Why Politics Matters: An Introduction to Political Science PDF by Kevin L Dooley and Joseph N Patten

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Why Politics Matters: An Introduction to Political Science

By Kevin L. Dooley and Joseph N. Patten

Why Politics Matters: An Introduction to Political Science

Content:

Preface xvii

Why Politics Matters 1

Introduction: What Is Political Science? 2

Political Science as the Study of Power 5

Theory and Practice: Do Women Justices View Legal Issues Differently

Than Male Justices? 8

Political Power in International Affairs 10

Theory and Practice: How You Can Engage Politics

Through Policy Debate 11

Political Science as an Academic Discipline 14

Approaches to Political Science 14

Why Politics Matters to You! 15

Why Politics Matters to You! Rare Earth Minerals and the Future

of Global Leadership: Is Africa China’s Second Continent? 16

Theory and Practice 17

Introducing You to the Field 17

PART I: POLITICAL THEORY

2 Ancient Political Theory 20

Introduction: How Ancient Political Thought Impacts Us Today 21

The Ionians 22

Theory of Becoming 22

Theory and Practice: How Did the Greeks Influence

the American Founding Fathers? 23

Theory of Being 24

The Sophists 24

Socrates 25

Why Politics Matters to You! The Socratic Teaching Method 27

Theory and Practice: Civil Disobedience After Socrates: Thoreau

(1817–62), Gandhi (1869–1948), and King (1929–68) 29

Plato 31

The Republic 32

Happiness in the Republic and the Human Soul 33

Theory and Practice: Wealth of U.S. Members of Congress 34

Theory and Practice: Civil Disobedience in Modern Times: Tiananmen

Square (1989), The Arab Spring (2010), and Colin Kaepernick (2016) 35

Plato’s Theory of Forms 37

Allegory of the Cave 37

Theory and Practice: The Republic and American Democracy 38

Gradations of Happiness in the Republic and the Human Soul 39

Aristotle 42

The Natural State 43

Theory and Practice: The Greeks, the Roman Empire,

and the Incorporation of Law into the State 43

Aristotle’s Theory of Forms and Happiness 45

Theory of Mixed Constitutions 46

Theory and Practice: Does Democracy Require a Strong

Middle Class? 47

3 Modern Political Theory 50

Introduction: The Origins of Modern Political Thought 51

Niccoló Machiavelli 52

The Prince as Lion and Fox 55

Theory and Practice: Current Leaders Who Use Violence

Against Their Own People: North Korea’s Kim Jong Un and

Syria’s Bashar Hafez al-Assad 57

Theory and Practice: China’s Treatment of Muslim Minority Group:

The Uyghurs 60

Theory and Practice: Tensions Between the United States and

Iran Over Nuclear Weapons 62

Thomas Hobbes 64

Hobbes Versus the Greeks: Is There an Objective Truth? 65

Hobbes’s View of Human Nature 66

Hobbes’s Social Contract Theory 68

Theory and Practice: Realism and Liberalism in International

Relations 68

Why Politics Matters to You! Prisoner’s Dilemma: Are You More

Competitive Than Cooperative? 70

John Locke 71

Theory and Practice: John Locke and the U.S. Declaration of

Independence 72

Locke and Human Nature 73

Why Politics Matters to You! The Expansion of Women’s Rights and

the #MeToo Movement 74

Property Rights in the State of Nature 75

Theory and Practice: Karl Marx and Communism 76

Locke’s Social Contract 77

Theory and Practice: Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Last Great Social

Contract Theorist 78

PART II: COMPARING GOVERNMENTS

4 The American Government 81

Introduction: The Origins of American Democracy 82

The Articles of Confederation: The Failed Experiment 83

Theory and Practice: “Un Civil” Disobedience: Sons of Liberty and the

American Revolution 83

The Constitutional Convention 87

Congress and Representation: Large Versus Small States 89

Why Politics Matters to You! The Expansion of Political Rights:

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 91

The Three Principles of the U.S. Constitution 93

The Growth of Federal Power 98

McCulloch v. Maryland: The Elastic Clause and the Expansion of

Federal Power 98

Theory and Practice: Sanctuary Cities: Federal Versus State and

Local Power on Immigration Policy 100

The Constitution and Interstate Relations 101

Why Politics Matters to You! The Constitution: The Privileges and

Immunities Clause and College Tuition Costs 102

Ratifying the Constitution 102

Theory and Practice: From Factions to Party: The Evolution of the American

Political Party System 103

The Federalist Papers: Madison, Hamilton, and Jay 106

Theory and Practice: The Impeachment of President Bill Clinton and

President Andrew Johnson 107

Why Politics Matters to You! Do You Belong to a Political Party? 110

Adopting the Constitution 112

Amending the Constitution 113

5 N ationalism and Populism in the United States

and Abroad 116

Introduction: The Underlying Causes of Nationalism and Populism 117

The Emergence of Nationalism and Populism in the United States 118

Political Tribalism and Presidential Politics 121

Why Politics Matters to You! Is Political Tribalism Ruining

Your Love Life? 124

Impact of Populism and Nationalism on U.S. Immigration Policy 125

Theory and Practice: Migrant Caravans and the Humanitarian

Crisis in Central America 126

Nationalism and Populism in Europe 128

The European Migration Crisis and the Rise of Nationalist-Populism

in Western Europe. 129

Nationalism and Populism in Central and Eastern Europe 133

6 Comparing Legislatures 138

Introduction: The Importance of National Legislatures 139

The Creation of the American Congress 139

Congressional Powers 140

Theory and Practice: The Pink Wave: The 2018 Midterm

Congressional Election 141

Theory and Practice: Term Limits and the U.S. Congress 145

Theory and Practice: The Filibuster and the Nuclear Option 149

The Composition of Congress and the Expansion of Democratic Rights 150

Theory and Practice: Are Women Legislators More Productive Than

Male Legislators? 152

Congressional Decision Making 153

The Electoral Connection 153

Congress and Home Style 153

The Electoral Connection and Partisan Gerrymandering 154

Other Explanations of Congressional Voting Behavior 155

Theory and Practice: Locking Up the Vote 156

How a Bill Becomes a Law 158

Why Politics Matters to You! Congress and the Affordable Health Care

Act of 2010: The Impact on College-Age Students 160

Presidential Versus Parliamentary Systems of Government 161

Bicameral Versus Unicameral Legislatures 162

Bicameral Legislatures 163

Theory and Practice: How the Past Can Impact Policy 165

Why Politics Matters to You! Parliamentary Supremacy or

Judicial Review? 166

Unicameral Legislatures: One Voice, One House 168

Theory and Practice: Two Houses Might Not Be Better Than One 168

Theory and Practice: Ukraine: Look to the East or to the West? 172

Are Two Houses Better Than One? 175

7 Comparing Democratic Executives 177

Introduction: Executives: Presidents and Prime Ministers 178

Presidents: The Pros and Cons of Independent Executives 178

Debating the Executive: Rule by Individual or Executive Council 180

The Constitution and the Powers of the American President 182

Commander-in-Chief Power 182

Treaty Powers 183

Pardon Powers 183

The Appointment Power 183

The Veto Power 183

Presidential Prerogative Powers 184

The American Executive in Comparative Politics 184

The Prime Minister: First Among Equals 184

Prime Ministers: The Pros and Cons of Parliamentary Executives 185

The Model of Parliamentary Systems: The United Kingdom 186

Theory and Practice: An Independent Prime Minister? 187

Looking Ahead: Newer Democracies in Comparative Context 190

Theory and Practice: Parliamentary or Presidential? 191

The World’s Largest Democracy: India 191

Theory and Practice: Electing Presidents: The United States, India,

and the Electoral College 195

8 Comparing Judicial Systems 199

Introduction 200

Judicial Review Versus Legislative Supremacy 200

Theory and Practice: Judicial Activism Versus Judicial Restraint 202

Judicial Review in the United States 203

Theory and Practice: Double Jeopardy—From Ancient Greece

to Hollywood 204

The American Judiciary and Federalism 207

Differences Between Federal and State Courts 209

The Supreme Court’s Role in Expanding Civil Rights 212

The Incorporation of the Bill of Rights into the States 214

Why Politics Matters to You! Federal–State Powers,

the Interstate Commerce Clause, and the Americans With

Disabilities Act of 1990 215

Civil Rights and the Warren Court 216

Theory and Practice: The Legal Legacy of Supreme Court Justice

John Paul Stevens (1920–2019) 217

Theory and Practice: Federal–State Powers and the Regulation of

Sexual Activity in the Twenty-First Century 219

Germany: A Good Model for Comparison 220

Starting at the Top: The German Federal Constitutional Court 221

Powers and Policy Implications 222

Why Politics Matters to You! The Power to Ban? Political Parties and

the Germany Constitution 224

PART III: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

9 Authoritarian States 229

Introduction: Authoritarianism, Power to the . . . Rulers! 230

Authoritarianism: Intellectual and Religious Justifications 230

Theory and Practice: Justice: In the Interest of the Stronger Party 232

Modern Justifications: Power and Security 233

Machiavelli and Hobbes 233

Why Politics Matters to You! Give Me Liberty or Give Me . . .

More Security? 234

General Characteristics of Authoritarian Regimes 235

Characteristic 1: Authoritarian Leaders Are the Primary Source of Laws and Policy

Choices Within Their State’s Borders 235

Characteristic 2: The Transition of Power in an Authoritarian State Is Determined by

Means Other Than Free and Open Elections 236

Why Politics Matters to You! Fascism by the Ballot Box 237

Characteristic 3: Authoritarian States Limit Free Speech and Control the Press in an

Attempt to Maintain Political Power 239

Characteristic 4: Authoritarian States Lack Representative Political Parties 240

Contemporary Authoritarianism: Saudi Arabia, North Korea, and China 241

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 241

Why Politics Matters to You! Saudi Arabia: American Ally? 244

The Democratic People’s Republic of North Korea 246

Why Politics Matters to You! What If Deterrence

Does Not Apply? 250

The People’s Republic of China 251

Why Politics Matters to You! Facebook and Change in the

Middle East and North Africa 254

10 U nderstanding International Relations:

Terms and Theories 260

Introduction: International Relations 261

Classic Realism: Power in International Relations 263

Theory and Practice: Is Power Always Violent? 264

Core Assumptions of Classic Realism 266

Classic Realists: The Thinkers 267

From Classic Realism to Structural Realism: Morgenthau to Waltz 269

Why Politics Matters to You! Hard or Soft Power? The United States

and Defense Spending 269

Hans Morgenthau: Classical Realism for the Modern Era 270

Kenneth Waltz: Structural Realism 271

Three Levels of Analysis 272

Theory and Practice: Using the Three Levels of Analysis:

The Case of the Syrian Civil War 274

Liberalism 275

Neoliberalism: Cooperation May Come From Self-Interest 276

Theory and Practice: Which Vision Will Win? The United States,

the EU, or China? 278

Radicalism: Marxism-Leninism, Dependency Theory, and Neo-Marxism 280

Marxism 280

Theory and Practice: The Rwandan Genocide From the Marxist

Perspective 282

Dependency Theory 284

Why Politics Matters to You! Sweatshop Labor in Bangladesh:

Development or Disaster? 285

Neo-Marxism: Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri 287

Why Politics Matters to You! Why So Poor? 287

Constructivism: We Shape Our Own Experiences About the World 289

11 War, Diplomacy, and the Beginning of

International Relations 292

Introduction: Understanding the Past to Make Sense of the Present 293

Why Europe? An Important Question to Begin 294

Raison D’état: A New Understanding of International Relations 295

Theory and Practice: What Drives Foreign Policy: Church or State? 297

Balance of Power and the Rise of the State System 299

Theory and Practice: Grotius and the Rule of Law 301

The Nineteenth Century and the Concert of Europe: Preemptive

Balance of Power 302

Why Politics Matters to You! What Would You Have Done

With France? 303

Theory and Practice: The Balance of Power Updated? 305

Bismarck, the Rise of Germany, and the End of the Concert of Europe 306

Why Politics Matters to You! How Well Do You Understand

Foreign Policy? 308

Collective Security: The League of Nations and the Outbreak of World War II 309

Correcting the League and Confronting a New World: The United Nations and

the End of World War II 311

Theory and Practice: Should We Reconfigure the UN Security Council? 315

12 Competing Visions for the Future of

International Relations 317

Introduction: Contemporary International Relations 318

Nuclear Security and Cold War Politics: Containment and Deterrence 319

Deterrence 319

Containment 320

Theory and Practice: Containment and Deterrence Today? 321

The Last Days of Communism and the Soviet Union 322

Post–Cold War Instability: Globalization and the Rise of

the Nonstate Actor 322

Understanding Globalization 323

Neoliberalism and the Power of Multinational Corporations 325

Why Politics Matters to You! Where Did Your Sneakers

Come From? 325

Transnational Terrorism 328

Theory and Practice: When Is One a Terrorist and One a Criminal? 329

Why Politics Matters to You! Nuclear Proliferation and a New

Threat of Nuclear War 332

Nongovernmental Organizations: Private Cooperation 333

Theory and Practice: An NGO in Action: Doctors Without Borders

(Médecins Sans Frontières) 335

The Verdict on Globalization: The Good and the Bad 336

Friedman and Zakaria: The World Is Flat and Getting Flatter! 336

Theory and Practice: Google Versus China 337

Stiglitz: Globalization and Its Discontents 338

The Return of the State 340

Glossary 343

End Notes 352

INDEX 373

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