Modern Control Systems, 14th Edition PDF by Richard C Dorf and Robert H Bishop

By

Modern Control Systems, Fourteenth Edition

By Richard C Dorf and Robert H Bishop

Modern Control Systems, 14th Edition PDF by Richard C Dorf and Robert H Bishop

Contents

About the Authors 27

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Control Systems 29

1.1 Introduction 30

1.2 Brief History of Automatic Control 33

1.3 Examples of Control Systems 39

1.4 Engineering Design 46

1.5 Control System Design 47

1.6 Mechatronic Systems 50

1.7 Green Engineering 54

1.8 The Future Evolution of Control Systems 55

1.9 Design Examples 57

1.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 62

1.11 Summary 63

Skills Check 63 • Exercises 66 • Problems 68 • Advanced

Problems 73 • Design Problems 75 • Terms and Concepts 78

CHAPTER 2 Mathematical Models of Systems 79

2.1 Introduction 80

2.2 Differential Equations of Physical Systems 80

2.3 Linear Approximations of Physical Systems 85

2.4 The Laplace Transform 88

2.5 The Transfer Function of Linear Systems 95

2.6 Block Diagram Models 107

2.7 Signal-Flow Graph Models 112

2.8 Design Examples 119

2.9 The Simulation of Systems Using Control Design Software 136

2.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 150

2.11 Summary 153

Skills Check 154 • Exercises 158 • Problems 164 • Advanced

Problems 176 • Design Problems 178 • Computer Problems 180 •

Terms and Concepts 182

CHAPTER 3 State Variable Models 184

3.1 Introduction 185

3.2 The State Variables of a Dynamic System 185

3.3 The State Differential Equation 188

3.4 Signal-Flow Graph and Block Diagram Models 194

3.5 Alternative Signal-Flow Graph and Block Diagram Models 205

3.6 The Transfer Function from the State Equation 209

3.7 The Time Response and the State Transition Matrix 210

3.8 Design Examples 214

3.9 Analysis of State Variable Models Using Control Design Software 228

3.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 232

3.11 Summary 235

Skills Check 236 • Exercises 239 • Problems 242 • Advanced

Problems 250 • Design Problems 252 • Computer Problems 253 •

Terms and Concepts 254

CHAPTER 4 Feedback Control System Characteristics 256

4.1 Introduction 257

4.2 Error Signal Analysis 259

4.3 Sensitivity of Control Systems to Parameter Variations 261

4.4 Disturbance Signals in a Feedback Control System 264

4.5 Control of the Transient Response 269

4.6 Steady-State Error 272

4.7 The Cost of Feedback 274

4.8 Design Examples 275

4.9 Control System Characteristics Using Control Design Software 285

4.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 291

4.11 Summary 295

Skills Check 296 • Exercises 300 • Problems 304 • Advanced

Problems 310 • Design Problems 313 • Computer Problems 317 •

Terms and Concepts 320

CHAPTER 5 The Performance of Feedback Control Systems 321

5.1 Introduction 322

5.2 Test Input Signals 322

5.3 Performance of Second-Order Systems 325

5.4 Effects of a Third Pole and a Zero on the Second-Order System Response 330

5.5 The s-Plane Root Location and the Transient Response 335

5.6 The Steady-State Error of Feedback Control Systems 337

5.7 Performance Indices 344

5.8 The Simplification of Linear Systems 349

5.9 Design Examples 352

5.10 System Performance Using Control Design Software 364

5.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 370

5.12 Summary 372

Skills Check 373 • Exercises 376 • Problems 379 • Advanced

Problems 385 • Design Problems 387 • Computer Problems 390 •

Terms and Concepts 393

CHAPTER 6 The Stability of Linear Feedback Systems 394

6.1 The Concept of Stability 395

6.2 The Routh–Hurwitz Stability Criterion 399

6.3 The Relative Stability of Feedback Control Systems 407

6.4 The Stability of State Variable Systems 408

6.5 Design Examples 411

6.6 System Stability Using Control Design Software 419

6.7 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 425

6.8 Summary 427

Skills Check 428 • Exercises 431 • Problems 433 • Advanced

Problems 438 • Design Problems 441 • Computer Problems 443 •

Terms and Concepts 445

CHAPTER 7 The Root Locus Method 446

7.1 Introduction 447

7.2 The Root Locus Concept 447

7.3 The Root Locus Procedure 452

7.4 Parameter Design by the Root Locus Method 466

7.5 Sensitivity and the Root Locus 472

7.6 PID Controllers 477

7.7 Negative Gain Root Locus 488

7.8 Design Examples 493

7.9 The Root Locus Using Control Design Software 502

7.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 508

7.11 Summary 510

Skills Check 514 • Exercises 518 • Problems 522 • Advanced

Problems 531 • Design Problems 535 • Computer Problems 541 •

Terms and Concepts 543

CHAPTER 8 Frequency Response Methods 545

8.1 Introduction 546

8.2 Frequency Response Plots 548

8.3 Frequency Response Measurements 569

8.4 Performance Specifications in the Frequency Domain 571

8.5 Log-Magnitude and Phase Diagrams 574

8.6 Design Examples 575

8.7 Frequency Response Methods Using Control Design Software 584

8.8 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 589

8.9 Summary 591

Skills Check 596 • Exercises 601 • Problems 604 • Advanced

Problems 613 • Design Problems 615 • Computer Problems 618 •

Terms and Concepts 620

CHAPTER 9 Stability in the Frequency Domain 622

9.1 Introduction 623

9.2 Mapping Contours in the s-Plane 624

9.3 The Nyquist Criterion 630

9.4 Relative Stability and the Nyquist Criterion 641

9.5 Time-Domain Performance Criteria in the Frequency Domain 648

9.6 System Bandwidth 655

9.7 The Stability of Control Systems with Time Delays 655

9.8 Design Examples 659

9.9 PID Controllers in the Frequency Domain 677

9.10 Stability in the Frequency Domain Using Control Design Software 678

9.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 686

9.12 Summary 689

Skills Check 698 • Exercises 701 • Problems 707 • Advanced

Problems 717 • Design Problems 720 • Computer Problems 725 •

Terms and Concepts 727

CHAPTER 10 The Design of Feedback Control Systems 728

10.1 Introduction 729

10.2 Approaches to System Design 730

10.3 Cascade Compensators 731

10.4 Phase-Lead Design Using the Bode Plot 735

10.5 Phase-Lead Design Using the Root Locus 741

10.6 System Design Using Integration Compensators 747

10.7 Phase-Lag Design Using the Root Locus 750

10.8 Phase-Lag Design Using the Bode Plot 753

10.9 Design on the Bode Plot Using Analytical Methods 758

10.10 Systems with a Prefilter 759

10.11 Design for Deadbeat Response 762

10.12 Design Examples 764

10.13 System Design Using Control Design Software 774

10.14 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 781

10.15 Summary 783

Skills Check 784 • Exercises 788 • Problems 792 • Advanced

Problems 801 • Design Problems 804 • Computer Problems 808 •

Terms and Concepts 811

CHAPTER 11 The Design of State Variable Feedback Systems 812

11.1 Introduction 813

11.2 Controllability and Observability 813

11.3 Full-State Feedback Control Design 819

11.4 Observer Design 825

11.5 Integrated Full-State Feedback and Observer 829

11.6 Reference Inputs 835

11.7 Optimal Control Systems 837

11.8 Internal Model Design 845

11.9 Design Examples 848

11.10 State Variable Design Using Control Design Software 855

11.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 860

11.12 Summary 862

Skills Check 862 • Exercises 866 • Problems 868 • Advanced

Problems 872 • Design Problems 875 • Computer Problems 878 •

Terms and Concepts 881

CHAPTER 12 Robust Control Systems 882

12.1 Introduction 883

12.2 Robust Control Systems and System Sensitivity 884

12.3 Analysis of Robustness 888

12.4 Systems with Uncertain Parameters 890

12.5 The Design of Robust Control Systems 892

12.6 The Design of Robust PID-Controlled Systems 896

12.7 The Robust Internal Model Control System 900

12.8 Design Examples 903

12.9 The Pseudo-Quantitative Feedback System 914

12.10 Robust Control Systems Using Control Design Software 916

12.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 919

12.12 Summary 921

Skills Check 923 • Exercises 927 • Problems 929 • Advanced

Problems 933 • Design Problems 936 • Computer Problems 941 •

Terms and Concepts 944

CHAPTER 13 Digital Control Systems 945

13.1 Introduction 946

13.2 Digital Computer Control System Applications 946

13.3 Sampled-Data Systems 948

13.4 The z-Transform 951

13.5 Closed-Loop Feedback Sampled-Data Systems 955

13.6 Performance of a Sampled-Data, Second-Order System 959

13.7 Closed-Loop Systems with Digital Computer Compensation 961

13.8 The Root Locus of Digital Control Systems 964

13.9 Implementation of Digital Controllers 968

13.10 Design Examples 968

13.11 Digital Control Systems Using Control Design Software 977

13.12 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 982

13.13 Summary 984

Skills Check 984 • Exercises 988 • Problems 990 • Advanced

Problems 992 • Design Problems 993 • Computer Problems 995 •

Terms and Concepts 996

References 997

Index 1014

APPENDIX A MATLAB Basics

APPENDIX B MathScript RT Module Basics

APPENDIX C Symbols, Units, and Conversion Factors

APPENDIX D Laplace Transform Pairs

APPENDIX E An Introduction to Matrix Algebra

APPENDIX F Decibel Conversion

APPENDIX G Complex Numbers

APPENDIX H z-Transform Pairs

APPENDIX I Discrete-Time Evaluation of the Time Response

APPENDIX J Design Aids

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