Psychology Themes and Variations, 6th Canadian Edition PDF by Doug Mccann, Wayne Weiten and Deborah Hunt Matheson

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Psychology Themes and Variations, Sixth Canadian Edition

By Doug Mccann, Wayne Weiten and Deborah Hunt Matheson

Psychology Themes and Variations, 6th Canadian Edition PDF

Contents:

CHAPTER 1

THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY

From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed 3

A New Science Is Born 4

The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism versus

Functionalism 4

Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviourism Makes Its Debut 5

Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture 7

Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviourism Flourishes 7

The Humanists Revolt 8

Psychology in Canada 9

Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession 11

Cognition and Neuroscience in Psychology 12

A Focus on Culture and Diversity 14

Psychology Adapts: The Emergence of Evolutionary

Psychology 15

Psychology Moves in a Positive Direction: The Positive

Psychology Movement 15

AN ILLUSTRATED OVERVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY’S HISTORY 16

Psychology Today: Vigorous and Diversified 18

Research Areas in Psychology 18

Professional Specialties in Psychology 19

Putting It in Perspective: Seven Key Themes 21

Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study 21

Themes Related to Psychology’s Subject Matter 22

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Improving Academic Performance 26

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Developing Critical Thinking Skills: An Introduction 29

Concept Chart 31

Key Terms 33

Multiple-Choice Questions 33

CHAPTER 2

THE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE IN PSYCHOLOGY

The Scientific Approach to Behaviour 36

Goals of the Scientific Enterprise 36

Steps in a Scientific Investigation 36

Advantages of the Scientific Approach 39

Looking for Causes: Experimental Research 41

Independent and Dependent Variables 41

Experimental and Control Groups 41

Extraneous Variables 42

Variations in Designing Experiments 43

Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Research 44

Looking for Links: Descriptive/Correlational

Research 45

Naturalistic Observation 45

Case Studies 46

Surveys 47

Advantages and Disadvantages of Descriptive/Correlational

Research 48

Looking for Conclusions: Statistics and

Research 49

Descriptive Statistics 49

AN ILLUSTRATED OVERVIEW OF KEY RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY 50

Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research 57

Sampling Bias 57

Placebo Effects 58

Distortions in Self-Report Data 59

The Importance of Replication 59

Experimenter Bias 60

Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends Justify the

Means? 61

The Question of Animal Research 62

Ethical Guidelines for Research in Psychology in Canada 63

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 1 and 7 64

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Finding and Reading Journal Articles 65

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

The Perils of Anecdotal Evidence: “I Have a Friend Who …” 67

Concept Chart 69

Key Terms 71

Multiple-Choice Questions 71

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 3

THE BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOUR

The Anatomy of the Nervous System 74

Glial Cells 74

Neurons 75

The Function of Neurons: Information Transmission 76

Neurotransmitters and Behaviour 82

Organization of the Nervous System 85

The Peripheral Nervous System 85

The Central Nervous System 87

Looking Inside the Brain: Research

Methods 88

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 90

The Brain and Behaviour 91

The Hindbrain 92

The Midbrain 93

The Forebrain 93

The Limbic System: The Centre of Emotion 94

The Plasticity of the Brain 96

Right Brain/Left Brain: Cerebral Laterality 98

Bisecting the Brain: Split-Brain Research 98

Hemispheric Specialization in the Intact Brain 100

The Endocrine System: Another Way to Communicate 101

Heredity and Behaviour: Is It All in the Genes? 102

Basic Principles of Genetics 102

Investigating Hereditary Influence: Research Methods 103

The Interplay of Heredity and Environment 106

Epigenetics: The Interplay of Heredity and Environment 106

The Evolutionary Bases of Behaviour 107

Darwin’s Insights 107

Later Refinements to Evolutionary Theory 108

Behaviours as Adaptive Traits 109

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 1, 4, and 6 109

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Evaluating the Concept of “Two Minds in One” 111

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Building Better Brains: The Perils of Extrapolation 113

Concept Chart 116

Key Terms 118

Multiple-Choice Questions 118

CHAPTER 4

SENSATION AND PERCEPTION

Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues 120

Thresholds: Looking for Limits 121

Signal-Detection Theory 121

Perception without Awareness 122

Sensory Adaptation 122

Our Sense of Sight: The Visual System 123

The Stimulus: Light 123

The Eye: A Living Optical Instrument 124

The Retina: The Brain’s Envoy in the Eye 125

Vision and the Brain 126

Vision for Perception and Vision for Action 128

Viewing the World in Colour 129

The Visual System: Perceptual Processes 134

Perceiving Forms, Patterns, and Objects 134

Looking at the Whole Picture: Gestalt Principles 136

Perceiving Depth or Distance 138

Perceptual Constancies in Vision 139

The Power of Misleading Cues: Visual Illusions 140

Our Sense of Hearing: The Auditory System 143

The Stimulus: Sound 143

Human Hearing Capacities 143

Sensory Processing in the Ear 144

Auditory Perception: Theories of Hearing 145

Auditory Localization: Perceiving Sources of Sound 146

Our Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell 148

Taste: The Gustatory System 148

Smell: The Olfactory System 150

Our Sense of Touch: Sensory Systems in the

Skin 152

Feeling Pain 152

Our Other Senses 155

The Kinesthetic System 155

The Vestibular System 155

AN ILLUSTRATED OVERVIEW OF FIVE MAJOR

SENSES 156

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 2, 5, and 7 158

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Appreciating Art and Illusion 159

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Recognizing Contrast Effects: It’s All Relative 161

Concept Chart 163

Key Terms 165

Multiple-Choice Questions 165

CHAPTER 5

VARIATIONS IN CONSCIOUSNESS

The Nature of Consciousness 168

Variations in Awareness and Control 168

Consciousness and Brain Activity 169

Biological Rhythms and Sleep 170

The Role of Circadian Rhythms 170

Ignoring Circadian Rhythms 171

Realigning Circadian Rhythms 172

The Sleep and Waking Cycle 173

Cycling through the Stages of Sleep 173

Repeating the Cycle 175

Age Trends in Sleep 176

Culture and Sleep 177

The Neural and Evolutionary Bases of Sleep 177

Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation 178

Problems in the Night: Sleep Disorders 180

The World of Dreams 184

The Contents of Dreams 184

Links between Dreams and Waking Life 185

Culture and Dreams 186

Theories of Dreaming 186

Hypnosis: Altered Consciousness or Role Playing? 187

Hypnotic Induction and Susceptibility 188

Theories of Hypnosis 189

Meditation: Pure Consciousness or

Relaxation? 190

Long-Term Benefits 190

Altering Consciousness with Drugs 191

Principal Abused Drugs and Their Effects 192

Factors Influencing Drug Effects 196

Mechanisms of Drug Action 197

Drug Dependence 198

Drugs and Health 199

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 200

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Addressing Practical Questions about Sleep and Dreams 202

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Is Alcoholism a Disease? The Power of Definitions 204

Concept Chart 206

Key Terms 208

Multiple-Choice Questions 208

CHAPTER 6

LEARNING

Classical Conditioning 211

Pavlov’s Demonstration: “Psychic Reflexes” 211

Terminology and Procedures 212

Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life 213

Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning 215

Stimulus Generalization and the Mysterious Case of

Little Albert 216

Cognition and Classical Conditioning 219

Evolutionary and Biological Effects on Conditioning 219

Operant Conditioning 221

Thorndike’s Law of Effect 221

Skinner’s Demonstration: It’s All a Matter of

Consequences 222

Terminology and Procedures 223

Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning 224

Reinforcement and Superstitious Behaviour 226

Schedules of Reinforcement 228

Positive Reinforcement versus Negative Reinforcement 230

Punishment: Consequences That Weaken Responses 232

Cognitive Processes in Conditioning: Latent Learning and

Cognitive Maps 234

Evolutionary and Biological Effects on Conditioning 236

Observational Learning 237

Basic Processes 237

Observational Learning and the Media Violence

Controversy 238

Observational Learning and the Brain: Mirror Neurons 241

AN ILLUSTRATED OVERVIEW OF THREE TYPES

OF LEARNING 242

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 3 and 6 244

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Achieving Self-Control through Behaviour Modification 245

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Manipulating Emotions: Pavlov and Persuasion 248

Concept Chart 250

Key Terms 252

Multiple-Choice Questions 252

CHAPTER 7

HUMAN MEMORY

Encoding: Getting Information into Memory 255

The Role of Attention 255

Levels of Processing 256

Enriching Encoding 257

Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory 259

Sensory Memory 259

Short-Term Memory 260

Long-Term Memory 262

How Is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? 264

Retrieval: Getting Information Out of

Memory 265

Using Cues to Aid Retrieval 266

Reinstating the Context of an Event 266

Reconstructing Memories 266

Source Monitoring 268

Forgetting: When Memory Lapses 268

How Quickly We Forget: Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve 269

Measures of Forgetting 269

Why We Forget 270

The Repressed Memories Controversy 273

Seven Sins of Memory: How Memory Goes Wrong 275

In Search of the Memory Trace: The Physiology of

Memory 276

The Neural Circuitry of Memory 276

The Anatomy of Memory 278

Systems and Types of Memory 280

Implicit versus Explicit Memory 280

Declarative versus Nondeclarative Memory 281

Semantic versus Episodic Memory 282

Prospective versus Retrospective Memory 283

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 2, 4, and 7 284

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Improving Everyday Memory 286

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Understanding the Fallibility of Eyewitness Accounts 289

Concept Chart 291

Key Terms 293

Multiple-Choice Questions 293

CHAPTER 8

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT

Language: Turning Thoughts into Words 296

What Is Language? 296

The Structure of Language 296

Milestones in Language Development 297

Learning More than One Language: Bilingualism 300

Can Animals Develop Language? 302

Language in an Evolutionary Context 304

Theories of Language Acquisition 304

Culture, Language, and Thought 305

Problem Solving: In Search of Solutions 306

Types of Problems 307

Barriers to Effective Problem Solving 308

Approaches to Problem Solving 310

Culture, Cognitive Style, and Problem Solving 313

Decision Making: Choices and Chances 313

Making Choices about Preferences 314

Taking Chances: Factors Weighed in Risky Decisions 315

Heuristics in Judging Probabilities 315

The Tendency to Ignore Base Rates 316

The Conjunction Fallacy 316

The Sunk Costs Fallacy 317

Behavioural Economics 318

Evolutionary Analyses of Fast and Frugal Heuristics 319

Thinking Fast and Thinking Slow: Two Systems of

Thought 319

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 1, 5, 6,

and 7 320

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Understanding Pitfalls in Reasoning about Decisions 321

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Shaping Thought with Language: “Only a Naïve Moron

Would Believe That” 324

Concept Chart 326

Key Terms 327

Multiple-Choice Questions 327

CHAPTER 9

INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

Key Concepts in Psychological Testing 330

Standardization and Norms 330

Reliability 331

Validity 331

The Evolution of Intelligence Testing and

Our Understanding of the Construct of Intelligence 332

Origins of Modern Intelligence Testing 332

The Debate about the Structure

of Intelligence 333

Broadening the Concept of Intelligence 335

Basic Issues in Intelligence Testing 340

What Do Modern IQ Scores Mean? 340

Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Reliability? 341

Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Validity? 341

Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success? 342

Are IQ Tests Widely Used in Other Cultures? 343

Extremes of Intelligence 343

Intellectual Disability 343

Giftedness 346

Heredity and Environment as Determinants of

Intelligence 347

Evidence for Hereditary Influence 348

Evidence for Environmental Influence 349

The Interaction of Heredity and Environment 351

Cultural Differences in IQ Scores 351

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 3, 5, and 6 354

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Understanding Creativity 356

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

The Intelligence Debate, Appeals to Ignorance,

and Reification 359

Concept Chart 361

Key Terms 362

Multiple-Choice Questions 362

CHAPTER 10

MOTIVATION AND EMOTION

Motivational Theories and Concepts 364

Drive Theories 365

Incentive Theories 365

Evolutionary Theories 365

The Motivation of Hunger and Eating 366

Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger 366

Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger 367

Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity 369

Sexual Motivation and Behaviour 372

The Human Sexual Response 372

Evolutionary Analyses of Human Sexual Behaviour 374

The Mystery of Sexual Orientation 376

The Need to Belong: Affiliation Motivation 379

Ostracism and the Fear of Rejection 379

Achievement: In Search of Excellence 380

Individual Differences in the Need for Achievement 380

Situational Determinants of Achievement Behaviour 381

The Elements of Emotional Experience 383

The Cognitive Component: Subjective Feelings 383

The Physiological Component: Diffuse and Multifaceted 384

The Behavioural Component: Nonverbal Expressiveness 387

Culture and the Elements of Emotion 388

Theories of Emotion 391

James–Lange Theory 391

Cannon–Bard Theory 391

Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory 392

Evolutionary Theories of Emotion 393

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 2, 3, 4, 5,

and 6 395

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Exploring the Ingredients of Happiness 396

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Analyzing Arguments: Making Sense Out of Controversy 400

Concept Chart 402

Key Terms 404

Multiple-Choice Questions 404

CHAPTER 11

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

Progress before Birth: Prenatal Development 407

The Course of Prenatal Development 407

Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development 409

The Wondrous Years of Childhood 411

Exploring the World: Motor Development 411

Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament 413

Early Emotional Development: Attachment 414

Personality Development in Childhood 417

The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development 419

The Development of Moral Reasoning 426

The Transition of Adolescence 428

Physiological Changes 428

Neural Development: The Teen Brain 430

Time of Turmoil? 430

The Search for Identity 432

Emerging Adulthood as a New Developmental Stage 432

The Expanse of Adulthood 433

Personality Development 434

Transitions in Family Life 434

Aging and Neural Changes 438

Aging and Cognitive Changes 439

Death and Dying 440

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 2, 3, 4, 5,

and 6 441

AN ILLUSTRATED OVERVIEW OF HUMAN

DEVELOPMENT 442

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Understanding Gender Differences 446

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Are Fathers Essential to Children’s Well-Being? 450

Concept Chart 452

Key Terms 454

Multiple-Choice Questions 454

CHAPTER 12

PERSONALITY: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND

ASSESSMENT

The Nature of Personality 457

Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness 457

Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions 457

The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits 458

Psychodynamic Perspectives 459

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 459

Jung’s Analytical Psychology 465

Adler’s Individual Psychology 466

Evaluating Psychodynamic

Perspectives 467

Behavioural Perspectives 468

Skinner’s Ideas Applied to Personality 468

Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory 469

Mischel and the Person–Situation Controversy 471

Evaluating Behavioural Perspectives 471

Humanistic Perspectives 472

Rogers’s Person-Centred Theory 472

Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization 474

Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives 476

Biological Perspectives 476

Eysenck’s Theory 476

Behavioural Genetics and Personality 477

The Neuroscience of Personality 478

The Evolutionary Approach to Personality 478

Evaluating Biological Perspectives 479

FOUR VIEWS OF PERSONALITY: AN

ILLUSTRATED OVERVIEW OF MAJOR

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY 480

Contemporary Empirical Approaches to

Personality 482

Narcissism 482

The Dark Triad 483

Culture and Personality 483

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 2, 3, and 5 486

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Understanding Personality Assessment 487

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Hindsight in Everyday Analyses of Personality 490

Concept Chart 492

Key Terms 494

Multiple-Choice Questions 494

CHAPTER 13

SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR

Person Perception: Forming Impressions of

Others 497

Effects of Physical Appearance 498

Cognitive Schemas 499

Stereotypes 500

Subjectivity and Bias in Person Perception 501

An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias

in Person Perception 501

Attribution Processes: Explaining Behaviour 502

Internal versus External Attributions 502

Attributions for Success and Failure 502

Bias in Attribution 503

Culture and Attributions 505

Interpersonal Attraction: Liking and Loving 505

Key Factors in Attraction 506

Perspectives on the Mystery of Love 507

Culture and Close Relationships 509

The Internet and Close Relationships 509

An Evolutionary Perspective

on Attraction 511

Attitudes: Making Social Judgments 512

Components and Dimensions

of Attitudes 512

Implicit Attitudes: Looking Beneath

the Surface 513

Trying to Change Attitudes: Factors

in Persuasion 514

Theories of Attitude Formation

and Change 517

Conformity and Obedience: Yielding to

Others 520

Conformity 520

Obedience 522

Cultural Variations in Conformity

and Obedience 523

The Power of the Situation: The Stanford Prison

Simulation 524

Behaviour in Groups: Joining with Others 525

Behaviour Alone and in Groups: The Case of the Bystander

Effect 525

Group Productivity and Social Loafing 526

Decision Making in Groups 527

Social Neuroscience 529

A Neuroscience Perspective

on Social Psychology 529

Topics in Social Neuroscience 530

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 1, 5, and 7 531

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Understanding Prejudice 532

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Whom Can You Trust? Analyzing Credibility and Social Influence

Tactics 536

Concept Chart 538

Key Terms 540

Multiple-Choice Questions 540

CHAPTER 14

STRESS, COPING, AND HEALTH

The Nature of Stress 544

Stress as an Everyday Event 544

Appraisal: Stress Lies in the Eye

of the Beholder 544

Major Types of Stress 545

Frustration 545

Internal Conflict 545

Change 546

Pressure 547

Responding to Stress 548

Emotional Responses 548

Physiological Responses 550

Behavioural Responses 553

The Effects of Stress on Psychological

Functioning 555

Burnout 555

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 556

The Effects of Stress on Physical Health 557

Personality, Hostility, and Heart Disease 557

Emotional Reactions, Depression,

and Heart Disease 558

Stress, Other Diseases, and Immune Functioning 558

Sizing Up the Link between Stress

and Illness 559

Factors Moderating the Impact of Stress 560

Social Support 560

Optimism, Conscientiousness,

and Hardiness 562

Positive Effects of Stress 563

Health-Compromising Behaviour 563

Smoking 564

Lack of Exercise 565

Alcohol and Drug Use 566

Risky Sexual Behaviour 567

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 4 and 7 567

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Improving Coping and Stress Management 569

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Thinking Rationally about Health Statistics and Decisions 573

Concept Chart 575

Key Terms 577

Multiple-Choice Questions 577

CHAPTER 15

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Abnormal Behaviour: Myths, Realities, and

Controversies 581

The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behaviour 581

Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour 582

Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders 583

Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders 584

The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders 586

Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Post-Traumatic

Stress Disorders 587

Anxiety Disorders 587

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 589

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 591

Etiology of Anxiety and Anxiety-Related Disorders 593

Dissociative Disorders 595

Description 595

Etiology of Dissociative Disorders 596

Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 596

Major Depressive Disorder 597

Bipolar Disorder 599

Diversity in Mood Disorders 600

Mood Disorders and Suicide 601

Etiology of Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 601

Schizophrenia 605

General Symptoms 606

Etiology of Schizophrenia 608

AN ILLUSTRATED OVERVIEW OF THREE

CATEGORIES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL

DISORDERS 612

Personality Disorders 614

Antisocial, Borderline, and Narcissistic Personality

Disorders 614

Etiology of Personality Disorders 616

Neurodevelopmental Disorders 616

Autism Spectrum Disorder 617

Psychological Disorders and the Law 618

Insanity 619

Culture, Pathology, and Trauma 620

Are Equivalent Disorders Found Around the World? 620

Are Symptom Patterns Culturally Invariant? 621

Intergenerational Trauma 621

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 3, 4, 5,

and 6 622

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Understanding Eating Disorders 624

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

Working with Probabilities in Thinking about

Mental Illness 627

Concept Chart 630

Key Terms 632

Multiple-Choice Questions 632

CHAPTER 16

TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

The Elements of the Treatment Process 635

Treatments: How Many Types Are There? 635

Clients: Who Seeks Therapy? 636

Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment? 637

Insight Therapies 639

Psychoanalysis 639

Therapies Inspired by Positive Psychology 643

Group Therapy 644

Couples and Family Therapy 644

How Effective Are Insight Therapies? 645

How Do Insight Therapies Work? 646

Behaviour Therapies 646

Systematic Desensitization 647

Aversion Therapy 648

Social Skills Training 649

Cognitive-Behavioural Therapies 649

How Effective Are Behaviour Therapies? 651

Biomedical Therapies 652

Treatment with Drugs 652

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) 656

New Brain Stimulation Techniques 658

Current Trends and Issues in Treatment 659

Increasing Multicultural Sensitivity in Treatment 659

AN ILLUSTRATED OVERVIEW OF FIVE MAJOR

APPROACHES TO TREATMENT 660

Using Technology to Expand the Delivery of Clinical

Services 663

Institutional Treatment in Transition 664

Disenchantment with Mental Hospitals 664

Deinstitutionalization 665

Mental Illness, the Revolving Door, and

Homelessness 666

Putting It in Perspective: Themes 2 and 5 667

PERSONAL APPLICATION

Looking for a Therapist 668

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION

From Crisis to Wellness—But Was It the Therapy? 671

Concept Chart 674

Key Terms 676

Multiple-Choice Questions 676

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