C How to Program, 9th Edition PDF by Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel

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C How to Program, Ninth Edition

By Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel

C How to Program, Ninth Edition PDF by Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel

Contents:

Preface xix

Before You Begin li

1 Introduction to Computers and C 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Hardware and Software 4

1.2.1 Moore’s Law 4

1.2.2 Computer Organization 5

1.3 Data Hierarchy 8

1.4 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages 11

1.5 Operating Systems 13

1.6 The C Programming Language 16

1.7 The C Standard Library and Open-Source Libraries 18

1.8 Other Popular Programming Languages 19

1.9 Typical C Program-Development Environment 21

1.9.1 Phase 1: Creating a Program 21

1.9.2 Phases 2 and 3: Preprocessing and Compiling a C Program 21

1.9.3 Phase 4: Linking 22

1.9.4 Phase 5: Loading 23

1.9.5 Phase 6: Execution 23

1.9.6 Problems That May Occur at Execution Time 23

1.9.7 Standard Input, Standard Output and Standard Error Streams 24

1.10 Test-Driving a C Application in Windows, Linux and macOS 24

1.10.1 Compiling and Running a C Application with Visual Studio

2019 Community Edition on Windows 10 25

1.10.2 Compiling and Running a C Application with Xcode on

macOS 29

1.10.3 Compiling and Running a C Application with GNU gcc

on Linux 32

1.10.4 Compiling and Running a C Application in a GCC Docker

Container Running Natively over Windows 10, macOS

or Linux 34

1.11 Internet, World Wide Web, the Cloud and IoT 35

1.11.1 The Internet: A Network of Networks 36

1.11.2 The World Wide Web: Making the Internet User-Friendly 37

1.11.3 The Cloud 37

1.11.4 The Internet of Things 38

1.12 Software Technologies 39

1.13 How Big Is Big Data? 39

1.13.1 Big-Data Analytics 45

1.13.2 Data Science and Big Data Are Making a Difference: Use Cases 46

1.14 Case Study—A Big-Data Mobile Application 47

1.15 AI—at the Intersection of Computer Science and Data Science 48

2 Intro to C Programming 55

2.1 Introduction 56

2.2 A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text 56

2.3 Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers 60

2.4 Memory Concepts 64

2.5 Arithmetic in C 65

2.6 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 69

2.7 Secure C Programming 73

3 Structured Program Development 85

3.1 Introduction 86

3.2 Algorithms 86

3.3 Pseudocode 87

3.4 Control Structures 88

3.5 The if Selection Statement 90

3.6 The if…else Selection Statement 92

3.7 The while Iteration Statement 96

3.8 Formulating Algorithms Case Study 1: Counter-Controlled Iteration 97

3.9 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement

Case Study 2: Sentinel-Controlled Iteration 99

3.10 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement

Case Study 3: Nested Control Statements 106

3.11 Assignment Operators 110

3.12 Increment and Decrement Operators 111

3.13 Secure C Programming 114

4 Program Control 133

4.1 Introduction 134

4.2 Iteration Essentials 134

4.3 Counter-Controlled Iteration 135

4.4 for Iteration Statement 136

4.5 Examples Using the for Statement 140

4.6 switch Multiple-Selection Statement 144

4.7 do…while Iteration Statement 150

4.8 break and continue Statements 151

4.9 Logical Operators 153

4.10 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 157

4.11 Structured-Programming Summary 158

4.12 Secure C Programming 163

5 Functions 179

5.1 Introduction 180

5.2 Modularizing Programs in C 180

5.3 Math Library Functions 182

5.4 Functions 183

5.5 Function Definitions 184

5.5.1 square Function 184

5.5.2 maximum Function 187

5.6 Function Prototypes: A Deeper Look 188

5.7 Function-Call Stack and Stack Frames 191

5.8 Headers 195

5.9 Passing Arguments by Value and by Reference 197

5.10 Random-Number Generation 197

5.11 Random-Number Simulation Case Study: Building a Casino Game 202

5.12 Storage Classes 207

5.13 Scope Rules 209

5.14 Recursion 212

5.15 Example Using Recursion: Fibonacci Series 216

5.16 Recursion vs. Iteration 219

5.17 Secure C Programming—Secure Random-Number Generation 222

Random-Number Simulation Case Study: The Tortoise and the Hare 241

6 Arrays 243

6.1 Introduction 244

6.2 Arrays 244

6.3 Defining Arrays 246

6.4 Array Examples 246

6.4.1 Defining an Array and Using a Loop to Set the Array’s

Element Values 247

6.4.2 Initializing an Array in a Definition with an Initializer List 248

6.4.3 Specifying an Array’s Size with a Symbolic Constant and

Initializing Array Elements with Calculations 249

6.4.4 Summing the Elements of an Array 250

6.4.5 Using Arrays to Summarize Survey Results 250

6.4.6 Graphing Array Element Values with Bar Charts 252

6.4.7 Rolling a Die 60,000,000 Times and Summarizing

the Results in an Array 253

6.5 Using Character Arrays to Store and Manipulate Strings 255

6.5.1 Initializing a Character Array with a String 255

6.5.2 Initializing a Character Array with an Initializer List

of Characters 255

6.5.3 Accessing the Characters in a String 255

6.5.4 Inputting into a Character Array 255

6.5.5 Outputting a Character Array That Represents a String 256

6.5.6 Demonstrating Character Arrays 256

6.6 Static Local Arrays and Automatic Local Arrays 258

6.7 Passing Arrays to Functions 260

6.8 Sorting Arrays 264

6.9 Intro to Data Science Case Study: Survey Data Analysis 267

6.10 Searching Arrays 272

6.10.1 Searching an Array with Linear Search 272

6.10.2 Searching an Array with Binary Search 274

6.11 Multidimensional Arrays 278

6.11.1 Illustrating a Two-Dimensional Array 278

6.11.2 Initializing a Double-Subscripted Array 279

6.11.3 Setting the Elements in One Row 281

6.11.4 Totaling the Elements in a Two-Dimensional Array 281

6.11.5 Two-Dimensional Array Manipulations 281

6.12 Variable-Length Arrays 285

6.13 Secure C Programming 289

7 Pointers 309

7.1 Introduction 310

7.2 Pointer Variable Definitions and Initialization 311

7.3 Pointer Operators 312

7.4 Passing Arguments to Functions by Reference 315

7.5 Using the const Qualifier with Pointers 319

7.5.1 Converting a String to Uppercase Using a Non-Constant

Pointer to Non-Constant Data 320

7.5.2 Printing a String One Character at a Time Using a

Non-Constant Pointer to Constant Data 320

7.5.3 Attempting to Modify a Constant Pointer to

Non-Constant Data 322

7.5.4 Attempting to Modify a Constant Pointer to Constant Data 323

7.6 Bubble Sort Using Pass-By-Reference 324

7.7 sizeof Operator 328

7.8 Pointer Expressions and Pointer Arithmetic 330

7.8.1 Pointer Arithmetic Operators 331

7.8.2 Aiming a Pointer at an Array 331

7.8.3 Adding an Integer to a Pointer 331

7.8.4 Subtracting an Integer from a Pointer 332

7.8.5 Incrementing and Decrementing a Pointer 332

7.8.6 Subtracting One Pointer from Another 332

7.8.7 Assigning Pointers to One Another 332

7.8.8 Pointer to void 332

7.8.9 Comparing Pointers 333

7.9 Relationship between Pointers and Arrays 333

7.9.1 Pointer/Offset Notation 333

7.9.2 Pointer/Subscript Notation 334

7.9.3 Cannot Modify an Array Name with Pointer Arithmetic 334

7.9.4 Demonstrating Pointer Subscripting and Offsets 334

7.9.5 String Copying with Arrays and Pointers 336

7.10 Arrays of Pointers 338

7.11 Random-Number Simulation Case Study: Card Shuffling and Dealing 339

7.12 Function Pointers 344

7.12.1 Sorting in Ascending or Descending Order 344

7.12.2 Using Function Pointers to Create a Menu-Driven System 347

7.13 Secure C Programming 349

Special Section: Building Your Own Computer as a Virtual Machine 362

Special Section—Embedded Systems Programming Case Study:

Robotics with the Webots Simulator 369

8 Characters and Strings 387

8.1 Introduction 388

8.2 Fundamentals of Strings and Characters 388

8.3 Character-Handling Library 390

8.3.1 Functions isdigit, isalpha, isalnum and isxdigit 391

8.3.2 Functions islower, isupper, tolower and toupper 393

8.3.3 Functions isspace, iscntrl, ispunct, isprint and isgraph 394

8.4 String-Conversion Functions 396

8.4.1 Function strtod 396

8.4.2 Function strtol 397

8.4.3 Function strtoul 398

8.5 Standard Input/Output Library Functions 399

8.5.1 Functions fgets and putchar 399

8.5.2 Function getchar 401

8.5.3 Function sprintf 401

8.5.4 Function sscanf 402

8.6 String-Manipulation Functions of the String-Handling Library 403

8.6.1 Functions strcpy and strncpy 404

8.6.2 Functions strcat and strncat 405

8.7 Comparison Functions of the String-Handling Library 406

8.8 Search Functions of the String-Handling Library 408

8.8.1 Function strchr 409

8.8.2 Function strcspn 410

8.8.3 Function strpbrk 410

8.8.4 Function strrchr 411

8.8.5 Function strspn 411

8.8.6 Function strstr 412

8.8.7 Function strtok 413

8.9 Memory Functions of the String-Handling Library 414

8.9.1 Function memcpy 415

8.9.2 Function memmove 416

8.9.3 Function memcmp 416

8.9.4 Function memchr 417

8.9.5 Function memset 417

8.10 Other Functions of the String-Handling Library 419

8.10.1 Function strerror 419

8.10.2 Function strlen 419

8.11 Secure C Programming 420

Pqyoaf X Nylfomigrob Qwbbfmh Mndogvk: Rboqlrut yua

Boklnxhmywex 434

Secure C Programming Case Study: Public-Key Cryptography 440

9 Formatted Input/Output 449

9.1 Introduction 450

9.2 Streams 450

9.3 Formatting Output with printf 451

9.4 Printing Integers 452

9.5 Printing Floating-Point Numbers 453

9.5.1 Conversion Specifiers e, E and f 454

9.5.2 Conversion Specifiers g and G 454

9.5.3 Demonstrating Floating-Point Conversion Specifiers 455

9.6 Printing Strings and Characters 456

9.7 Other Conversion Specifiers 457

9.8 Printing with Field Widths and Precision 458

9.8.1 Field Widths for Integers 458

9.8.2 Precisions for Integers, Floating-Point Numbers and Strings 459

9.8.3 Combining Field Widths and Precisions 460

9.9 printf Format Flags 461

9.9.1 Right- and Left-Alignment 461

9.9.2 Printing Positive and Negative Numbers with and without

the + Flag 462

9.9.3 Using the Space Flag 462

9.9.4 Using the # Flag 463

9.9.5 Using the 0 Flag 463

9.10 Printing Literals and Escape Sequences 464

9.11 Formatted Input with scanf 465

9.11.1 scanf Syntax 466

9.11.2 scanf Conversion Specifiers 466

9.11.3 Reading Integers 467

9.11.4 Reading Floating-Point Numbers 468

9.11.5 Reading Characters and Strings 468

9.11.6 Using Scan Sets 469

9.11.7 Using Field Widths 470

9.11.8 Skipping Characters in an Input Stream 471

9.12 Secure C Programming 472

10 Structures, Unions, Bit Manipulation and

Enumerations 481

10.1 Introduction 482

10.2 Structure Definitions 483

10.2.1 Self-Referential Structures 483

10.2.2 Defining Variables of Structure Types 484

10.2.3 Structure Tag Names 484

10.2.4 Operations That Can Be Performed on Structures 484

10.3 Initializing Structures 486

10.4 Accessing Structure Members with . and -> 486

10.5 Using Structures with Functions 488

10.6 typedef 488

10.7 Random-Number Simulation Case Study: High-Performance Card

Shuffling and Dealing 489

10.8Unions 492

10.8.1 union Declarations 493

10.8.2 Allowed unions Operations 493

10.8.3 Initializing unions in Declarations 493

10.8.4 Demonstrating unions 494

10.9 Bitwise Operators 495

10.9.1 Displaying an Unsigned Integer’s Bits 496

10.9.2 Making Function displayBits More Generic and Portable 497

10.9.3 Using the Bitwise AND, Inclusive OR, Exclusive OR and

Complement Operators 498

10.9.4 Using the Bitwise Left- and Right-Shift Operators 501

10.9.5 Bitwise Assignment Operators 503

10.10 Bit Fields 504

10.10.1 Defining Bit Fields 504

10.10.2 Using Bit Fields to Represent a Card’s Face, Suit and Color 505

10.10.3 Unnamed Bit Fields 507

10.11 Enumeration Constants 507

10.12 Anonymous Structures and Unions 509

10.13 Secure C Programming 510

Special Section: Raylib Game-Programming Case Studies 520

Game-Programming Case Study Exercise: SpotOn Game 526

Game-Programming Case Study: Cannon Game 527

Visualization with raylib—Law of Large Numbers Animation 529

Case Study: The Tortoise and the Hare with raylib—

a Multimedia “Extravaganza” 531

Random-Number Simulation Case Study: High-Performance

Card Shuffling and Dealing with Card Images and raylib 533

11 File Processing 539

11.1 Introduction 540

11.2 Files and Streams 540

11.3 Creating a Sequential-Access File 542

11.3.1 Pointer to a FILE 543

11.3.2 Using fopen to Open a File 543

11.3.3 Using feof to Check for the End-of-File Indicator 543

11.3.4 Using fprintf to Write to a File 544

11.3.5 Using fclose to Close a File 544

11.3.6 File-Open Modes 545

11.4 Reading Data from a Sequential-Access File 547

11.4.1 Resetting the File Position Pointer 548

11.4.2 Credit Inquiry Program 548

11.5 Random-Access Files 552

11.6 Creating a Random-Access File 553

11.7 Writing Data Randomly to a Random-Access File 555

11.7.1 Positioning the File Position Pointer with fseek 557

11.7.2 Error Checking 558

11.8 Reading Data from a Random-Access File 558

11.9 Case Study: Transaction-Processing System 560

11.10 Secure C Programming 566

AI Case Study: Intro to NLP—Who Wrote Shakespeare’s Works? 576

AI/Data-Science Case Study—Machine Learning with GNU

Scientific Library 582

AI/Data-Science Case Study: Time Series and Simple

Linear Regression 588

Web Services and the Cloud Case Study—libcurl and

OpenWeatherMap 589

12 Data Structures 595

12.1 Introduction 596

12.2 Self-Referential Structures 597

12.3 Dynamic Memory Management 598

12.4 Linked Lists 599

12.4.1 Function insert 603

12.4.2 Function delete 605

12.4.3 Functions isEmpty and printList 607

12.5 Stacks 608

12.5.1 Function push 612

12.5.2 Function pop 613

12.5.3 Applications of Stacks 613

12.6 Queues 614

12.6.1 Function enqueue 619

12.6.2 Function dequeue 620

12.7 Trees 621

12.7.1 Function insertNode 624

12.7.2 Traversals: Functions inOrder, preOrder and postOrder 625

12.7.3 Duplicate Elimination 626

12.7.4 Binary Tree Search 626

12.7.5 Other Binary Tree Operations 626

12.8 Secure C Programming 627

Special Section: Systems Software Case Study—Building Your

Own Compiler 636

13 Computer-Science Thinking: Sorting Algorithms

and Big O 657

13.1 Introduction 658

13.2 Efficiency of Algorithms: Big O 659

13.2.1 O(1) Algorithms 659

13.2.2 O(n) Algorithms 659

13.2.3 O(n2) Algorithms 659

13.3 Selection Sort 660

13.3.1 Selection Sort Implementation 661

13.3.2 Efficiency of Selection Sort 664

13.4 Insertion Sort 665

13.4.1 Insertion Sort Implementation 665

13.4.2 Efficiency of Insertion Sort 668

13.5 Case Study: Visualizing the High-Performance Merge Sort 668

13.5.1 Merge Sort Implementation 669

13.5.2 Efficiency of Merge Sort 673

13.5.3 Summarizing Various Algorithms’ Big O Notations 674

14 Preprocessor 681

14.1 Introduction 682

14.2 #include Preprocessor Directive 683

14.3 #define Preprocessor Directive: Symbolic Constants 683

14.4 #define Preprocessor Directive: Macros 684

14.4.1 Macro with One Argument 685

14.4.2 Macro with Two Arguments 686

14.4.3 Macro Continuation Character 686

14.4.4 #undef Preprocessor Directive 686

14.4.5 Standard-Library Macros 686

14.4.6 Do Not Place Expressions with Side Effects in Macros 687

14.5 Conditional Compilation 687

14.5.1 #if…#endif Preprocessor Directive 687

14.5.2 Commenting Out Blocks of Code with #if…#endif 688

14.5.3 Conditionally Compiling Debug Code 688

14.6 #error and #pragma Preprocessor Directives 689

14.7 # and ## Operators 690

14.8 Line Numbers 690

14.9 Predefined Symbolic Constants 691

14.10 Assertions 691

14.11 Secure C Programming 692

15 Other Topics 699

15.1 Introduction 700

15.2 Variable-Length Argument Lists 700

15.3 Using Command-Line Arguments 702

15.4 Compiling Multiple-Source-File Programs 704

15.4.1 extern Declarations for Global Variables in Other Files 704

15.4.2 Function Prototypes 705

15.4.3 Restricting Scope with static 705

15.5 Program Termination with exit and atexit 706

15.6 Suffixes for Integer and Floating-Point Literals 708

15.7 Signal Handling 708

15.8 Dynamic Memory Allocation Functions calloc and realloc 711

15.9 goto: Unconditional Branching 713

A Operator Precedence Chart 719

B ASCII Character Set 721

C Multithreading/Multicore and Other

C18/C11/C99 Topics 723

C.1 Introduction 724

C.2 Headers Added in C99 725

C.3 Designated Initializers and Compound Literals 725

C.4 Type bool 727

C.5 Complex Numbers 728

C.6 Macros with Variable-Length Argument Lists 730

C.7 Other C99 Features 730

C.7.1 Compiler Minimum Resource Limits 730

C.7.2 The restrict Keyword 730

C.7.3 Reliable Integer Division 731

C.7.4 Flexible Array Members 731

C.7.5 Type-Generic Math 732

C.7.6 Inline Functions 732

C.7.7 __func__ Predefined Identifier 732

C.7.8 va_copy Macro 733

C.8 C11/C18 Features 733

C.8.1 C11/C18 Headers 733

C.8.2 quick_exit Function 733

C.8.3 Unicode® Support 733

C.8.4 _Noreturn Function Specifier 734

C.8.5 Type-Generic Expressions 734

C.8.6 Annex L: Analyzability and Undefined Behavior 734

C.8.7 Memory Alignment Control 735

C.8.8 Static Assertions 735

C.8.9 Floating-Point Types 735

C.9 Case Study: Performance with Multithreading and Multicore Systems 736

C.9.1 Example: Sequential Execution of Two

Compute-Intensive Tasks 739

C.9.2 Example: Multithreaded Execution of Two

Compute-Intensive Tasks 741

C.9.3 Other Multithreading Features 745

D Intro to Object-Oriented Programming Concepts 747

D.1 Introduction 747

D.2 Object-Oriented Programming Languages 747

D.3 Automobile as an Object 748

D.4 Methods and Classes 748

D.5 Instantiation 748

D.6 Reuse 748

D.7 Messages and Method Calls 749

D.8 Attributes and Instance Variables 749

D.9 Inheritance 749

D.10 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) 750

Index 751

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