Textiles 12th Edition PDF by Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

By

Textiles, Twelfth Edition

By Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

textiles

Contents

Section I: Introduction to Textiles

1 Introduction | 5

Chapter Objectives 5

Professional Importance of Learning Textile Science 6

Textiles and Textile Products 7

Textiles and Quality of Life 8

The Global Textile Complex 10

key terms 13

review questions 13

Case Study: Wearable Technology 14

suggested Readings 14

2 Product Development from

a Textile Perspective | 17

Chapter Objectives 17

The Role of Textiles in Product Development 18

Serviceability and the Consumer 21

Performance 23

Information Sources 26

key terms 26

review questions 26

section review questions 27

Case Study: Product Development 27

suggested readings 28

Section II: Fibers

3 Textile Fibers and Their Properties | 33

Chapter Objectives 33

Fiber Terminology and Properties 36

Fiber Structure 37

Physical Structure 37 • Chemical Composition and Molecular

Arrangement 40

Serviceability 42

Aesthetic Properties 45 • Durability Properties 46 • Comfort and

Safety Properties 48 • Appearance-Retention Properties 50 •

Resistance to Chemicals 51 • Resistance to Light 52 •

Sustainability 52 • Care Properties 53 • Cost 54 • Fiber Property

Charts 54

Fiber Identification 54

Visual Inspection 54 • Burn Test 55 • Microscopy 56 •

Solubility Tests 56

key terms 57

review questions 58

Case Study: Reading Care Labels 59

suggested readings 59

4 Natural Cellulosic Fibers | 61

Chapter Objectives 61

Cellulosic Fibers 63

Characteristics Common to All Cellulosic Fibers 64

Seed Fibers 64

Cotton 64 • Coir 74 • Kapok 75

Milkweed 75

Bast Fibers 75

Flax 76 • Ramie 78 • Hemp 80 • Jute 81 • Kenaf 82 •

Hibiscus 82 • Nettle 82 • Bamboo 82

Leaf Fibers 83

Piña 83 • Abaca 83 • Sisal and Henequen 83

Other Cellulosic Materials 84

key terms 85

review questions 86

Case Study: Cotton DNA 86

suggested readings 87

5 Natural Protein Fibers | 89

Chapter Objectives 89

Natural Protein Fibers 90

Characteristics Common to All Natural Protein Fibers 91

Wool 92

Production of Wool 92 • Types and Kinds of Wool 93 • Physical

Structure of Wool 94 • Chemical Composition and Molecular

Arrangement of Wool 96 • Properties of Wool 98 • Sustainability of

Wool 101 • Uses of Wool 102

Specialty Wools 103

Mohair 104 • Qiviut 105 • Angora 105 • Camel Hair 106 •

Cashmere 106 • Llama and Alpaca 107 • Vicuña and Guanaco 107 •

Yak 108

Other Animal Fibers 108

Silk 108

Production of Silk 109 • Physical Structure of Silk 110 • Chemical

Composition and Molecular Structure of Silk 111 • Properties of

Silk 111 • Sustainability of Silk 113 • Uses of Silk 114

Spider Silk 115

Identification of Natural Protein Fibers 115

key terms 117

review questions 117

Case Study: A Lao Silk Farm 118

suggested readings 118

6 The Fiber-Manufacturing Process | 121

Chapter Objectives 121

Manufacturing Fibers 122

Fiber Spinning 124

Spinning Methods 125

Fiber Modifications 125

Spinneret Modifications 126 • Molecular Structure and

Crystallinity Modifications 128 • Additives to the Polymer or

Spinning Solution 129 • Modifications in Fiber Spinning 131 •

Complex Modifications 132

Sustainability of Manufactured Fibers 135

Manufactured-Fiber Consumption 136

Manufactured Versus Natural Fibers 136

key terms 137

review questions 137

Case Study: Apparel Imports 138

suggested readings 139

7 Manufactured Regenerated Fibers | 141

Chapter Objectives 141

Manufactured Regenerated Fibers 142

Cellulosic Regenerated Fibers 142

Rayon 142 • Lyocell 148 • Acetate 151

Other Regenerated Fibers 156

Identification of Regenerated Fibers 157

key terms 158

review questions 158

Case Study: Soy Fiber 159

suggested readings 159

8 Synthetic Fibers | 161

Chapter Objectives 161

Synthetic Fibers: An Overview 162

Common Properties of Synthetic Fibers 163 • Common Manufacturing

Processes 164 • Common Fiber Modifications 166

Identification of Synthetic Fibers 168

Synthetic Fibers 168

Nylon 168 • Polyester 177 • Olefin 185 • Acrylic 191

key terms 197

review questions 197

Case Study: Green Chemistry 198

suggested readings 199

9 Special-Use Fibers | 201

Chapter Objectives 201

Elastomeric Fibers 202

Rubber 202 • Spandex 203 • Elastoester 206 • Elasterell-p 206 •

Lastol 206

High-Performance Fibers 207

Aramid 207 • Glass 208 • Metal and Metallic Fibers 210 • Modacrylic

Fibers 211 • Novoloid 213 • PBI 213 • Sulfar 213 • Saran 214 •

Vinyon 214 • Vinal 215 • Fluoropolymer 215 • Carbon 216 •

Melamine 217

Other High-Performance Fibers 217

key terms 220

review questions 220

section review questions 221

Case Study: Undergarments for Firefighters 222

suggested readings 222

Section III: Yarns

10 Yarn Processing | 227

Chapter Objectives 227

Filament Yarns 228

Smooth-Filament Yarn 229 • Monofilament Yarns 230 • Tape and

Network Yarns 230 • Bulk Yarns 230

Spun Yarns 232

Processing Staple Fibers 234 • Inserting Yarn Twist 237 • Alternate

Spun-Yarn Processes 239 • Spinning Filament Tow into Spun

Yarns 240 • High-Bulk Yarns 241

Fiber Blends 242

Blend Levels 243 • Blending Methods 244 • Blended-Filament

Yarns 244

Sustainability of Yarn Processing 244

key terms 246

review questions 246

Case Study: Yarn Energy Storage 247

suggested readings 247

11 Yarn Classification | 249

Chapter Objectives 249

Yarn Characteristics and Structure 250

Fiber Length 250 • Yarn Twist 251 • Yarn Size 253 • Yarn

Regularity 255

Yarn Types 255

Simple Yarns 255 • Sewing and Embroidery Thread 257 • Novelty

Yarns 258 • Composite Yarns 260

Yarn Performance and Yarn Quality 262

key terms 263

review questions 264

section review questions 264

Case Study: Antimicrobial Sewing Thread 265

suggested readings 265

Section IV: Fabrication

12 Weaving, Basic Weaves, and Fabrics | 269

Chapter Objectives 269

Fabric Quality 270

Woven Fabrics 272

The Loom 272 • Sustainability of Weaving 277

Characteristics of Woven Fabrics 278

Warp and Filling 278 • Grain 278 • Fabric Count 279 • Balance 279 •

Selvages 280 • Fabric Width 280 • Fabric Weight 281 • Properties of

Woven Fabrics 282 • Naming and Diagramming Woven Fabrics 282

The Three Basic Weaves 285

Plain Weave 285 • Twill Weave 295 • Satin Weave 300

key terms 304

review questions 305

Case Study: Threats and Opportunities for the Woven Industry 306

suggested readings 306

13 Fancy Weaves and Fabrics | 309

Chapter Objectives 309

Fancy Weaves: Types and Processes 311

Dobby Weaves 312 • Extra-Yarn Weaves 312 • Piqué Weaves 313 •

Jacquard Weaves 315 • Momie Weaves 316 • Leno Weaves 317 •

Double Cloth 318 • Pile Weaves 320 • Slack-Tension Weaves 324 •

Tapestry Weave 325

Narrow Fabrics 325

key terms 326

review questions 326

Case Study: Passion for Jacquard Design and Weaving 327

suggested readings 327

14 Knitting and Knit Fabrics | 329

Chapter Objectives 329

Knit Versus Woven Fabrics 330

Types of Knitting 331

Classifying Knits 333 • Sustainability of Knitting 336

Filling and Warp Knitting and Fabrics 337

Filling (or Weft) Knits 337 • Warp Knits 351

key terms 358

review questions 359

Case Study: Made in the United States 360

suggested readings 361

15 Other Fabrication Methods | 363

Chapter Objectives 363

Fabrics from Solutions 364

Films 364 • Foams 365

Fabrics from Fibers 367

Nonwoven or Fiberweb Structures 367 • Felt 373 • Netlike

Structures 374

Fabrics from Yarns 375

Braids 375 • Lace 375 • Embroidery 378

Composite Fabrics 378

Coated Fabrics 379 • Poromeric Fabrics 380 • Suedelike

Fabrics 381 • Flocked Fabrics 382 • Tufted-Pile Fabrics 384 •

Laminates 385 • Stitch-Bonded Fabrics 387 • Supported-Scrim

Structures 390 • Fiber-Reinforced Materials 390

Animal Products 392

Leather 392 • Suede 394 • Fur 394

key terms 396

review questions 396

section review questions 397

Case Study: Textile Protection from Dust Mites 398

suggested readings 398

Section V: Finishing

16 Finishing: An Overview | 403

Chapter Objectives 403

Finishing Technology 406

Routine Steps in Producing a Fabric 408

Fiber Processing 408 • Yarn Processing 409 • Yarn Preparation 409 •

Fabrication 410 • Fabric Preparation 410 • Whitening 413 • Alternate

Preparation Steps 414 • Coloration 415 • Finishing 415 •

Drying 415 • Reworking 416

Routine Finishing Steps for Wool Fabrics 417

Sustainability of Finishing 418

key terms 419

review questions 419

Case Study: Eco-Denim 420

suggested readings 420

17 Aesthetic Finishes | 423

Chapter Objectives 423

Applied Design Versus Structural Design 424

Aesthetic Finishes 426

Luster 426 • Drape 429 • Texture and Hand 431

Performance of Aesthetic Finishes 441

key terms 442

review questions 442

Case Study: Softeners and Fabric Sewability 443

suggested readings 443

18 Special-Purpose Finishes | 445

Chapter Objectives 445

Special-Purpose Finishes 446

Stabilization Finishes 447

Shrinkage Control 447 • Durable Press Finishes 450

Appearance-Retention Finishes 453

Soil- and Stain-Release Finishes 453 • Abrasion-Resistant

Finishes 455 • Antislip Finishes 455 • Fume-Fading-Resistant

Finishes 455 • Surface or Back Coatings 455 • Light-Stabilizing

Finishes 456 • Pilling-Resistant Finishes 456 • Anti-Yellowing

Finishes 457

Comfort-Related Finishes 457

Water-Repellent Finishes 457 • Moisture Management Finishes 459 •

Porosity-Control Finishes 460 • Water-Absorbent Finishes 460 •

Ultraviolet-Absorbent Finishes 460 • Antistatic Finishes 461 •

Phase-Change and Temperature Regulation Finishes 461

Biological-Control Finishes 462

Insect- and Moth-Control Finishes 462 • Mold- and Mildew-Control

Finishes 463 • Rot-Proof Finishes 464 • Antimicrobial Finishes 464 •

Microencapsulated Finishes 465

Safety-Related Finishes 466

Flame-Retardant Finishes 466 • Liquid-Barrier Finishes 468 •

Light-Reflecting Finishes 468

key terms 469

review questions 469

Case Study: Skin Cancer Prevention 470

suggested readings 471

19 Dyeing and Printing | 473

Chapter Objectives 473

Theory and Practice in Dyeing and Printing 474

Color Theory 476 • Colorants 479 • Sustainability of Dyeing and

Printing 482

Stages of Dyeing and Printing 485

Fiber Stage 487 • Yarn Stage 488 • Piece or Fabric Stage 489 •

Product Stage 490

Dyeing 491

Batch Dyeing 491 • Package Dyeing 492 • Combination Dyeing 492 •

Resist Dyeing 494

Printing 495

Direct Printing 498 • Discharge Printing 500 • Screen Printing 501 •

Other Printing Methods 502

Color Problems 503

key terms 506

review questions 507

section review questions 508

Case Study: Indigo Farming 508

suggested readings 509

Section VI: Other Issues Related

to Textiles

20 Care of Textile Products | 513

Chapter Objectives 513

Factors Related to Cleaning 515

Soil and Soil Removal 515 • Detergency 516 • Solvents 517 •

Synthetic Detergents and Soaps 518 • Other Cleaning Additives 521 •

Sustainability of Cleaning 523

Cleaning of Apparel and Interior Textiles 525

Laundering 525 • Sorting 525 • Washing Machines 525 • Dryers and

Drying 529 • Commercial Laundering 531 • Dry Cleaning 531 • Home

Solvent Cleaning 533 • Professional Wet Cleaning 534 • Cleaning of

Interior Textiles 534

Storage and Conservation Practices 537

Storage 537 • Textile Conservation 538

key terms 539

review questions 539

Case Study: Sustainable Laundry Practices 540

suggested readings 540

21 Legal and Sustainability Issues

Related to Textiles | 543

Chapter Objectives 543

Laws and Regulations 544

Silk Regulation, 1932 545 • Wool Products Labeling Act, 1939

(Amended) 545 • Fur Products Labeling Act, 1952 (Amended) 546 •

Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 1960 (Amended) 546 •

Permanent Care Labeling Regulation, 1972 (Amended) 548 • Mandatory

and Voluntary Labeling Programs 551 • Flammable Fabrics Act, 1953, and

Its Amendment 552 • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

(FIFRA) 555 • Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) 555

Professional and Consumer Rights and Responsibilities 556

Codes 556 • Tort 556 • Consumer Recourse 557

Sustainability Issues 558

Laws and Regulations 559 • Product Demand and Corporate

Responsibility 561 • Efforts Within the Global Textile Complex 564 •

Disposal and Recycling 567

key terms 568

review questions 569

Case Study: Sustainability 570

suggested readings 570

22 Career Exploration | 573

Chapter Objectives 573

Critical Career Preparation 574

Career Opportunities 575

Product Development 575 • Production 577 •

Design 578 • Sourcing 580 • Merchandising 581 •

Marketing 583 • Entrepreneurs 584 • Government 585 •

Other Career Areas 585

Summary 586

key terms 587

review questions 587

section review questions 588

Case Study: The Resume 588

suggested readings 589

Appendices

A Fiber Names in Other Languages | 590

B Fibers Not Produced in the United States | 591

C Selected Trade Names | 592

D A Map of the World | 597

E Standard Care Terminology | 598

F A Guide to Stain Removal | 600

Glossary | 603

Index | 619

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