Understanding Nutrition, 16th Edition PDF by Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes

By

Understanding Nutrition, Sixteenth Edition

By Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes

Understanding Nutrition, 16th Edition

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

Reviewers of Recent Editions xviii

CHAPTER 1

An Overview of Nutrition 2

1.1 Food Choices 3

1.2 The Nutrients 6

Nutrients in Foods and in the Body 6

The Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Fat, and

Protein 7

The Vitamins 7

The Minerals 11

Water 11

1.3 The Science of Nutrition 12

Conducting Research 12

Analyzing Research Findings 14

Publishing Research 16

1.4 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) 17

Establishing Nutrient Recommendations 17

Establishing Energy Recommendations 20

Using Nutrient Recommendations 21

Comparing Nutrient Recommendations 21

1.5 Nutrition Assessment 22

Nutrition Assessment of Individuals 22

Nutrition Assessment of Populations 24

1.6 Diet and Health 25

Chronic Diseases 25

Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases 26

Highlight 1 > Nutrition Information and Misinformation 28

CHAPTER 2

Planning a Healthy Diet 34

2.1 Principles and Guidelines 35

Diet-Planning Principles 35

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 38

2.2 Diet-Planning Guides 40

USDA Food Patterns 40

Food Lists 47

Putting the Plan into Action 47

From Guidelines to Groceries 49

2.3 Food Labels 53

The Ingredient List 53

Nutrition Facts Panel 54

Claims on Labels 56

Consumer Education 58

Highlight 2 > Plant-Based Diets 60

CHAPTER 3

Digestion, Absorption, and Transport 66

3.1 Digestion 67

Anatomy of the Digestive Tract 68

The Muscular Action of Digestion 70

The Secretions of Digestion 71

The Final Stage 72

3.2 Absorption 74

Anatomy of the Absorptive System 75

A Closer Look at the Intestinal Cells 75

3.3 The Circulatory Systems 77

The Vascular System 77

The Lymphatic System 79

3.4 The Health and Regulation of the GI Tract 80

Gastrointestinal Microbes 80

Gastrointestinal Hormones and Nerve Pathways 80

The System at Its Best 83

Highlight 3 > Common Digestive Problems 85

CHAPTER 4

The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches,

and Fibers 92

4.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates 93

Monosaccharides 94

Disaccharides 95

Polysaccharides 96

4.2 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates 99

Carbohydrate Digestion 99

Carbohydrate Absorption 101

Lactose Intolerance 101

4.3 Glucose in the Body 103

A Preview of Carbohydrate Metabolism 103

The Constancy of Blood Glucose 104

4.4 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Sugars 107

Health Effects of Sugars 108

Recommended Intakes of Sugars 111

Alternative Sweeteners 112

4.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Starch and

Fibers 114

Health Effects of Starch and Fibers 114

Recommended Intakes of Starch and Fibers 117

From Guidelines to Groceries 118

Highlight 4 > Carbs, kCalories, and Controversies 122

CHAPTER 5

The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids,

and Sterols 126

5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides 127

Fatty Acids 128

Triglycerides 130

Characteristics of Solid Fats and Oils 131

5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols 134

Phospholipids 134

Sterols 135

5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids 136

Lipid Digestion 136

Lipid Absorption 139

Lipid Transport 139

5.4 Lipids in the Body 142

Roles of Triglycerides 142

Essential Fatty Acids 143

A Preview of Lipid Metabolism 144

5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated

Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol 145

Health Effects of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol 146

Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and

Cholesterol 147

5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of

Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats 147

Health Effects of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated

Fats 148

Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and

Polyunsaturated Fats 149

From Guidelines to Groceries 150

Highlight 5 > High-Fat Foods—Friend or Foe? 158

CHAPTER 6

Protein: Amino Acids 166

6.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins 167

Amino Acids 167

Proteins 169

6.2 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins 170

Protein Digestion 170

Protein Absorption 172

6.3 Proteins in the Body 172

Protein Synthesis 172

Roles of Proteins 175

A Preview of Protein Metabolism 178

6.4 Protein in Foods 180

Protein Quality 181

Complementary Proteins 181

6.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Protein 182

Health Effects of Protein 182

Recommended Intakes of Protein 183

From Guidelines to Groceries 184

Read Food Labels 185

Protein and Amino Acid Supplements 185

Highlight 6 > Nutritional Genomics 188

CHAPTER 7

Energy Metabolism 194

7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body 195

7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy 198

Glucose 200

Glycerol and Fatty Acids 203

Amino Acids 205

The Final Steps of Energy Metabolism 206

7.3 Feasting and Fasting 211

Feasting—Excess Energy 211

The Transition from Feasting to Fasting 212

Fasting—Inadequate Energy 212

Low-Carbohydrate Diets 215

Highlight 7 > Alcohol in the Body 218

CHAPTER 8

Energy Balance and Body Composition 228

8.1 Energy Balance 229

8.2 Energy In: The kCalories Foods Provide 230

Food Composition 230

Food Intake 231

8.3 Energy Out: The kCalories the Body Expends 233

Components of Energy Expenditure 233

Estimating Energy Requirements 236

8.4 Body Weight and Body Composition 238

Defining Healthy Body Weight 238

Body Fat and Its Distribution 240

8.5 Health Risks Associated with Body Weight and Body Fat 243

Health Risks of Underweight 243

Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity 243

Other Considerations 245

Highlight 8 > Eating Disorders 248

CHAPTER 9

Weight Management: Overweight, Obesity,

and Underweight 256

9.1 Overweight and Obesity 257

Fat Cell Development 257

Fat Cell Metabolism 258

Set-Point Theory 259

9.2 Causes of Overweight and Obesity 259

Genetics and Epigenetics 259

Environment 262

9.3 Problems of Overweight and Obesity 264

Health Risks 264

Perceptions and Prejudices 264

Dangerous Interventions 265

9.4 Aggressive Treatments for Obesity 266

Drugs 266

Surgery 266

Other Medical Procedures 267

9.5 Lifestyle Strategies 268

Changes, Losses, and Goals 268

Eating Patterns 268

Physical Activity 271

Environmental Influences 273

Behavior and Attitude 274

Weight Maintenance 276

Prevention 277

Community Programs 277

9.6 Underweight 278

Problems of Underweight 278

Weight-Gain Strategies 278

Highlight 9 > The Latest and Greatest Weight-Loss

Diet—Again 284

CHAPTER 10

The Water-Soluble Vitamins: B Vitamins

and Vitamin C 288

10.1 The Vitamins—An Overview 289

10.2 The B Vitamins 292

Thiamin 293

Riboflavin 296

Niacin 298

Biotin 300

Pantothenic Acid 300

Vitamin B6 301

Folate 303

Vitamin B12 307

Choline 309

Nonvitamins 309

Interactions among the B Vitamins 309

10.3 Vitamin C 313

Vitamin C Roles 314

Vitamin C Recommendations 315

Vitamin C Deficiency 316

Vitamin C Toxicity 316

Vitamin C Food Sources 317

Highlight 10 > Vitamin and Mineral Supplements 321

CHAPTER 11

The Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, and K 328

11.1 Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene 329

Vitamin A Roles 330

Vitamin A Deficiency 332

Vitamin A Toxicity 333

Vitamin A Recommendations 334

Vitamin A Food Sources 334

11.2 Vitamin D 336

Vitamin D Roles 337

Vitamin D Deficiency 338

Vitamin D Toxicity 339

Vitamin D Recommendations and Sources 339

11.3 Vitamin E 341

Vitamin E Roles 342

Vitamin E Deficiency 342

Vitamin E Toxicity 342

Vitamin E Recommendations 342

Vitamin E Food Sources 342

11.4 Vitamin K 343

Vitamin K Roles 343

Vitamin K Deficiency 343

Vitamin K Toxicity 344

Vitamin K Recommendations and Sources 344

Highlight 11 > Antioxidant Nutrients in Disease Prevention 348

CHAPTER 12

Water and the Major Minerals 352

12.1 Water and the Body Fluids 353

Distribution and Movement of Body Fluids 354

Regulation of Fluid Balance 356

Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance 357

Acid–Base Balance 358

Water Balance and Recommended Intakes 360

12.2 The Minerals—An Overview 363

12.3 The Major Minerals 364

Sodium 364

Chloride 367

Potassium 368

Calcium 370

Phosphorus 374

Magnesium 376

Sulfur 377

Highlight 12 > Osteoporosis and Calcium 380

CHAPTER 13

The Trace Minerals 386

13.1 The Trace Minerals—An Overview 387

13.2 The Trace Minerals 389

Iron 389

Zinc 398

Copper 401

Manganese 402

Iodine 403

Selenium 404

Fluoride 405

Chromium 406

Molybdenum 406

13.3 Contaminant Minerals 407

Highlight 13 > Phytochemicals and Functional Foods 410

CHAPTER 14

Fitness: Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body

Adaptations 416

14.1 Fitness 417

Benefits of Fitness 417

Developing Fitness 420

The Components of Fitness 421

Cardiorespiratory Endurance 421

Muscle Strength and Endurance 422

14.2 Energy Systems and Fuels to Support Activity 423

The Energy Systems of Physical Activity 423

Glucose Use during Physical Activity 425

Fat Use during Physical Activity 428

Protein Use during Physical Activity—and between

Times 428

14.3 Vitamins and Minerals to Support Activity 431

Dietary Supplements 431

Iron—A Mineral of Concern 431

14.4 Fluids and Electrolytes to Support Activity 432

Temperature Regulation 433

Sports Drinks 435

Poor Beverage Choices: Caffeine and Alcohol 437

14.5 Diets for Physically Active People 437

Choosing a Diet to Support Fitness 437

Meals before and after Competition 439

Highlight 14 > Supplements as Ergogenic Aids 443

CHAPTER 15

Life Cycle Nutrition: Pregnancy and Lactation 448

15.1 Nutrition prior to Pregnancy 449

15.2 Growth and Development during Pregnancy 450

Placental Development 450

Fetal Growth and Development 450

Critical Periods 452

15.3 Maternal Weight 455

Weight prior to Conception 455

Weight Gain during Pregnancy 455

Exercise during Pregnancy 457

15.4 Nutrition during Pregnancy 458

Energy and Nutrient Needs during Pregnancy 459

Common Nutrition-Related Concerns of Pregnancy 462

15.5 High-Risk Pregnancies 463

The Infant’s Birthweight 464

Malnutrition and Pregnancy 464

Food Assistance Programs 465

Maternal Health 465

The Mother’s Age 466

Practices Incompatible with Pregnancy 468

15.6 Nutrition during Lactation 470

Lactation: A Physiological Process 471

Breastfeeding: A Learned Behavior 471

Maternal Energy and Nutrient Needs

during Lactation 472

Maternal Health 474

Practices Incompatible with Lactation 475

Highlight 15 > Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 479

CHAPTER 16

Life Cycle Nutrition: Infancy, Childhood,

and Adolescence 482

16.1 Nutrition during Infancy 483

Energy and Nutrient Needs 483

Breast Milk 485

Infant Formula 488

Special Needs of Preterm Infants 490

Introducing Cow’s Milk 490

Complementary Foods 491

Mealtimes with Toddlers 494

16.2 Nutrition during Childhood 495

Energy and Nutrient Needs 495

Hunger and Malnutrition in Children 497

The Malnutrition-Lead Connection 498

Hyperactivity and “Hyper” Behavior 499

Food Allergy and Intolerance 500

Childhood Obesity 502

Mealtimes at Home 507

Nutrition at School 510

16.3 Nutrition during Adolescence 512

Growth and Development 513

Energy and Nutrient Needs 513

Food Choices and Health Habits 514

Highlight 16 > Childhood Obesity and the Early Development of

Chronic Diseases 521

CHAPTER 17

Life Cycle Nutrition: Adulthood and the

Later Years 526

17.1 Nutrition and Longevity 527

Observations of Older Adults 528

Manipulation of Diet 530

17.2 The Aging Process 532

Physiological Changes 532

Other Changes 534

17.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs of Older Adults 535

Water 536

Energy and Energy Nutrients 536

Vitamins and Minerals 537

Dietary Supplements 538

17.4 Nutrition-Related Concerns of Older Adults 539

Vision 539

Arthritis 540

The Aging Brain 540

Alcohol 543

17.5 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults 544

Malnutrition 545

Food Assistance Programs 545

Meals for Singles 546

Highlight 17 > Nutrient-Drug Interactions 550

CHAPTER 18

Disease Prevention 554

18.1 Nutrition and Infectious Diseases 555

The Immune System 556

Nutrition and Immunity 557

Inflammation and Chronic Diseases 558

18.2 Nutrition and Chronic Diseases 558

18.3 Cardiovascular Disease 560

How Atherosclerosis Develops 560

Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease 562

Recommendations for Reducing Cardiovascular Disease

Risk 565

18.4 Hypertension 566

How Hypertension Develops 567

Risk Factors for Hypertension 568

Recommendations for Reducing Hypertension Risk 568

18.5 Diabetes 570

How Diabetes Develops 570

Complications of Diabetes 572

Dietary Recommendations for Diabetes 573

18.6 Cancer 576

How Cancer Develops 577

Recommendations for Reducing Cancer Risks 578

18.7 Recommendations for Chronic Diseases 580

Highlight 18 > Complementary and Alternative Medicine 586

CHAPTER 19

Consumer Concerns about Foods and Water 594

19.1 Food Safety and Foodborne Illnesses 595

Foodborne Infections and Food Intoxications 596

Food Safety in the Marketplace 598

Food Safety in the Kitchen 599

Food Safety while Traveling 603

Advances in Food Safety 603

19.2 Nutritional Adequacy of Foods and Diets 606

Obtaining Nutrient Information 606

Minimizing Nutrient Losses 606

19.3 Environmental Contaminants 607

Harmfulness of Environmental Contaminants 607

Contaminants in the Food Supply 607

Guidelines for Consumers 608

19.4 Natural Toxins in Foods 609

19.5 Pesticides 610

Hazards and Regulation of Pesticides 610

Monitoring Pesticides 611

Consumer Concerns 611

19.6 Food Additives 613

Regulations Governing Additives 613

Intentional Food Additives 614

Indirect Food Additives 617

19.7 Consumer Concerns about Water 620

Sources of Drinking Water 620

Water Systems and Regulations 620

Highlight 19 > Food Biotechnology 624

CHAPTER 20

Hunger and the Environment 630

20.1 Hunger in the United States 631

Defining Hunger in the United States 632

Relieving Hunger in the United States 633

20.2 World Hunger 635

Food Shortages 636

Population Needs 637

20.3 Malnutrition 637

Nutrient Deficiencies 637

Growth Failure 638

Medical Nutrition Therapy 638

20.4 Feeding the World 639

Environmental Damage 639

Sustainable Solutions 641

Highlight 20 > Environmentally Friendly Food Choices 646

APPENDIX A

Cells, Hormones, and Nerves

APPENDIX B

Basic Chemistry Concepts

APPENDIX C

Biochemical Structures and Pathways

APPENDIX D

Measures of Protein Quality

APPENDIX E

Nutrition Assessment

APPENDIX F

Estimated Energy Needs

APPENDIX G

Choose Your Foods: Food Lists for Diabetes and Weight

Management

APPENDIX H

Aids to Calculation

APPENDIX I

WHO Nutrition Recommendations

Glossary GL-1

Index IN-1

INSIDE COVERS

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) A

Daily Values (DV) for Food Labels Y

Body Mass Index (BMI) Z

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