Microbiology Fundamentals: A Clinical Approach, 4th Edition PDF by Marjorie Kelly Cowan, Heidi Smith and Jennifer Lusk

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Microbiology Fundamentals: A Clinical Approach, Fourth Edition

By Marjorie Kelly Cowan, Heidi Smith and Jennifer Lusk

Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach, Fourth Edition

Contents:

Preface

Chapter 1

Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks

CASE FILE The Subject Is You!

1.1 Microbes: Tiny but Mighty

Medical Moment Medications from Microbes

1.2 Microbes in History

1.3 Macromolecules: Superstructures of Life

Medical Moment Delivering Essential Nutrients

1.4 Naming, Classifying, and Identifying Microorganisms

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Meet Your Microbiome

Chapter 2

Tools of the Laboratory: Methods for the

Culturing and Microscopic Analysis of Microorganisms

CASE FILE Treating the Unknown

Medical Moment The Making of the Flu Vaccine: An Example of a

Live Growth Medium

2.1 How to Culture Microorganisms

2.2 The Microscope

Medical Moment Gram-Positive versus Gram-Negative Bacteria

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome The Back Story

Chapter 3

Bacteria and Archaea

CASE FILE Extreme Endospores

3.1 Bacteria and Archaea: An Overview

3.2 External Structures

Medical Moment Healthcare-Associated Infections

3.3 The Cell Envelope: The Wall and Membrane(s)

Medical Moment Collecting Sputum

3.4 Bacterial Internal Structure

3.5 The Archaea

3.6 Classification Systems for Bacteria and Archaea

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome A Sticky Situation

Chapter 4

Eukaryotic Cells and Microorganisms

CASE FILE Puzzle in the Valley

4.1 Overview of the Eukaryotes

4.2 Structures of the Eukaryotic Cell

4.3 The Fungi

Medical Moment Vaginal Candidiasis

Medical Moment Opportunistic Fungal Infection

4.4 The Protozoa

4.5 The Helminths

Medical Moment Neglected Parasitic Infections

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Are Eukaryotic Microorganisms Part of Our

Microbiome?

Chapter 5

Viruses and Prions

CASE FILE Outbreak in Assisted Living

5.1 The Position of Viruses in the Biological Spectrum

5.2 The General Structure of Viruses

Medical Moment Why Antibiotics Are Ineffective Against Viruses

5.3 How Viruses Multiply

5.4 Techniques to Cultivate and Identify Animal Viruses

Medical Moment Differentiating Between Bacterial and Viral

Infections

5.5 Other Noncellular Infectious Agents

5.6 Viruses and Human Health

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Are Viruses Part of the Microbiome?

Chapter 6

Microbial Nutrition and Growth

CASE FILE Wound Care

6.1 Microbial Nutrition

Medical Moment Osmosis and IV Fluids

6.2 Environmental Factors That Influence Microbes

6.3 The Study of Bacterial Growth

Medical Moment MRSA: PCR Over Culture

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome The Great Oxidation Event and Earth’s

Microbiome

Chapter 7

Microbial Metabolism

CASE FILE Surviving Sepsis

7.1 Metabolism and the Role of Enzymes

7.2 The Pursuit and Utilization of Energy

7.3 Catabolism

Medical Moment Facultative Anaerobes

7.4 Anabolism and the Crossing Pathways of Metabolism

Medical Moment Amino Acids: Essential, Nonessential, and

Conditionally Essential Amino Acids

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Electricity Eaters

Chapter 8

Microbial Genetics and Genetic Engineering

CASE FILE Factors to Consider

8.1 Introduction to Genetics and Genes

8.2 Transcription and Translation

8.3 Genetic Regulation of Protein Synthesis

8.4 DNA Recombination Events

8.5 Mutations: Changes in the Genetic Code

Medical Moment Mutations Caused by Life-Saving Radiation

Medical Moment Gene Mutations

8.6 Studying DNA in the Laboratory and Genetic Engineering

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Host Genetics and the Microbiome

Chapter 9

Physical and Chemical Control of Microbes

CASE FILE Control of Microorganisms in the Operating Room

9.1 Controlling Microorganisms

9.2 Methods of Physical Control

9.3 Methods of Chemical Control

Medical Moment The Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Cleansers

Medical Moment Zap VAP: The Role of Chlorhexidine

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Hand Hygiene

Chapter 10

Antimicrobial Treatment

CASE FILE Not What We Were Expecting

10.1 Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy

10.2 Interactions Between Drug and Microbe

10.3 Antimicrobial Resistance

Medical Moment Why Do Antibiotics Cause Diarrhea?

10.4 Interactions Between Drug and Host

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome How Antibiotics Impact the Microbiome

Chapter 11

Interactions Between Microbes and Humans

CASE FILE Surgical Site Infection

11.1 The Human Microbiome

11.2 When Colonization Leads to Disease

Medical Moment When the Portal of Entry Is Compromised

11.3 Important Features of Infectious Disease Transmission

Medical Moment Eye on Careers: Infection Control Practitioner

11.4 Epidemiology: The Study of Disease in Populations

Medical Moment Typhoid Mary

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Fecal Transplants

Chapter 12

Host Defenses I: Overview and Innate Defenses

CASE FILE Bacteria Cause That?

12.1 Defense Mechanisms of the Host: An Overview

Medical Moment Examining Lymph Nodes

12.2 The First Line of Defense

12.3 The Second Line of Defense

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Macrophages Shape Your Gut

Chapter 13

Host Defenses II: Adaptive Immunity and

Immunization

CASE FILE When More Immune Response Is Not Better

13.1 Adaptive Immunity: The Third and Final Line of Defense

Medical Moment The Thymus

13.2 Stage I: The Development of Lymphocyte Diversity

Medical Moment Blood Exposure in Neonates

13.3 Stage II: Presentation of Antigens

13.4 Stages III and IV: T-Cell Response

Medical Moment CAR-T Cells

13.5 Stages III and IV: B-Cell Response

13.6 Adaptive Immunity and Vaccination

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Gut Bacteria Cause Blindness?

Chapter 14

Disorders in Immunity

CASE FILE A Body Attacking Itself

14.1 The Immune Response: A Two-Sided Coin

14.2 Type I Allergic Reactions: Atopy and Anaphylaxis

14.3 Type II Hypersensitivities: Reactions That Lyse Foreign

Cells

14.4 Type III Hypersensitivities: Immune Complex Reactions

Medical Moment Patch Testing

14.5 Type IV Hypersensitivities: Cell-Mediated (Delayed)

Reactions

14.6 An Inappropriate Response to Self: Autoimmunity

14.7 Immunodeficiency Diseases: Hyposensitivities

Medical Moment Hand Washing

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Asthma and the Airway—and Gut—Microbiome

Chapter 15

Diagnosing Infections

CASE FILE Tracing the Cause

15.1 What is Causing This Condition?

Medical Moment Should Be Obvious, But…

15.2 First Steps: Specimen Collection

15.3 Phenotypic Methods

Medical Moment Qualitative versus Quantitative Diagnosis

15.4 Immunologic Methods

Medical Moment Understanding Lab Results

15.5 Genotypic Methods

Medical Moment Detecting and Treating TB

15.6 Additional Diagnostic Technologies

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome The Human Microbiome Project and Diagnosis

of Noninfectious Disease

Chapter 16

Infectious Diseases Affecting the Skin and Eyes

CASE FILE A Rash of Symptoms

16.1 The Skin and Its Defenses

16.2 Normal Biota of the Skin

16.3 Skin Diseases Caused by Microorganisms

Medical Moment Scabies

Medical Moment Scrum Pox: Herpes Gladiatorum

16.4 The Surface of the Eye and Its Defenses

16.5 Normal Biota of the Eye

16.6 Eye Diseases Caused by Microorganisms

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Do C-Section Babies Have a Different

Microbiome Than Those Delivered Vaginally?

Chapter 17

Infectious Diseases Affecting the Nervous System

CASE FILE Time Is of the Essence

17.1 The Nervous System and Its Defenses

17.2 Normal Biota of the Nervous System

17.3 Nervous System Diseases Caused by Microorganisms

Medical Moment Acute Flaccid Myelitis

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome The Gut and the Brain

Chapter 18

Infectious Diseases Affecting the Cardiovascular

and Lymphatic Systems

CASE FILE Bitten by a Tick

18.1 The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems and Their

Defenses

18.2 Normal Biota of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

18.3 Cardiovascular and Lymphatic System Diseases Caused by

Microorganisms

Medical Moment Postexposure Prophylaxis

Medical Moment Where Does the Fluid Go?

Medical Moment Ebola Epidemic

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome The Microbiome and Heart Failure

Chapter 19

Infectious Diseases Affecting the Respiratory

Systems

CASE FILE Very Sick, Very Fast

Medical Moment Epiglottitis

19.1 The Respiratory Tract and Its Defenses

19.2 Normal Biota of the Respiratory Tract

19.3 Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases Caused by

Microorganisms

19.4 Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases Caused by

Microorganisms

Medical Moment Tuberculosis—A Lesson in Inadequate

Treatment

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Gut Bacteria Involved in Deadly Lung Disease?

Chapter 20

Infectious Diseases Affecting the Gastrointestinal

Tract

CASE FILE “Blood and Guts”

20.1 The Gastrointestinal Tract and Its Defenses

20.2 Normal Biota of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Medical Moment Dehydration

20.3 Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Caused by Microorganisms

(Nonhelminthic)

Medical Moment Assessing Jaundice

20.4 Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Caused by Helminths

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Crohn’s Disease and the Gut Microbiome

Chapter 21

Infectious Diseases Affecting the Genitourinary

System

CASE FILE It’s All in the Walk

21.1 The Genitourinary Tract and Its Defenses

21.2 Normal Biota of the Genitourinary Tract

21.3 Urinary Tract Diseases Caused by Microorganisms

Medical Moment Cranberry versus UTI

21.4 Reproductive Tract Diseases Caused by Microorganisms

Medical Moment Crabs

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Save the World with the Vaginal Microbiome

Chapter 22

One Health: The Interconnected Health of the

Environment, Humans, and Other Animals

Contributions by Ronald M. Atlas, University of

Louisville

CASE FILE Viral Zoonoses

22.1 One Health

22.2 Animals and Infectious Disease: Zoonoses

22.3 The Environment and Infectious Disease

Medical Moment Plastic Bottles for Clean Water

Medical Moment Cryptosporidium in Your Tap Water?

22.4 Microbes to the Rescue

Case File Wrap-Up

The Microbiome Thanks to the Sponge, and Its Microbiome, for

Letting Us Breathe

Appendix A Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions in SmartGrid

Appendix B Answers to the Medical Moments and NCLEX®

Questions

Glossary

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