniques 138

Gene Knockin Techniques 138

Gene Editing Techniques 138

Fantastic Fluorescence And The Brainbow 139

Optogenetics: A Neural Light Switch 139

Part Two Behavioral Research Methods

Of Biopsychology 141

Neuropsychological Testing 141

Modern Approach To Neuropsychological Testing 141

The Single-Test Approach 141 • The Standardizedtest-

Battery Approach 141 • The Customized-Testbattery

Approach 142

Tests Of The Common Neuropsychological Test Battery 142

Intelligence 142 • Memory 142 • Language 142 •

Language Lateralization 143

Tests Of Specific Neuropsychological Function 143

Memory 143 • Language 143

Behavioral Methods Of Cognitive Neuroscience 144

The Case Of The Vegetative Patient 144

Paired-Image Subtraction Technique 144

Default Mode Network 145

Mean Difference Images 145

Functional Connectivity 146

Biopsychological Paradigms Of Animal Behavior 146

Paradigms For The Assessment Of Species-Common

Behaviors 146

Open-Field Test 146 • Tests Of Aggressive And

Defensive Behavior 146 • Tests Of Sexual Behavior 146

Traditional Conditioning Paradigms 147

Seminatural Animal Learning Paradigms 147

Conditioned Taste Aversion 147 • Radial Arm

Maze 148 • Morris Water Maze 148 • Conditioned

Defensive Burying 148

Thinking Creatively About Biopsychological Research 148

Themes Revisited 149 • Key Terms 150

Part Three Sensory And Motor Systems

6 The Visual System 151

How We See

The Case Of Mrs. Richards: Fortification Illusions

And The Astronomer 153

Light Enters The Eye And Reaches The Retina 154

Pupil And Lens 154

Eye Position And Binocular Disparity 155

The Retina And Translation Of Light Into

Neural Signals 157

Structure Of The Retina 157

Cone And Rod Vision 158

Spectral Sensitivity 160

Eye Movement 161

Visual Transduction: The Conversion Of Light

To Neural Signals 162

From Retina To Primary Visual Cortex 163

Retina-Geniculate-Striate System 163

Retinotopic Organization 164

The M And P Channels 164

Seeing Edges 165

Contrast Enhancement 165

Receptive Fields Of Visual Neurons: Hubel & Wiesel 166

Receptive Fields Of The Retina-Geniculate-Striate

System: Hubel & Wiesel 166

Receptive Fields Of Primary Visual Cortex Neurons:

Hubel & Wiesel 167

Simple Striate Cells 168 • Complex Striate

Cells 168 • Binocular Complex Striate Cells 168

Organization Of Primary Visual Cortex: Hubel &

Wiesel’s Findings 168

The Case Of Mrs. Richards, Revisited 169

Changing Concept Of The Characteristics Of

Visual Receptive Fields 169

Retinal Ganglion Cells 169 • Lateral Geniculate

Cells 169

Changing Concept Of Visual Receptive Fields:

Contextual Influences In Visual Processing 169

Seeing Color 170

Component And Opponent Processing 170

Color Constancy And The Retinex Theory 172

Cortical Mechanisms Of Vision And Conscious

Awareness 173

Three Different Classes Of Visual Cortex 174

Damage To Primary Visual Cortex: Scotomas And

Completion 174

The Physiological Psychologist Who Made Faces

Disappear 175

The Case Of D.B., The Man Confused By His

Own Blindsight 175

Functional Areas Of Secondary And Association

Visual Cortex 176

Dorsal And Ventral Streams 176

D.F., The Woman Who Could Grasp Objects

She Did Not Consciously See 178

A.T., The Woman Who Could Not Accurately

Grasp Unfamiliar Objects That She Saw 178

Prosopagnosia 179

Is Prosopagnosia Specific To Faces? 179

R.P., A Typical Prosopagnosic 179

What Brain Pathology Is Associated With

Prosopagnosia?

179 • Can Prosopagnosics Perceive

Faces In The Absence Of Conscious Awareness? 180

Akinetopsia 180

Two Cases Of Drug-Induced Akinetopsia 180

Themes Revisited 181 • Key Terms 181

7 Sensory Systems, Perception,

And Attention 183

How You Know The World

The Case Of The Man Who Could See Only One

Thing At A Time 185

Principles Of Sensory System Organization 185

Types Of Sensory Areas Of Cortex 185

Features Of Sensory System Organization 185

Case Of The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat 186

Functional Segregation 186 • Parallel

Processing 186 • Summary Model Of Sensory

System Organization 186

Auditory System 187

Physical And Perceptual Dimensions Of Sound 187

The Ear 188

From The Ear To The Primary Auditory Cortex 189

Auditory Cortex 189

Organization Of Primate Auditory Cortex 190 •

What Sounds Should Be Used To Study Auditory

Cortex? 190 • What Analyses Does The Auditory

Cortex Perform? 191 • Two Streams Of Auditory

Cortex 191 • Auditory–Visual Interactions 191 •

Where Does The Perception Of Pitch Occur? 191

Effects Of Damage To The Auditory System 192

Auditory Cortex Damage 192 • Deafness

In Humans 192

Somatosensory System: Touch And Pain 194

Cutaneous Receptors 194

Two Major Somatosensory Pathways 194

Cortical Areas Of Somatosensation 195

Effects Of Damage To The Primary Somatosensory

Cortex 197

Somatosensory System And Association Cortex 198

The Case Of W.M., Who Reduced His Scotoma

With His Hand 198

Somatosensory Agnosias 198

The Case Of Aunt Betty, Who Lost Half Of Her Body 198

Rubber-Hand Illusion 199

Perception Of Pain 199

Pain Is Adaptive 199

The Case Of Miss C., The Woman Who Felt No Pain 199

Pain Has No Clear Cortical Representation 200 •

Pain Is Modulated By Cognition And Emotion 200

Neuropathic Pain 201

Chemical Senses: Smell And Taste 202

Adaptive Roles Of The Chemical Senses 202

Olfactory System 202

Gustatory System 204

Brain Damage And The Chemical Senses 205

Perception 206

Role Of Prior Experience In Perception 206

Perceptual Decision Making 206

The Binding Problem 207

Selective Attention 208

Characteristics Of Selective Attention 208

Change Blindness 209

Neural Mechanisms Of Attention 210

Simultanagnosia 210

Themes Revisited 211 • Key Terms 211

8 The Sensorimotor System 212

How You Move

The Case Of Rhonelle, The Dexterous Cashier 214

Three Principles Of Sensorimotor Function 214

The Sensorimotor System Is Hierarchically Organized 214

Motor Output Is Guided By Sensory Input 215

The Case Of G.O., The Man With Too Little Feedback 215

Learning Changes The Nature And Locus Of

Sensorimotor Control 215

General Model Of Sensorimotor System Function 215

Sensorimotor Association Cortex 216

Posterior Parietal Association Cortex 216

The Case Of Mrs. S., The Woman Who Turned

In Circles 217

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Association Cortex 218

Secondary Motor Cortex 219

Identifying The Areas Of Secondary Motor Cortex 219

Mirror Neurons 219

Primary Motor Cortex 221

Conventional View Of Primary Motor Cortex

Function 221

Current View Of Primary Motor Cortex Function 222

Belle: The Monkey That Controlled A Robot

With Her Mind 222

Effects Of Primary Motor Cortex Lesions 223

Cerebellum And Basal Ganglia 223

Cerebellum 223

Basal Ganglia 223

Descending Motor Pathways 224

The Two Dorsolateral Motor Pathways And

The Two Ventromedial Motor Pathways 225

Sensorimotor Spinal Circuits 225

Muscles 225

Receptor Organs Of Tendons And Muscles 226

Stretch Reflex 227

Withdrawal Reflex 228

Reciprocal Innervation 228

Recurrent Collateral Inhibition 230

Walking: A Complex Sensorimotor Reflex 230

Central Sensorimotor Programs And Learning 231

A Hierarchy Of Central Sensorimotor Programs 231

Characteristics Of Central Sensorimotor Programs 231

Central Sensorimotor Programs Are Capable Of

Motor Equivalence 231 • Sensory Information

That Controls Central Sensorimotor Programs

Is Not Necessarily Conscious 231 • Central

Sensorimotor Programs Can Develop Without

Practice 232 • Practice Can Create Central

Sensorimotor Programs 232

Functional Brain Imaging Of Sensorimotor Learning 233

Neuroplasticity Associated With Sensorimotor

Learning 234

The Case Of Rhonelle, Revisited 234

Themes Revisited 234 • Key Terms 234

Part Four Brain Plasticity

9 Development Of The Nervous System 236

From Fertilized Egg To You

The Case Of Genie 238

Five Phases Of Early Neurodevelopment 238

Stem Cells And Neurodevelopment 238

Induction Of The Neural Plate 239

Neural Proliferation 240

Migration And Aggregation 240

Migration 240 • Aggregation 242

Axon Growth And Synapse Formation 242

Axon Growth 242 • Synapse Formation 244

Neuron Death And Synapse Rearrangement 245

Synapse Rearrangement 246

Early Cerebral Development In Humans 246

Prenatal Growth Of The Human Brain 247

Postnatal Growth Of The Human Brain 247

Development Of The Prefrontal Cortex 248

Effects Of Experience On Postnatal Development

Of Neural Circuits 248

Critical Periods Vs. Sensitive Periods 248

Early Studies Of Experience And Neurodevelopment:

Deprivation And Enrichment 249

Experience And Neurodevelopment 249

Ocular Dominance Columns 249 • Topographic

Sensory Cortex Maps 250

Neuroplasticity In Adults 250

Neurogenesis In Adult Mammals 250

Effects Of Experience On Adult Neurogenesis 251 •

Functions Of Newly Born Neurons In The

Adult Brain 251

Effects Of Experience On The Reorganization

Of The Adult Cortex 252

Atypical Neurodevelopment: Autism Spectrum

Disorder And Williams Syndrome 252

Autism Spectrum Disorder 253

Asd Is A Heterogeneous Disorder 253

The Case Of Alex: Are You Ready To Rock? 253

The Case Of S.D.: The Self-Advocate 253

Asd Savants 254

Cases Of Amazing Savant Abilities 254

Genetic Mechanisms Of Asd 254 • Neural

Mechanisms Of Asd 254

Williams Syndrome 255

The Case Of Anne Louise Mcgarrah: Uneven Abilities 255

Epilogue 256

Themes Revisited 257 • Key Terms 257

Part Five Biopsychology Of Motivation

10 Brain Damage And Neuroplasticity 258

Can The Brain Recover From Damage?

The Ironic Case Of Professor P. 259

Causes Of Brain Damage 260

Brain Tumors 260

Strokes 261

Cerebral Hemorrhage 261 • Cerebral Ischemia 262

Traumatic Brain Injuries 262

The Case Of Junior Seau 264

Infections Of The Brain 264

Bacterial Infections 264 • Viral Infections 264

Neurotoxins 265

Genetic Factors 265

Programmed Cell Death 265

Neurological Diseases 266

Epilepsy 266

Focal Seizures 267

The Subtlety Of Complex Seizures: Two Cases 267

Generalized Seizures 267

Parkinson’s Disease 268

Huntington’s Disease 269

Multiple Sclerosis 270

Alzheimer’s Disease 271

Animal Models Of Human Neurological Diseases 274

Kindling Model Of Epilepsy 274

Mptp Model Of Parkinson’s Disease 275

The Case Of The Frozen Drug Users 275

Responses To Nervous System Damage:

Degeneration, Regeneration, Reorganization,

And Recovery 275

Neural Degeneration 275

Neural Regeneration 276

Neural Reorganization 278

Cortical Reorganization Following Damage

In Laboratory Animals 278 • Cortical Reorganization

Following Damage In Humans 278 • Mechanisms

Of Neural Reorganization 279

Recovery Of Function After Cns Damage 280

Neuroplasticity And The Treatment

Of Cns Damage 280

Neurotransplantation As A Treatment For

Cns Damage: Early Research 281

The Case Of Roberto Garcia D’orta: The Lizard

Gets An Autotransplant 281

Modern Research On Neurotransplantation 282

Promoting Recovery From Cns Damage

By Rehabilitative Training 282

Treating Strokes 282 • Treating Spinal Injury 283 •

Benefits Of Cognitive And Physical Exercise 283 •

Treating Phantom Limbs 283

Cases Of Carlos And Philip: Phantom Limbs And

Ramachandran 284

The Ironic Case Of Professor P.: Recovery 284

Themes Revisited 285 • Key Terms 285

11 Learning, Memory, And Amnesia 287

How Your Brain Stores Information

Amnesic Effects Of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy 289

The Case Of H.M., The Man Who Changed The Study Of

Memory 289

Formal Assessment Of H.M.’S Anterograde Amnesia:

Discovery

Of Unconscious Memories 290

Digit-Span + 1 Test 290 • Block-Tapping Test 290 •

Mirror-Drawing Test 290 • Incomplete-Pictures

Test 291 • Pavlovian Conditioning 291

Three Major Scientific Contributions Of H.M.’S Case 291

Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia 292

Semantic And Episodic Memories 292

The Case Of K.C., The Man Who Can’t Time Travel 293

The Case Of The Clever Neuropsychologist: Spotting

Episodic

Memory Deficits 293

Effects Of Global Cerebral Ischemia On The

Hippocampus And Memory 294

The Case Of R.B., Product Of A Bungled Operation 294

Amnesias Of Korsakoff’s Syndrome And

Alzheimer’s Disease 295

Amnesia Of Korsakoff’s Syndrome 295

The Up-Your-Nose Case Of N.A. 295

Amnesia Of Alzheimer’s Disease 295

Amnesia After Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence

For Consolidation 296

Posttraumatic Amnesia 296

Gradients Of Retrograde Amnesia And Memory

Consolidation 296

Hippocampus And Consolidation 297 •

Reconsolidation 298

Evolving Perspective Of The Role Of The Hippocampus In

Memory 298

Animal Models Of Object-Recognition Amnesia:

The Delayed Nonmatching-To-Sample Test 299

Monkey Version Of The Delayed Nonmatching-Tosample

Test 299 • Rat Version Of The Delayed

Non-Matching-To-Sample Test 300

Neuroanatomical Basis Of The Object-Recognition

Deficits Resulting From Bilateral Medial Temporal

Lobectomy 302

Neurons Of The Medial Temporal Lobes And Memory 303

Morris Water Maze Test 303 • Radial Arm Maze Test 303

Hippocampal Place Cells And Entorhinal Grid Cells 304

The Hippocampus As A Cognitive Map 305

Jennifer Aniston Neurons: Concept Cells 305

Engram Cells 306

Where Are Memories Stored? 306

Five Brain Areas Implicated In Memory 306

Inferotemporal Cortex 306 • Amygdala 307 •

Prefrontal Cortex 307

The Case Of The Cook Who Couldn’t 308

Cerebellum And Striatum 308

Cellular Mechanisms Of Learning And Memory 309

Synaptic Mechanisms Of Learning And Memory:

Long-Term Potentiation 309

Induction Of Ltp: Learning 311

Maintenance And Expression Of Ltp: Storage

And Recall 312

Variability Of Ltp 312

Nonsynaptic Mechanisms Of Learning

And Memory 313

Conclusion: Biopsychology Of Memory And You 313

Infantile Amnesia 313

Smart Drugs: Do They Work? 313

Posttraumatic Amnesia And Episodic Memory 314

The Case Of R.M., The Biopsychologist Who

Remembered H.M. 314

Themes Revisited 314 • Key Terms 315

12 Hunger, Eating, And Health 316

Why Do So Many People Eat Too Much?

The Case Of The Man Who Forgot Not To Eat 318

Digestion, Energy Storage, And Energy Utilization 318

Digestion And Energy Storage In The Body 318

Digestion 318 • Energy Storage In

The Body 318

Three Phases Of Energy Metabolism 319

Theories Of Hunger And Eating: Set Points

Versus Positive Incentives 320

Set-Point Assumption 320

Glucostatic Theory 322 • Lipostatic Theory 322 •

Problems With Set-Point Theories Of Hunger

And Eating 322

Positive-Incentive Perspective 323

Factors That Determine What, When, And How

Much We Eat 323

Factors That Influence What We Eat 323

Learned Taste Preferences And Aversions 323 •

Learning To Eat Vitamins And Minerals 324

Factors That Influence When We Eat 324

Premeal Hunger 324 • Pavlovian Conditioning

Of Hunger 324

Factors That Influence How Much We Eat 324

Satiety Signals 325 • Sham Eating 325 •

Appetizer Effect And Satiety 325 • Serving Size

And Satiety 325 • Social Influences And

Satiety 325 • Sensory-Specific Satiety 325

Physiological Research On Hunger And Satiety 327

Role Of Blood Glucose Levels In Hunger And Satiety 327

Evolution Of Research On The Role Of Hypothalamic

Nuclei In Hunger And Satiety 327

The Myth Of Hypothalamic Hunger And Satiety

Centers 327 • Modern Research On The Role Of

Hypothalamic Nuclei In Hunger And Satiety 328

Role Of The Gastrointestinal Tract In Satiety 328

Hypothalamic Circuits, Peptides, And The Gut 330

Serotonin And Satiety 330

Prader-Willi Syndrome: Patients With Insatiable

Hunger 331

Prader-Willi Syndrome: The Case Of Miss A. 331

Body-Weight Regulation: Set Points Versus Settling Points 331

Set-Point Assumptions About Body Weight

And Eating 331

Variability Of Body Weight 331 • Set Points And

Health 331

Regulation Of Body Weight By Changes In The

Efficiency Of Energy Utilization 332

Set Points And Settling Points In Weight Control 333

Human Overeating: Causes, Mechanisms,

And Treatments 335

Overeating: Who Needs To Be Concerned? 335

Overeating: Why Is There An Epidemic? 335

Why Do Some People Gain Weight From

Overeating While Others Do Not? 336

Differences In Energy Expenditure 336 •

Differences In Gut Microbiome Composition 336 •

Genetic And Epigenetic Factors 336

Why Are Weight-Loss Programs Often Ineffective? 337

Leptin And The Regulation Of Body Fat 337

The Discovery Of Leptin 338 • Leptin, Insulin,

And The Arcuate Melanocortin System 338 •

Leptin As A Treatment For High Body-Fat Levels

In Humans 338

The Case Of The Child With No Leptin 339

Treatment Of Overeating And High Body-Fat Levels 339

Serotonergic Agonists 339 • Gastric Surgery 339

Anorexia And Bulimia Nervosa 340

Anorexia And Bulimia Nervosa 340

Anorexia Nervosa 340 • Bulimia Nervosa 340

Relation Between Anorexia And Bulimia 340

Anorexia And Positive Incentives 341

Anorexia Nervosa: A Hypothesis 341

The Case Of The Student With Anorexia 342

Themes Revisited 342 • Key Terms 343

13 Hormones And Sex 344

What’s Wrong With The Mamawawa?

Men-Are-Men-And-Women-Are-Women Assumption 346 •

Developmental And Activational Effects Of Sex

Hormones 346

Neuroendocrine System 346

Glands 346

Gonads 347

Hormones 347

Sex Steroids 347

The Pituitary 348

Female Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Cyclic;

Male Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Steady 348

Control Of The Pituitary 348

Control Of The Anterior And Posterior Pituitary

By The Hypothalamus 349

Discovery Of Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones 349

Regulation Of Hormone Levels 350

Regulation By Neural Signals 350 • Regulation By

Hormonal Signals 350 • Regulation By Nonhormonal

Chemicals 351 • Pulsatile Hormone Release 351

Summary Model Of Gonadal Endocrine Regulation 351

Hormones And Sexual Development Of The Body 351

Sexual Differentiation 351

Fetal Hormones And Development Of Reproductive

Organs 352 • Internal Reproductive Ducts 352 •

External Reproductive Organs 353

Puberty: Hormones And Development Of Secondary

Sex Characteristics 353

Sexual Development Of Brain And Behavior 354

Sex Differences In The Brain 355

First Discovery Of A Sex Difference In Mammalian

Brain Function 355 • Aromatization Hypothesis 355 •

Sex Differences In The Brain: The Modern

Perspective 356

Development Of Sex Differences In Behavior 356

Development Of Reproductive Behaviors In

Laboratory Animals 357 • Development Of

Sex Differences In The Behavior Of Humans 357

Three Cases Of Exceptional Human Sexual Development 358

Exceptional Cases Of Human Sexual Development 359

The Case Of Anne S., The Woman With Testes 359

The Case Of The Little Girl Who Grew Into A Boy 359

The Case Of The Twin Who Lost His Penis 360

Do The Exceptional Cases Prove The Rule? 361

Effects Of Gonadal Hormones On Adults 361

Male Sexual Behavior And Gonadal Hormones 361

The Case Of The Man Who Lost And Regained

His Manhood 362

Female Sexual Behavior And Gonadal Hormones 362

Anabolic Steroid Abuse 363

Brain Mechanisms Of Sexual Behavior 364

Four Brain Structures Associated With Sexual Activity 364

Cortex And Sexual Activity 365 • Hypothalamus

And Sexual Activity 365 • Amygdala And Sexual

Activity 366 • Ventral Striatum And Sexual Activity 366

Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity 367

Sexual Orientation 367

Sexual Orientation And Genes 367 • Sexual

Orientation And Early Hormones 367

What Triggers The Development Of Sexual Attraction? 368

What Differences In The Brain Can Account For

Differences In Sexual Attraction? 368

Gender Identity 368

Independence Of Sexual Orientation And

Gender Identity 368

Themes Revisited 369 • Key Terms 370

14 Sleep, Dreaming, And Circadian

Rhythms 371

How Much Do You Need To Sleep?

The Case Of The Woman Who Wouldn’t Sleep 374

Stages Of Sleep 374

Three Standard Psychophysiological Measures

Of Sleep 374

Three Stages Of Sleep Eeg 374

Dreaming 376

Discovery Of The Relationship Between

Rem Sleep And Dreaming 376

Testing Common Beliefs About Dreaming 376

External Stimuli And Dreams 376 • Dream

Duration 376 • People Who Don’t Dream 376 •

Sexual Content In Dreams 376 • Sleeptalking And Sleepwalking 377

Does Rem Sleep = Dreaming? 377

Lucid Dreaming 377

The Case Of The Levitating Teenager 377

The Case Of The Artistic Dreamer 377

The Case Of The Bored Lucid Dreamer 378

Why Do We Dream What We Do? 378

Why Do We Dream? 379

Hobson’s Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis 379 •

Revonsuo’s Evolutionary Theory Of Dreams 379 •

Hobson’s Protoconsciousness Hypothesis 379

The Dreaming Brain 380

Why Do We Sleep, And Why Do We Sleep When We Do? 381

Two Kinds Of Theories Of Sleep 381

Comparative Analysis Of Sleep 381

Effects Of Sleep Deprivation 382

Interpretation Of The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation:

The Stress Problem 383

Predictions Of Recuperation Theories About Sleep

Deprivation 383

Two Classic Sleep-Deprivation Case Studies 383

The Case Of The Sleep-Deprived Students 383

The Case Of Randy Gardner 383

Studies Of Sleep Deprivation In Humans 384

Sleep-Deprivation Studies Of Laboratory Animals 385

Rem-Sleep Deprivation 385

Sleep Deprivation Increases The Efficiency Of Sleep 387

Circadian Sleep Cycles 388

Circadian Rhythms 388

Free-Running Circadian Sleep–Wake Cycles 388

Jet Lag And Shift Work 389

A Circadian Clock In The Suprachiasmatic Nuclei 389

Neural Mechanisms Of Entrainment 390

Genetics Of Circadian Rhythms 391

Four Areas Of The Brain Involved In Sleep 391

Two Areas Of The Hypothalamus Involved In Sleep 391

The Case Of Constantin Von Economo,

The Insightful Neurologist 392

Reticular Formation And Sleep 392

Reticular Rem-Sleep Nuclei 393

Drugs That Affect Sleep 395

Hypnotic Drugs 395

Antihypnotic Drugs 395

Melatonin 395

Sleep Disorders 396

Insomnia 397

Mr. B., The Case Of Iatrogenic Insomnia 397

Hypersomnia 398

Rem-Sleep-Related Disorders 399

The Case Of The Sleeper Who Ran Over Tackle 399

Effects Of Long-Term Sleep Reduction 399

Differences Between Short And Long Sleepers 399

Long-Term Reduction Of Nightly Sleep 400

Long-Term Sleep Reduction By Napping 400

Effects Of Shorter Sleep Times On Health 401

Long-Term Sleep Reduction: A Personal Case Study 401

The Case Of The Author Who Reduced His Sleep 401

Themes Revisited 402 • Key Terms 403

15 Drug Use, Drug Addiction,

And The Brain’s Reward Circuits 404

Chemicals That Harm With Pleasure

The Case Of The Drugged High School Teachers 406

Basic Principles Of Drug Action 406

Drug Administration, Absorption, And Penetration

Of The Central Nervous System 406

Oral Ingestion 406 • Injection 406 • Inhalation 406 •

Absorption Through Mucous Membranes 406

Drug Action, Metabolism, And Elimination 406

Drug Penetration Of The Central Nervous

System 406 • Mechanisms Of Drug Action 406 •

Drug Metabolism And Elimination 407

Drug Tolerance, Drug Withdrawal Effects,

And Physical Dependence 407

Drug Tolerance 407 • Drug Withdrawal

Effects And Physical Dependence 407

Drug Addiction: What Is It? 408

Role Of Learning In Drug Tolerance 409

Contingent Drug Tolerance 409

Conditioned Drug Tolerance 409

Thinking About Drug Conditioning 411

Five Commonly Used Drugs 411

Nicotine 411

Tobacco Smoking 412 • Nicotine Vaping 412 •

Addiction And Nicotine 412

Alcohol 413

Marijuana 414

Cocaine And Other Stimulants 417

The Opioids: Heroin And Morphine 418

Comparing The Health Hazards Of Commonly

Used Drugs 420

Interpreting Studies Of The Health Hazards Of Drugs 420

Comparison Of The Hazards Of Nicotine, Alcohol,

Marijuana, Cocaine, And Heroin 421

Early Biopsychological Research On Addiction 422

Physical-Dependence And Positive-Incentive

Perspectives Of Addiction 422

Intracranial Self-Stimulation And The

Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System 423

Early Evidence Of The Involvement Of Dopamine

In Drug Addiction 424

Nucleus Accumbens And Drug Addiction 425

Current Approaches To The Mechanisms

Of Addiction 425

Three Stages In The Development Of An Addiction 426

Initial Drug Taking 426 • Habitual Drug Taking 426 •

Drug Craving And Relapse 427

Current Concerns About The Drug Self-Administration

Paradigm 428

Unnatural Housing And Testing Conditions 429 •

Excessive Focus On Stimulants 429

A Noteworthy Case Of Addiction 429

The Case Of Sigmund Freud 429

Themes Revisited 430 • Key Terms 430

Part Six Disorders Of Cognition

And Emotion

16 Lateralization, Language,

And The Split Brain 431

The Left Brain And Right Brain

Cerebral Lateralization Of Function: Introduction 434

Discovery Of The Specific Contributions Of

Left-Hemisphere Damage To Aphasia And Apraxia 434

Tests Of Cerebral Lateralization 434

Sodium Amytal Test 434 • Dichotic Listening

Test 435 • Functional Brain Imaging 435

Discovery Of The Relation Between Speech Laterality

And Handedness 435

Sex Differences In Brain Lateralization 435

The Split Brain 436

Groundbreaking Experiment Of Myers

And Sperry 436

Commissurotomy In Humans With Epilepsy 438

Evidence That The Hemispheres Of Split-Brain

Patients Can Function Independently 439

Cross-Cuing 440

Doing Two Things At Once 440

Dual Mental Functioning And Conflict In Split-Brain

Patients 441

The Case Of Peter, The Split-Brain Patient

Tormented By Conflict 441

Independence Of Split Hemispheres: Current

Perspective 442

Differences Between Left And Right Hemispheres 442

Examples Of Cerebral Lateralization Of Function 443

Superiority Of The Left Hemisphere In Controlling

Ipsilateral Movement 443 • Superiority Of The Right

Hemisphere In Spatial Ability 443 • Specialization

Of The Right Hemisphere For Emotion 443 • Superior

Musical Ability Of The Right Hemisphere 444 •

Hemispheric Differences In Memory 444

What Is Lateralized? Broad Clusters Of Abilities

Or Individual Cognitive Processes? 444

Anatomical Asymmetries Of The Brain 444

Evolution Of Cerebral Lateralization

And Language 446

Theories Of The Evolution Of Cerebral Lateralization 446

Analytic–Synthetic Theory 446 • Motor Theory 446 •

Linguistic Theory 446

The Case Of W.L., The Man Who Experienced

Aphasia For Sign Language 446

When Did Cerebral Lateralization Evolve? 446

Evolution Of Human Language 447

Vocal Communication In Nonhuman Primates 447 •

Motor Theory Of Speech Perception 447 •

Gestural Language 448

Cortical Localization Of Language:

Wernicke-Geschwind Model 449

Historical Antecedents Of The Wernicke-Geschwind

Model 449

The Wernicke-Geschwind Model 450

Wernicke-Geschwind Model: The Evidence 451

Effects Of Cortical Damage And Brain Stimulation

On Language Abilities 451

Evidence From Studies Of The Effects Of Cortical

Damage

452 • Evidence From Structural Neuroimaging

Studies 453 • Evidence From Studies Of Electrical

Stimulation Of The Cortex 453

Current Status Of The Wernicke-Geschwind Model 455

Cognitive Neuroscience Of Language 455

Three Premises That Define The Cognitive

Neuroscience Approach To Language 455

Functional Brain Imaging And The Localization

Of Language 456

Bavelier’s Fmri Study Of Reading 456 • Damasio’s

Pet Study Of Naming 457

Cognitive Neuroscience Of Dyslexia 457

Developmental Dyslexia: Causes And Neural

Mechanisms 458

Cognitive Neuroscience Of Deep And

Surface Dyslexia 458

The Case Of N.I., The Woman Who Read

With Her Right Hemisphere 459

Themes Revisited 459 • Key Terms 459

17 Biopsychology Of Emotion, Stress,

And Health 461

Fear, The Dark Side Of Emotion

Biopsychology Of Emotion: Introduction 462

Early Landmarks In The Biopsychological

Investigation Of Emotion 462

The Mind-Blowing Case Of Phineas Gage 462

Darwin’s Theory Of The Evolution Of Emotion 463 •

James-Lange And Cannon-Bard Theories 464 •

Sham Rage 464 • Limbic System And Emotion 465 •

Klüver-Bucy Syndrome 465

A Human Case Of Klüver-Bucy Syndrome 466

Emotions And The Autonomic Nervous System 466

Emotional Specificity Of The Autonomic Nervous

System

466 • Polygraphy 466

Emotions And Facial Expression 467

Universality Of Facial Expression 467 • Primary

Facial Expressions 467 • Facial Feedback

Hypothesis 467 • Voluntary Control Of Facial

Expression 468 • Facial Expressions: Current

Perspective 469

Fear, Defense, And Aggression 469

Types Of Aggressive And Defensive Behaviors 470

Aggression And Testosterone 471

Neural Mechanisms Of Fear Conditioning 472

Amygdala And Fear Conditioning 472

Contextual Fear Conditioning And The Hippocampus 472

Amygdala Complex And Fear Conditioning 473

Brain Mechanisms Of Human Emotion 474

Cognitive Neuroscience Of Emotion 474

Amygdala And Human Emotion 475

The Case Of S.P., The Woman Who Couldn’t

Perceive Fear 475

Medial Prefrontal Lobes And Human Emotion 475

Lateralization Of Emotion 476

Neural Mechanisms Of Human Emotion:

Current Perspectives 477

Stress And Health 477

The Stress Response 477

Animal Models Of Stress 478

Psychosomatic Disorders: The Case Of Gastric Ulcers 478

Psychoneuroimmunology: Stress, The Immune

System, And The Brain 479

Innate Immune System 479 • Adaptive Immune

System 479 • What Effect Does Stress Have On

Immune Function: Disruptive Or Beneficial? 480 •

How Does Stress Influence Immune Function? 480 •

Does Stress Affect Susceptibility To Infectious

Disease? 481

Early Experience Of Stress 481

Stress And The Hippocampus 482

Conclusion 482

The Case Of Charles Whitman, The Texas Tower Sniper 482

Themes Revisited 483 • Key Terms 483

18 Biopsychology Of Psychiatric

Disorders 484

The Brain Unhinged

Schizophrenia 486

Schizophrenia: The Case Of Lena 486

What Is Schizophrenia? 486

Discovery Of The First Antipsychotic Drugs 487

The Dopamine Theory Of Schizophrenia 487

Schizophrenia: Beyond The Dopamine Theory 489

Atypical Antipsychotics 489 • Renewed Interest

In Hallucinogenic Drugs 489

Genetic And Epigenetic Mechanisms

Of Schizophrenia 490

Neural Bases Of Schizophrenia 490

Conclusion 491

Depressive Disorders 491

What Are Depressive Disorders? 491

The Case Of S.B., The Depressed Biopsychology

Student 491

Antidepressant Drugs 492

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors 492 • Tricyclic

Antidepressants 492 • Selective Monoamine-Reuptake

Inhibitors 492 • Atypical Antidepressants 493 •

Nmda-Receptor Antagonists 493 • Effectiveness Of

Drugs In The Treatment Of Depressive Disorders 493

Brain Stimulation To Treat Depression 494

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 494 •

Deep Brain Stimulation 494

Theories Of Depression 495

Monoamine Theory Of Depression 495 •

Neuroplasticity Theory Of Depression 495

Genetic And Epigenetic Mechanisms Of Depression 495

Neural Bases Of Depression 496

Conclusion 496

Bipolar Disorder 496

What Is Bipolar Disorder? 496

The Case Of S.B. Revisited: The Biopsychology

Student With Bipolar Disorder 496

Mood Stabilizers 497

Theories Of Bipolar Disorder 498

Genetic And Epigenetic Mechanisms Of

Bipolar Disorder 498

Neural Bases Of Bipolar Disorder 498

Anxiety Disorders 499

The Case Of M.R., The Woman Who Was Afraid

To Go Out 499

Four Anxiety Disorders 499

Pharmacological Treatment Of Anxiety Disorders 499

Benzodiazepines 499 • Antidepressant Drugs 500 •

Pregabalin 500 • Conclusion 500

Animal Models Of Anxiety Disorders 500

Genetic And Epigenetic Mechanisms Of

Anxiety Disorders 500

Neural Bases Of Anxiety Disorders 501

Tourette’s Disorder 501

The Case Of R.G.—Barking Like A Dog 501

What Is Tourette’s Disorder? 501

Pharmacological Treatment Of Tourette’s

Disorder 502

Genetic And Epigenetic Mechanisms Of Tourette’s Disorder 503

Neural Bases Of Tourette’s Disorder 503

The Case Of P.H., The Neuroscientist With

Tourette’s Disorder 503

Clinical Trials: Development Of New Psychotherapeutic

Drugs 503

Clinical Trials: The Three Phases 504

Phase 1: Screening For Safety 504 • Phase 2:

Establishing The Testing Protocol 504 • Phase 3:

Final Testing 505

Controversial Aspects Of Clinical Trials 505

Requirement For Double-Blind Design And

Placebo Controls 505 • The Need For Active

Placebos 505 • Length Of Time Required 505 •

Financial Issues 505 • Targets Of

Psychopharmacology 506 • Lack Of Diversity 506

Effectiveness Of Clinical Trials 506

Conclusion 506

Conclusion Of The Case Of S.B.: The Biopsychology Student Who Took Control 507

Themes Revisited 507 • Key Terms 507

Epilogue 509

Appendixes 509

Glossary 513

References 535

Credits 585

Name Index 588

Subject Index 604

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