Medium/Heavy Duty Truck Engines, Fuel & Computerized Management Systems, 6th Edition PDF by Sean Bennett

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Medium/Heavy Duty Truck Engines, Fuel & Computerized Management Systems, Sixth Edition

By Sean Bennett

Medium Heavy Duty Truck Engines, Fuel & Computerized Management Systems, Sixth Edition

Contents:

Contents for Photo Sequences . vii

Preface viii

Structure of the 6th Edition . viii

New to This Edition . viii

Some Transportation History viii

Electric Drivetrains viii

The Future . ix

Diesel Power . ix

Hands-on Learning ix

Acknowledgments . ix

Acknowledgments xiv

Section 1

Diesel Engine

Fundamentals 2

CHAPTER 1

Introduction 4

Why Read This? • 5 Commercial Vehicle

Powertrains • 5 The Connected Truck • 8

Qualifications, Training, and Employment • 10

Customer Service and Professionalism • 18

Engine ID and OEM Market Share • 20

CHAPTER 2

Hand and Shop Tools, Precision

Tools, and Units of Measurement 25

Why Read This? • 26 Hand Tools • 26

Precision Measuring Tools • 32 Shop Tools • 43

Fasteners • 48 Fastener Grades and Classes • 48

Adhesives and Chemical Sealing Materials • 55

The Metric System and English/

Metric

Conversion • 56 Workplace Organization • 58

CHAPTER 3

Personal and Safety Awareness 62

Personal Protective Equipment • 63 Lockout,

Tagout • 65 Workplace Hazards and Safety

Regulations • 68 Emergencies • 70 OSHA • 71

Safety Hotlines • 74

CHAPTER 4

Engine Basics 78

Why Read This? • 79 Key Engine Terms • 79

The Diesel Cycle • 81 The Two-Stroke Cycle Diesel

Engine • 84 The Otto Cycle • 85 Engine Systems

and Circuits • 86 Advanced Engine Terms • 87

CHAPTER 5

History of the Heat Engine 92

Why Read This? • 93 History of Motive Power

Technology • 93

CHAPTER 6

Power 105

Why Read This? • 106 Definitions and

Formulae • 106 Engine Configuration, Engine

Speed, and Torsional Forces • 113 How Much

Power Do You Need? • 114

CHAPTER 7

Engine Powertrain Components 117

Why Read This? • 118 Piston Assemblies • 118

Piston Rings • 127 Connecting Rods • 133

Crankshafts and Bearings • 137 Rod and Main

Bearings • 141 Vibration Dampers • 145

Flywheels • 147

CHAPTER 8

Engine Feedback Assembly 153

Why Read This? • 154 Timing Gears • 154

Camshafts • 158 Valve and Injector Trains • 162

Cylinder Head Valves • 166

CHAPTER 9

Engine Housing Components 178

Why Read This? • 179 Engine Cylinder

Block • 179 Cylinder Heads • 186 Intake and

Exhaust Manifolds • 190

CHAPTER 10

Engine Lubrication Systems 195

Why Read This? • 196 Engine Lubricating

Oil • 197 Lubrication System Components • 205

Interpreting Oil Analyses • 217 Lubricating Circuit

Problems • 219

CHAPTER 11

Engine Cooling Systems 224

Why Read This? • 225 Engine Coolant • 226

Cooling System Components • 234 Repairing

Leaks • 236 Filters • 240 Coolant Monitoring

Circuit • 241 Thermostats • 242 Cooling

Fans • 244 Cooling System Problems • 251

Cooling System Management • 252 Coolant

Heaters • 253

CHAPTER 12

Engine Breathing 258

Why Read This? • 259 Gas Flow in Breathing

Circuit • 259 Breathing Components • 259

Air Intake System Components • 262

Turbochargers • 264 Charge Air Heat

Exchangers • 273 Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers • 274

Exhaust Gas Recirculation • 276 Valve

Design and Breathing • 278 Exhaust System

Components • 280 Breathing Circuit Sensors • 282

CHAPTER 13

Engine Retarders 286

Why Read This? • 287 Energy Conversion in Air

Brakes • 287 Principles of Operation • 288

Exhaust Brakes • 290 Internal Compression

Brakes • 291 Bus Requests to Engine

Brakes • 297

CHAPTER 14

Servicing and Maintenance 301

Why Read This? • 302 Startup and

Engine Break-in • 303 Air Intake System

Maintenance • 304 Engine Lube Service • 306

Cooling System Service • 310 Fuel System

Maintenance • 313 Selective Catalytic

Reduction • 319 Diesel Particulate Filter

Service • 321

CHAPTER 15

Engine Removal, Disassembly,

Cleaning, Inspection, and

Reassembly Guidelines 325

Why Read This? • 326 Service Literature • 326

Removal of an Engine from a Vehicle • 326

Engine Disassembly • 328 Cleaning and

Inspecting Components • 332 Engine Reassembly

Guidelines • 333

CHAPTER 16

Diesel Engine Run-in and

Performance

Testing 349

Why Read This? • 350 Dynamometers • 350

Rebuilt Engine Run-in Procedure • 351 Chassis

Dynamometer Testing • 355 Engine Dynamometer

Testing • 361 Over the Road Break-in • 364

Section 2

Diesel Fuel Systems 368

CHAPTER 17

Chemistry and Combustion 370

Why Read This? • 371 Basic Chemistry • 371

Properties of Some Common Elements • 375

Properties of Some Mixtures and Compounds • 377

Combustion • 378 The Actual Combustion Cycle in

a Diesel Engine • 381

CHAPTER 18

Diesel Fuel Characteristics 385

Why Read This? • 386 Fuel Terminology • 386

Petroleum • 389 Diesel Fuel

Characteristics • 391 Fuel Storage, Deterioration,

and Performance • 396

CHAPTER 19

Fuel Subsystems 401

Why Read This? • 402 Fuel Subsystem

Objectives • 402 Fuel Tanks • 403 Fuel

Filters • 407 Fuel Charging/Transfer Pumps • 414

Complete Fuel Circuit • 417

CHAPTER 20

Fuel Injection Basics and Governor

Principles 423

Overview of Diesel Fuel Injection Principles • 424

Engine Management Objectives • 427 Delivery,

Injection, and Combustion • 428 Governing

Objectives • 431 OEM Management

Systems • 434

CHAPTER 21

Injector Nozzles 440

Why Read This? • 441 Single Orifice

Nozzles • 442 Multiple Orifice Nozzles • 444

Electrohydraulic Injectors • 447

Nozzle Testing and Reconditioning • 451

Nozzle Troubleshooting • 454 EHI Testing and

Reconditioning • 456

CHAPTER 22

Port-Helix Metering Injection

Pumps 463

Why Read This? • 464 Technical

Description • 464 Injection Pump

Components • 470 Governor Trim Devices • 474

Timing Injection Pumps to an Engine • 475

Phasing and Calibration • 479 Critical System

Pressure Values • 480 Electronic Port-Helix

Metering • 481 Electronic Pump-to-Engine

Timing • 486 Future of Port-Helix Metering

Pumps • 487

CHAPTER 23

Inlet-Metering Rotary Distributor

Pumps 490

Why Read This? • 491 Roosa Master • 491

Opposed-Plunger, Inlet-Metering Injection

Pumps • 491 Opposed-Plunger, Inlet-Metering

Pump Summary • 499

CHAPTER 24

Sleeve-Metering Rotary Distributor

Pumps 501

Why Read This? • 502 Sleeve-Metering, Single

Plunger Distributor Pumps • 502 VE Pump

Electronic Controls • 513

CHAPTER 25

Single-Actuator EUI Systems 518

Why Read This? • 519 System Overview • 520

ECM • 521 EUI Operation • 523 Calibration

Codes • 527 Understanding IRT • 528

Multiple Injection Events • 529 Servicing and

Diagnostics • 531 Celect Plus EUIs • 536 Bench

Testing EUIs • 540

CHAPTER 26

Dual-Actuator EUI Systems 544

Why Read This? • 545 System Overview • 547

Input Circuit • 549 Management

Electronics • 549 Output Circuit • 553

Bench-Testing E3 Injectors • 560

CHAPTER 27

HEUI Fuel Systems 563

Why Read This? • 564 Principles of

Operation • 565 Fuel Supply System • 566

Injection Actuation System • 566 HEUI

Injector • 567 HEUI Electronic Management and

Switching • 573 HEUI Diagnostics • 576

CHAPTER 28

Electronic Unit Pump (EUP)

Systems 583

Why Read This? • 584 System Overview • 584

Fuel Subsystem • 586 Input Circuit • 587

Engine Controllers and Management

Electronics • 588 Electronic Unit Pumps • 590

CHAPTER 29

Cummins HPI-TP 599

Why Read This? • 600 TP Hydraulic

Equation • 600 Engine Management

Electronics • 601 Fuel System Components • 601

Overhead Adjustments • 607 Troubleshooting

ISX • 610

CHAPTER 30

Common Rail Systems 613

Why Read This? • 614 What is CR? • 614

CR Subsystems and Components • 616 CR

Management Electronics • 617 CR Fuel Routing

Circuit • 618 Delphi CR • 631 Diagnosing CR

System Problems • 633

CHAPTER 31

Amplified Common

Rail Systems 639

Why Read This? • 640 ACRS Applications and

Generations • 640 ACRS Circuit Layout • 641

ACRS HADI • 648 ACRS Service Procedures • 651

Section 3

Engine Management,

Alternate

Power,

Emissions, and

Diagnostics 658

CHAPTER 32

Review of Electrical and Electronics

Fundamentals 660

Why Read This? • 661 Atomic Structure

and Electron Movement • 662 Conductors

and Insulators • 664 Current Flow • 664

Magnetism • 665 Electromagnetism • 666

Electrical Current Characteristics and Sources of

Electricity • 668 Electrical Circuits and

Ohm’s Law • 670 Capacitance • 674

Coils and Transformers • 676

Semiconductors • 676 Testing

Semiconductors • 681 Photonic Devices • 681

Using Electronic Signals • 682 Conclusion • 686

CHAPTER 33

Vehicle Computer Systems 691

Why Read This? • 692 Engine Controllers • 692

Input Circuit • 697 ECMS and the Processing

Cycle • 708 Output Circuit • 712 ECM

Programming • 714 Engine Management

Systems • 716 Body Controllers • 717

CHAPTER 34

ESTs and SISs 721

Why Read This? • 722 Development of

ESTs • 722 Digital Multimeters • 725 Generic

EST • 733 Connecting OEM ESTs to the Data

Bus • 737 Electronic Troubleshooting • 739 Data

Bus Codes and Protocols • 742 HD-OBD • 744

Generic SISs, ESTs, and Diagnostic Software • 744

Interpreting Dash Warning Lights • 745

CHAPTER 35

Electrical Wiring, Connector, and

Terminal Repair 752

Why Read This? • 753 SAE Wiring

Standards • 753 Connector Assembly and

Repair • 756 Splicing Guidelines • 762

Circuit Protection Devices • 763 Relays • 765

Troubleshooting Techniques • 767

CHAPTER 36

Multiplexing 776

Why Read This? • 777 Multiplexing, Clients,

and Servers • 778 Multiplexing Basics • 778

Accessing the Data Bus • 796 Diagnosing Bus

Faults • 802

CHAPTER 37

The Connected Vehicle 808

Why Read This? • 809 Communications

Media • 809 Vehicle Navigation • 813

Video • 814 Telematics • 817 Electronic Logging

Devices • 820 Cybersecurity • 822

CHAPTER 38

Natural Gas, Propane, and

Biodiesel Fuels 828

Why Read This? • 829 Biodiesel • 830 Methane

Fuels • 833 Compressed and Liquid NG • 833

Igniting NG • 837 FMVSS 304 Precautions • 844

Liquefied Petroleum Gas • 847 Alcohol-Based

Fuels (Methanol/Ethanol) • 848 Fuel Alternatives

for Engines • 849

CHAPTER 39

High Voltage Electricity 853

Definitions • 854 Understanding Electrical

Energy • 854 General HV Safety • 856

High Voltage Testing • 860 Welding on HV

Vehicles • 861 Battery Safety • 862

CHAPTER 40

Hybrid and Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Drivetrains 867

Why Read This? • 868 Hybrid Electric

Vehicles • 868 Hydraulic Hybrids • 873

Fuel Cells • 875

CHAPTER 41

Electric Powertrains 883

Emergence of CEVs • 884 Sources

of Electricity • 885 Overview of CEV

Components • 887 Rechargeable Electricity Storage

Systems • 887 Traction Motors • 893 Electric

Power Management System • 897 Charging

CEVs • 899 CEV Preventative Maintenance • 901

CHAPTER 42

Bosch EDC Systems 907

Why Read This? • 908 Bosch Diesel

Systems • 908 EDC Management Logic • 910

Block Diagrams • 912 Making the

Connection • 912

CHAPTER 43

Caterpillar Engine M

anagement

Systems 917

Why Read This? • 918 ACERT • 919 ADEM

Electronics • 921 Input Circuit • 921 ECM • 923

System Diagnostics and Communications • 926

CHAPTER 44

Cummins Management

Systems 932

Why Read This? • 933 Management

Systems • 933 Electronic

Engines • 935 Input Circuit • 935

Electronic Control Module (ECM) • 937

Programmable Features • 939 System

Troubleshooting and Engine Testing • 940

CHAPTER 45

Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls

(DDEC) 944

Why Read This? • 945 Management

Systems • 948 Software Tools • 949 DD

Electronic Service Tools • 950 Input

Circuit • 955 Programming Options • 958

Diagnostic Tools • 960 DDEC Features • 962

CHAPTER 46

Navistar Diamond Logic 967

Why Read This? • 968 Navistar Engine

Lineup • 968 Diamond Logic Controls • 970

ECM Diagnostics • 973

CHAPTER 47

Paccar Engine M

anagement

Systems 979

Why Read This? • 980 Paccar Engine Lineup • 980

Paccar Electronics • 984 System Diagnostics

and Communications • 986 Paccar Exhaust

Aftertreatment • 987

CHAPTER 48

Volvo and Mack Engine

Management 991

Why Read This? • 992 Electronic Engine

Families • 992 V-MAC and Vectro Electronics • 993

Programming and Diagnostics • 997

CHAPTER 49

Emissions Management 1005

Why Read This? • 1006 Pollutants • 1006

EPA Certification Testing • 1010 Diesel Engine

Emissions Controls • 1012 Diesel Particulate

Filters (DPFs) • 1018 Selective Catalytic

Reduction (SCR) • 1025 Meeting Chassis GHG

Reduction

Standards • 1030

CHAPTER 50

Servicing and Maintenance

of Exhaust Aftertreatment

Systems 1034

Why Read This? • 1035 Visible Smoke Emission:

Legacy Engines • 1036 Exhaust Gas Recirculation

(EGR) Systems • 1037 Diesel Particulate Filters

(DPFs) • 1040 Selective Catalytic Reduction

(SCR) • 1049 Emissions Tampering • 1053

Field Testing of Smoke Density • 1054

Aftertreatment Device Removal and

Replacement • 1059 Aftertreatment System

Electronics • 1061

CHAPTER 51

Failure Analysis 1066

Why Read This? • 1067 Structured Failure

Analysis • 1067 Principles of Failure

Analysis • 1068 Component Failures • 1074

Common Abuses of Engines and Fuel

Systems • 1096

CHAPTER 52

Troubleshooting

and Diagnostics 1099

Why Read This? • 1100 Troubleshooting

Tools • 1100 Exhaust Analysis • 1101

Troubleshooting Guidelines • 1104

Quick Reference Diagnostic Charts • 1114

Technical Support • 1121 HD-OBD • 1122

List of Acronyms ………………………………………1126

Glossary ………………………………………1134

Appendix A ………………………………………1184

Appendix B ………………………………………1186

Appendix C ………………………………………1187

Appendix D ………………………………………1188

Index ………………………………………1189

Photo Sequences

1 Chassis Dyno Test Preparation……………………..358

2 Engine Dyno Test Preparation………………………362

3 Bench Testing a Common Rail (CR)

Electrohydraulic Injector (EHI)…………………….458

4 Spill Timing for an Inline,

Port-Helix Metering Injection Pump………………476

5 Accessing a Truck Data Bus with an EST…………………………………………….800

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