Construction, Materials, Methods, and Techniques: Building for a sustainable future, 5th Edition PDF by Eva Kultermann and William P. Spence

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Construction, Materials, Methods, and Techniques: Building for a sustainable future, Fifth Edition

By Eva Kultermann and William P. Spence

Construction, Materials, Methods, and Techniques: Building for a sustainable future, Fifth Edition

Table of Contents

Part I Introduction

Division 00 Procurement and

Contracting Requirements

Csi MasterFormat® 1

Division 01 General Requirements 2

Chapter 01 The Construction Industry:

An Overview 3

Learning Objectives 3

Construction: A Dynamic Industry 4

Pre-Construction Activities 5

Pre-Design and Design

Development 6

Building Information Modeling 9

Construction Documents 9

Specifications and the

MasterFormat 9

The Project Delivery Process 11

Construction Contractors 11

Selecting the Contractor 12

Project Delivery Methods and

Types of Construction Contracts 12

Design-Bid-Build 13

Design-Build 13

Construction Management (CM) 13

Integrated Project Delivery 14

Lean Construction 14

Public-Private Partnership (PPP) 14

The Construction Process 14

Construction Methods:

Subcontractor Agreements 15

Construction Scheduling 15

Permitting 15

Pre-Construction Planning and

Temporary Facilities 16

Shop Drawings, Submittals,

and Mock-Ups 16

Construction Observation 18

Contractor Requests for

Information (RFI) 18

Modifications to the Construction

Contract 18

Project Close Out 19

Construction Safety 19

Review Questions 19

Key Terms 20

Activities 20

Additional Resources 20

Chapter 02 Regulatory Constraints, Standards,

and Green Building Rating Systems 21

Learning Objectives 21

The Regulatory Environment—

Zoning and Codes 21

Zoning Ordinances 21

Building Codes 22

The Development of Building Codes 22

The International Residential Code 24

The International Building Code (IBC) 24

Organization and Content of the

International Building Code 25

Americans with Disabilities Act

(ada)/Universal Design 27

Standard Development Organizations 28

National Institute of Building Sciences

(NIBS) 28

International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) 28

American National Standards Institute

(ANSI) 29

ASTM International 29

Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) 29

American Society of Heating,

Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning

Engineers (ASHRAE) 30

National Association of Home Builders

of the United States (NAHB) 30

Trade Associations 30

American Concrete Institute (ACI) 31

Portland Cement Association (PCA) 31

The Masonry Institute of America 31

American Institute of Steel

Construction (AISC) 31

American Wood Council (AWC) 31

Sustainable Design and Green

Building Rating Systems 32

The Environmental Impact of the

Construction Industry 32

Sustainable Construction 33

Sustainable Design 34

Sustainable Building Certification

Systems 34

The U.S. Green Building Council

(USGBC) and LEED Rating System 34

LEED NC Version 4 36

Green Globes 37

NAHB National Green Building

Program™ 37

Energy Star 38

Other Assessment and

Certification Programs 38

Review Questions 40

Key Terms 40

Activities 41

Additional Resources 41

Part II Site Construction and

Earthwork

Chapter 03 Properties of Materials 42

Learning Objectives 42

Material Groups 42

Material Properties 43

Mechanical Properties 44

Thermal Properties 47

Acoustical Properties 48

Chemical Properties 48

Environmentally Preferable

Products (Epps) 49

Embodied Energy 49

Construction Methods:

Composite Materials 50

Natural Resources/Habitat Degradation 50

Renewable Materials 51

Recycled and Post-Consumer/Post-

Industrial/Agricultural Materials 51

Toxicity to the Environment 51

Sustainable Construction Materials

Assessment Criteria 52

Review Questions 52

Key Terms 52

Activities 53

Additional Resources 53

Division 02 Existing Conditions CSI

MasterFormat 54

Division 31 Earthwork CSI MasterFormat 55

Chapter 04 The Building Site 56

Learning Objectives 56

Site Assessment 56

Land Surveying 56

Environmental Assessment 57

Subsurface Investigation 58

Site Plans 58

Site Work Activities 58

Sedimentation and Erosion

Control 58

Storm-Water Drainage 60

Demolition 61

Site Remediation 61

Earthwork 61

Grading 62

Excavation 63

Sheeting 63

Cofferdams and Caissons 65

Construction Techniques:

Blasting 67

Dewatering Techniques 67

Underpinning Techniques 68

Paving 68

Asphalt Paving 68

Concrete Paving 69

Unit Paving 69

Seismic Considerations 71

Review Questions 71

Key Terms 72

Activities 72

Additional Resources 72

Chapter 05 Soils 73

Learning Objectives 73

Types of Soils 73

Soil Classification 73

Unified Soil Classification System 74

American Association of State

Highway and Transportation

Officials System 74

Subsurface Soil Testing 75

Field Classification of Soil 77

Testing for Soil Coarseness 78

Dry Strength Test 78

Toughness Test 78

Shaking Test 78

Soil Volume Characteristics 79

Soil Water 79

Soil-Bearing Capacities 79

Soil Alterations 80

Compaction 81

Soil Stabilization with Admixtures 82

Review Questions 83

Key Terms 84

Activities 84

Additional Resources 84

Chapter 06 Foundations 85

Learning Objectives 85

Foundation Design 85

Foundation Types 86

Shallow Foundations 87

Spread Footings 88

Slab and Raft Foundations 89

Deep Foundations 90

Displacement Piles 91

Methods of Driving Displacement Piles 93

Non-Displacement Piles 94

Geopier Foundations 95

Review Questions 97

Key Terms 97

Activities 97

Additional Resources 97

Part III Concrete and Masonry

Division 03 Concrete CSI MasterFormat 98

Chapter 07 Concrete 99

Learning Objectives 99

Portland Cement 100

ASTM-Designated Types of

Portland Cement 100

Properties of Portland Cement 102

Storing Portland Cement 103

Water 103

Construction Methods:

Supplementary Cementing

Materials

(SCMs) 104

Aggregates 104

Characteristics of Aggregates 104

Grading Aggregates 106

Structural Lightweight Aggregates 107

Insulating Lightweight Aggregates 108

Heavyweight Aggregates 108

Testing Aggregates for Impurities 108

Handling and Storing Aggregates 108

Admixtures 108

Air-Entraining Agents 108

Retarders 109

Water Reducers 110

Accelerators 110

Pozzolans 110

Workability Agents 110

Superplasticizers 111

Permeability-Reducing and

Damp Proofing Agents 111

Bonding Agents 112

Coloring Agents 112

Hardeners 112

Grouting Agents 113

Gas-Forming Agents 113

Basics Of Concrete 113

Water–Cement Ratio 113

Minimum Cement Content 114

Aggregates 115

Entrained Air 115

Slump 115

Concrete Design 115

Normal-Weight Concrete 116

Lightweight Insulating Concrete 116

Lightweight Structural Concrete 116

Heavyweight Structural Concrete 116

Concrete Tests 116

Tests with Fresh Concrete 116

Tests with Hardened Concrete 119

Nondestructive Tests 120

Emerging Trends in Concrete 120

Review Questions 121

Key Terms 122

Activities 122

Additional Resources 122

Chapter 08 Cast-in-Place Concrete 123

Learning Objectives 123

Building Codes 123

Preparing Concrete 124

Batching 124

Mixing 124

Stationary Mixing 124

Ready-Mix Concrete 124

Remixing 124

Transporting, Handling,

and Placing Concrete 125

Moving Concrete 125

Placing Concrete 126

Placing Concrete in Cold Weather 126

Placing Concrete in Hot Weather 127

Pneumatic Placement 127

Finishing Concrete 127

Curing Concrete 128

Formwork 129

Concrete Reinforcing Materials 133

Steel Reinforcing Bars 133

Welded Wire Reinforcement 134

Fiber Reinforcement 139

Cast-in-Place Concrete Elements 140

Casting On-Grade Slabs 140

Cast-in-Place Reinforced

Concrete Walls 140

Reinforcing Cast-in-Place Beams 142

Reinforcing Cast-in-Place Columns 142

Cast-in-Place Concrete

Framing Systems 142

General Construction Procedures 142

One-Way Flat Slab Floor

and Roof Construction 143

Two-Way Flat Slab Floor

and Roof Construction 144

Tilt-Up Wall Construction 145

Construction Methods:

Strip-Applied Waterstops 147

Lift-Slab Construction 147

Slip Forming 148

Review Questions 148

Key Terms 149

Activities 149

Additional Resources 149

Chapter 09 Precast Concrete 150

Learning Objectives 150

Advantages of Precast Concrete Units 150

Building Codes 150

Pre-Stressing Precast Concrete 151

Pre-Tensioned Units 152

Post-Tensioned Units 153

Precast Concrete Elements 153

Precast Concrete Slabs 153

Precast Concrete Columns 154

Beams and Girders 154

Precast Concrete Wall Panels 155

Connecting Precast Units 156

Types of Connections 156

Grout, Mortar, and Drypack 156

Connection Details 156

Erecting Precast Concrete 158

Construction Planning 158

Transporting Units to the Site 160

Erecting Precast Concrete 162

Review Questions 164

Key Terms 165

Activities 165

Additional Resources 165

Division 04 Masonry CSI MasterFormat 166

Chapter 10 Mortars for Masonry Walls 167

Learning Objectives 167

Mortar Composition 168

Cementitious Materials 168

Masonry Cements 168

Other Mortar Ingredients 168

Types of Mortar 168

Sources of Mortar 169

Properties of Plastic Mortar 171

Workability 171

Water Retention 172

Properties of Hardened Mortar 172

Bond Strength 172

Durability 173

Compressive Strength 173

Low Volume Change 173

Appearance 173

Rate of Hardening 173

Colored Mortar 173

Mortar in Cold Weather 174

Surface-Bonding Mortars 175

Review Questions 175

Key Terms 175

Activities 176

Additional Resources 176

Chapter 11 Clay Masonry 177

Learning Objectives 177

Clays 177

Manufacturing Clay Bricks 177

Winning and Storage 178

Forming the Bricks 178

Drying 179

Glazing 179

Burning and Cooling 179

Drawing and Storage 179

Clay Masonry Units 179

Solid Masonry 179

Brick Pavers 180

Firebrick 180

Thin Brick 181

Hollow Masonry 181

Material Specifications for Clay Masonry 183

Weathering Index 183

Grades, Types, and Classes 183

Properties of Clay Brick and Tile 185

Compressive Strength 185

Durability 185

Absorption 185

Color 185

Texture 185

Heat Transmission 186

Fire Resistance 186

Other Fired Clay Products 188

Architectural Terra-Cotta

and Ceramic Veneer 188

Review Questions 189

Key Terms 189

Activities 189

Additional Resources 189

Chapter 12 Concrete Masonry 190

Learning Objectives 190

Manufacture of Concrete

Masonry Units 190

Physical Properties of Concrete

Masonry Units 191

Types of Concrete Masonry Units 193

Modular Size Blocks 193

Concrete Brick 193

Slump Block 193

Concrete Block 193

Concrete Retaining Walls 198

Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

Block (AAC) 198

Material Specifications 198

Grades 199

Types 199

Weights 200

Review Questions 200

Key Terms 201

Activities 201

Additional Resources 201

Chapter 13 Stone 202

Learning Objectives 202

Basic Classifications of Rock 202

Igneous Rock 202

Sedimentary Rock 203

Metamorphic Rock 203

Types and Uses of Stone 204

Quarrying and Producing

Natural Stone 205

Choosing Stone 205

Manufactured Stone 206

Stone Composite Panels 206

Review Questions 207

Key Terms 207

Activities 207

Additional Resources 207

Chapter 14 Masonry Construction 208

Learning Objectives 208

Masonry Walls 209

Masonry Unit Positions 209

Masonry Bond Patterns 209

Laying Brick Masonry Walls 210

Mortar Joints 211

Laying Concrete Masonry Walls 211

Openings in Masonry Walls 211

Control and Expansion Joints 217

Types of Masonry Walls 217

Reinforced Masonry 218

Masonry Composite Walls 218

Masonry Cavity Walls 221

Insulated Masonry Cavity Walls 223

Masonry Veneer 224

Brick Masonry Columns 224

Masonry Construction Details 224

Stone Masonry Construction 224

Structural Clay Tile Construction 228

Laying Structural Clay

Tile Walls 228

Estimating Masonry Materials 228

Review Questions 230

Key Terms 231

Activities 231

Additional Resources 231

Part IV Metals, Wood, and Plastics

Division 05 Metals CSI MasterFormat 232

Chapter 15 Ferrous Metals 233

Learning Objectives 233

Iron 233

Mining and Processing Iron Ore 234

Producing Iron from Iron Ore 234

Cast Irons 236

Steelmaking 237

Basic Oxygen Process 237

Electric Steelmaking Processes 237

Manufacturing Steel Products 238

Steel Recycling 240

Steel Identification Systems 240

The Unified Numbering System

for Metals and Alloys 241

Steel and Steel Alloys 242

Plain Carbon Steels 242

Alloy Steels 242

Types of Structural Steel 243

Stainless and Heat-Resisting

Steels 244

Steel Products 246

Structural Steel Products 246

Sheet Steel Products 248

Other Products 250

Testing Metals 252

Review Questions 253

Key Terms 253

Activities 254

Additional Resources 254

Chapter 16 Nonferrous Metals 255

Learning Objectives 255

Aluminum 255

Mining Aluminum 255

Refining Bauxite Ore 255

Construction Materials:

History of Aluminum 256

The Bayer Process 256

The Hall–Héroult Electrolytic Process 256

Aluminum Alloys 257

UNS Designations 257

Temper Designations 258

Aluminum Castings 259

Aluminum Finishes 259

Natural Finishes 259

Mechanical Finishes 259

Chemical Finishes 259

Anodic Finishes 261

Coatings 265

Protecting a Finished Aluminum

Product 265

Routine Maintenance of Aluminum

Surfaces 266

Joining Aluminum Members 266

Aluminum Products 266

Copper 267

History of Copper 267

Properties of Copper 267

Production of Copper 267

Classifying Copper and Copper

Alloys 268

Copper Alloys 269

Copper Alloy Finishes 270

Care of Copper and Copper Alloys 270

Uses of Copper 270

Brass 270

History of Brass 271

Plain Brasses (Copper-Zinc Alloys) 271

Leaded Brasses

(Copper-Zinc-Lead Alloys) 272

Tin Brasses (Copper-Zinc-Tin Alloys) 272

Bronze 272

Lead 273

History of Lead 273

Properties of Lead 273

Production of Lead 273

Grades of Lead 273

Lead Alloys 274

UNS Designations 274

Uses of Lead 274

Solders 274

Properties 274

Types of Solder 275

Fluxes 275

Tin 275

Properties and Working

Characteristics of Tin 275

Production of Tin 275

UNS Designations 276

Uses of Tin 276

Terneplate 276

Uses of Terneplate 276

Production of Terne Sheets 276

Titanium 276

History 276

Properties 277

Working Characteristics 277

Production of Titanium 277

Titanium Alloys 277

UNS Designations 277

Uses of Titanium 277

Nickel 277

History 277

Properties 278

Working Characteristics 278

Production of Nickel 278

Nickel Alloys 278

UNS Designations 278

Uses of Nickel 278

Zinc 278

Properties 278

Working Characteristics 278

Production of Zinc 278

Zinc Alloys 279

UNS Designations 279

Uses of Zinc 279

Zinc Galvanizing Processes 279

Galvanic Corrosion 280

Review Questions 280

Key Terms 281

Activities 281

Additional Resources 281

Chapter 17 Steel Frame Construction 282

Learning Objectives 282

Structural Steel Drawings 283

The Steel Frame 284

Frame Stability 285

Steel Frame Connections 285

Simple Connections 286

Moment Connections 287

Riveted Connections 288

Bolted Connections 289

Welded Connections 290

Construction Methods:

Fasteners for Metal-Building

Construction 291

The Erection Process 292

Decking 295

Metal Decking 295

Concrete Decking 298

Pre-Engineered Metal Building Systems 298

Other Steel Construction Systems 300

Light-Gauge Steel Framing 300

Fire Protection of the Steel Frame 301

Review Questions 304

Key Terms 304

Activities 304

Additional Resources 304

Division 06 Wood, Plastics, and

Composites CSI MasterFormat 305

Chapter 18 Wood, Plastics, and Composites 306

Learning Objectives 306

Tree Species 306

Softwoods 306

Hardwoods 308

The Structure of Wood 308

Wood Defects 308

Lumber Manufacturing 308

Seasoning Lumber 310

Air-Dried Lumber 311

Kiln-Dried Lumber 312

Dehumidification and Solar Kilns 312

Unseasoned Lumber 312

Lumber Sizes 312

Softwood Lumber 312

Hardwood Lumber 314

Buying Lumber 314

Lumber Grading and Testing 315

Lumber Grades 315

Lumber Classifications as to

Manufacture 315

Size Classifications 316

Stress-Rated Lumber 317

In-Grade Testing Program 319

Physical and Chemical

Composition of Wood 320

Porosity of Wood 320

Composition of Wood 321

Hygroscopic Properties of Wood 321

Moisture Content 321

Fiber Saturation Point 323

Equilibrium Moisture Content 323

How Moisture Affects Wood

Properties 325

Construction Materials:

Sustainable Forestry 326

Specific Gravity 327

Structural Properties of Wood 327

Bending 328

Shear 329

Modulus of Elasticity 329

Tension 329

Compression 329

Gluing Properties 330

Other Properties of Wood 330

Thermal Properties 330

Decorative Features 330

Decay Resistance 331

Insect Damage 331

Pressure-Treated Wood and Plywood 332

Safety Information 332

Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) 332

Alkaline Copper Quat (ACQ) 332

Bardac-Treated Wood 332

Copper Azole (CA) 333

Pentachlorophenol 333

Methyl Isothiocyanate 333

Applying Preservatives 333

Effect of Treatment on Strength 333

Quality Certification 333

Fire-Retardant Treatments 334

Review Questions 334

Key Terms 334

Activities 335

Additional Resources 335

Chapter 19 Products Manufactured from Wood 336

Learning Objectives 336

Plywood and Other Panel Products 336

Plywood Panel Construction 336

Specifications for Plywood Panels 337

Construction and Industrial Plywood 337

APA Performance-Rated Panels 339

Specialty Plywood 340

Hardwood Plywood 340

Reconstituted Wood Products 343

Structural Building Components 345

Other Products Manufactured

from Wood 350

Review Questions 351

Key Terms 351

Activities 351

Additional Resources 352

Chapter 20 Wood and Metal Light Frame

Construction 353

Learning Objectives 353

Wood Framing and the

Building Codes 354

Building Codes 354

Preparing the Site 354

Excavation 354

Foundations for Light Wood Frame

Construction 354

Wood Foundations 358

Interior Piers and Columns 358

Evolution of Light Wood

Frame Construction 358

Platform Framing 359

Floor Framing 361

Wall Framing 361

Ceiling Framing 365

Framing the Roof 366

Wood Trusses 366

Wood Roof Trusses 366

Wood Floor Trusses 366

Pre-Manufactured Wood

Construction 366

Construction Methods:

Optimum Value Engineering 367

Fasteners for Wood Frame

Construction 367

Nails 368

Wood Connectors 370

Light-Gauge Steel Framing 370

Review Questions 374

Key Terms 374

Activities 374

Additional Resources 375

Chapter 21 Heavy Timber Construction 376

Learning Objectives 376

Building Codes 377

Fire Resistance 377

Timber Frame Construction 377

Timber Joinery 378

Engineered Timber Frame Construction 378

Arches and Domes 378

Columns, Beams, and Trusses 383

Connection Details 384

Decking 385

Sheathing 385

Mass Timber Construction 386

Construction Techniques:

Metal Fasteners 388

Review Questions 390

Key Terms 390

Activities 390

Additional Resources 390

Chapter 22 Finishing the Exterior and

Interior of Light Wood Frame

Buildings 391

Learning Objectives 391

Finishing the Exterior 391

Framing the Eaves and Rake 391

Ventilating the Attic 393

The Finished Roof Material 393

Installing the Weather Shield 394

Installing Windows 395

Exterior Door Installation 396

Installing the Exterior Finish 396

Finishing the Interior 400

Installing Insulation 401

Interior Wall and Ceiling

Finishes 401

Interior Finish Carpentry 402

Installing Interior Doors 402

Installing Casings and

Moldings 403

Installing Cabinets 404

Installing Stairs 405

Other Finish Items 405

Review Questions 407

Key Terms 407

Activities 407

Additional Resources 408

Chapter 23 Plastics 409

Learning Objectives 409

Molecular Structure of Plastic 410

Classifications 410

Thermoplastics 410

Thermosetting Plastics 411

Bioplastics 411

Additives 411

Plasticizers 411

Fillers 412

Stabilizers 412

Colorants 412

Properties of Plastics 412

Mechanical Properties 413

Electrical Properties 413

Thermal Properties 413

Chemical Properties 414

Density 414

Specific Gravity 414

Optical Properties 414

Manufacturing Processes 414

Recycled Plastic Products 415

Plastic Construction Materials 416

Thermoplastics 416

Thermosets 418

Review Questions 420

Key Terms 420

Activities 421

Additional Resources 421

Part V Thermal and Moisture/

Openings/Finishes

Division 07 Thermal and Moisture

Protection

CSI MasterFormat 422

Chapter 24 Thermal Insulation and

Vapor Barriers 423

Learning Objectives 423

Heat Transfer 424

Conduction 424

Convection 425

Radiation 425

Insulation Materials 426

Batts and Blankets 426

Loose-Fill Insulation 428

Rigid Insulation 429

Blown Insulation 429

Aerogel and Other Innovations 430

Reflective Barriers 431

Construction Materials:

Superinsulation 431

Water and Vapor Considerations 432

Rainwater Protection 432

Water Vapor Transfer 432

Vapor Retarders 433

Control of Air Leakage 434

Review Questions 435

Key Terms 435

Activities 436

Additional Resources 436

Chapter 25 Bonding Agents, Sealers,

and Sealants 437

Learning Objectives 437

Bonding Agents 437

Curing of Bonding Agents 437

Types of Bonding Agents 438

Sealers for Exterior Materials 440

Wood Sealers 441

Sealants 442

Sealant Performance

Considerations 442

Types of Sealants 443

Sealants and Joint Design 444

Backup Materials 444

Caulking and Glazing 446

Waterproofing Membranes

and Coatings 446

Bituminous Coatings 446

Construction Techniques:

Waterproofing Tips 447

Liquid Coatings 448

Synthetic Sheet Membranes 448

Cement-Based Waterproofing 449

Lead Waterproofing 450

Bentonite Clay Waterproofing 450

Review Questions 450

Key Terms 451

Activities 451

Additional Resources 451

Chapter 26 Bituminous Materials 452

Learning Objectives 452

Properties of Bitumens 452

Asphalt 453

Asphalt Paving 455

Laboratory Tests of Asphalt 455

Other Products Made with

Bituminous Materials 457

Coal Tar Pitch 457

Felts 457

Ice and Water Shield 457

Fiberglass Sheet Material 457

Fireproofing Paper 457

Waterproof Coatings 457

Bituminous Roof Coverings 458

Roll Roofing 458

Asphalt and Fiberglass Shingles 458

Hot Bitumen Built-Up Roof

Membranes 458

Modified Asphalt Roofing

Systems 459

Cold-Applied Asphalt Roofing

Systems 460

Review Questions 460

Key Terms 461

Activities 461

Additional Resources 461

Chapter 27 Roofing Systems 462

Learning Objectives 462

Building Codes 462

Roofing Components 463

Roof Decks 463

Vapor Retarders 464

Insulation 464

Flashing 465

Finished Roofing 465

Low-Slope Roof Assemblies 465

Built-Up Roofing 465

Modified Bitumen Membranes 467

Single-Ply Membranes 468

Spray- and Liquid-Applied

Membranes 469

Low-Slope Metal Roofing 470

Low-Slope Roof Flashing 470

Low-Slope Roof Drainage 471

Steep-Slope Roof Assemblies 472

Shingle Roofing 472

Asphalt Shingles 472

Wood Shingles and Shakes 475

Slate Shingles 477

Clay and Concrete Roof Tiles 478

Photovoltaic Roofing 479

Steep-Slope Metal Roofing Assemblies 480

Metal Roofing Materials 480

Standing Seam Roofing 481

Flat and Batten Seam Roofing 482

Exposed Fastener Metal Roofing 482

Steep-Roof Flashing and Drainage 483

Cool Roofing 484

Construction Methods:

Green Roofs 485

Review Questions 485

Key Terms 486

Activities 486

Additional Resources 486

Division 08 Openings CSI MasterFormat 487

Chapter 28 Glass 488

Learning Objectives 488

Types of Glass 489

The Manufacture of Glass 489

Float Glass 489

Sheet Glass 489

Properties of Soda-Lime-Silica Glass 490

Mechanical Properties 490

Thermal Properties 490

Chemical Properties 491

Electrical Properties 491

Optical Properties 491

Heat-Treating Glass 492

Annealing 492

Tempering 492

Heat Strengthening 492

Chemical Strengthening 492

Finishes 492

Etching 492

Sandblasting 492

Patterned Finish 492

Silvering 492

Ceramic Frit 493

Tinting 493

Physical Properties of Glazing Systems 494

Solar Heat Gain Factor (SHGF) 494

U-Value (U) 494

Visible Light Transmittance (Vt) 494

Shading Coefficient (Sc) 494

Emissivity (e) 494

Glass Products 494

Tempered Glass 494

Laminated Glass 495

Reflective Glass 496

Low-E Glass 496

Insulating Glass 496

Wired Glass 498

Spandrel Glass 499

Bent Glass 500

Ceramic Glass 500

Architectural Beveled Glass 500

Channel glass 500

Glass Block 500

Smart Glazing 501

Photovoltaic Glazing 502

Self-Cleaning Glass 502

Review Questions 502

Key Terms 503

Activity 503

Additional Resources 503

Chapter 29 Doors, Windows, Entrances,

and Storefronts 504

Learning Objectives 504

Doors 504

Door Operating and Material Types 504

Swinging Doors 505

Bypass and Folding Doors 506

Revolving Doors 507

Specialty Doors 507

Wood and Plastic Doors 508

Fiberglass Doors 509

Hollow-Core Metal Doors 509

Hollow Metal Doorframes 509

Metal Fire Doors and Frames 510

Glass Doors 511

Door Hardware 512

Hinges 513

Locking Mechanisms 515

Windows 515

Window Terms and Types 516

Wood Windows 516

Plastic Windows 517

Steel Windows 517

Aluminum Windows 517

Composite Materials 521

Special Windows 521

Entrances and Storefronts 522

Review Questions 523

Key Terms 523

Activity 523

Additional Resources 523

Chapter 30 Cladding Systems 524

Learning Objectives 524

Cladding Design Considerations 524

Structural Performance 524

Control of Movement 526

Control of Wind Forces 526

Connections 528

Solar Control 528

Fire, Noise, and Pollution Control 529

Maintenance Concerns 529

Water Management for Cladding

Systems 531

Methods of Water Penetration 531

The Rainscreen Principle 532

Metal and Glass Curtain Wall Systems 533

Stick System 534

Unitized System 534

Unit and Mullion System 535

Column- Cover- and- Spandrel System 535

Glass-Fixing Methods 536

Point-Supported Glazing 536

Structural Glazing Systems 539

Masonry, Stone, Eifs, and Metal Cladding

Systems 540

Masonry Curtain Walls 540

Stone Curtain Walls 541

Precast Concrete Cladding 543

Modified Stucco Curtain Walls 544

Metal Cladding Systems 546

Sealing Joints for Cladding Systems 546

Sealant Joints 546

Types of Sealant Materials 547

Solid Sealant Materials 548

Review Questions 549

Key Terms 549

Activities 549

Additional Resources 550

Division 09 Finishes, Paints, and Coatings

CSI MasterFormat 551

Chapter 31 Interior Finishes, Paints, and

Coatings 552

Learning Objectives 552

Performace Criteria for Interior Finishes 553

Environmental Concerns 553

Appearance 554

Cost 554

Code Requirements 554

Durability and Maintenance 556

Acoustical Considerations 556

Electrical and Mechanical Systems

Integration 556

Paints and Coatings 558

Federal Regulations 558

Lead in Coatings 558

Air-Quality Regulations 558

Composition of Coatings 558

Wet Film Thickness 559

Dry Film Thickness 560

Factors Affecting Coatings 560

Clear Coatings 560

Natural-Resin Varnishes 560

Synthetic-Resin Varnishes 561

Lacquer 562

Opaque Coatings 562

Primers for Opaque Coatings 564

Types of Opaque Coatings 565

Phenolic Coatings 566

Urethane or Polyurethane Coatings 566

Construction Techniques:

Testing for Lead Paint 567

Special-Purpose Coatings 567

Reflective Coatings 567

Pigmented Fire-Retardant

Coatings 567

Intumescent Fire-Retardant

Coatings 567

Stains 568

Exterior Stains 568

Interior Stains 568

Fillers 569

Review Questions 569

Key Terms 570

Activities 570

Additional Resources 570

Chapter 32 Acoustical Materials 571

Learning Objectives 571

Sound 571

Sound Waves 571

Frequency of Sound Waves 572

Sound Intensity 572

Sound Control 572

Sound Transmission Class 573

Impact Isolation Class 573

Noise-Reduction Coefficient 573

Acoustical Materials 574

Floor Coverings 574

Acoustical Plaster 574

Acoustical Ceiling Tile and

Wall Panels 575

Sound Barriers 577

Construction Techniques 577

Controlling Sound from Vibrations 578

Review Questions 579

Key Terms 580

Activities 580

Additional Resources 580

Chapter 33 Interior Walls, Partitions,

and Ceilings 581

Learning Objectives 581

Fire-Resistant Interior Assemblies 581

Interior Gypsum Wall Partitions 583

Metal-Stud Nonbearing

Interior Walls 583

Gypsum 585

Types of Gypsum Board Products 585

Installing Gypsum Wallboard 586

Finishing Gypsum Wallboard 587

Plaster Finishes 588

Plaster over Masonry and

Concrete Walls 590

Structural Clay Tile Partitions 591

Ceramic Tile-Wall Finishes 591

Wood-Product Wall Finishes 591

Ceiling Construction 593

Suspended Ceilings 594

Furred and Direct-Contact

Ceilings 596

Review Questions 596

Key Terms 597

Activities 597

Additional Resources 597

Chapter 34 Flooring 598

Learning Objectives 598

Performance Criteria for Flooring 599

Hard-Surface Flooring 599

Concrete Flooring 599

Brick and Stone Flooring 600

Clay Tile Flooring 601

Mortars and Adhesives for Tile Floors 602

Tile Grout 602

Terrazzo Flooring 602

Wood Flooring 603

Solid Wood Flooring 603

Strip Flooring 604

Planks 604

Wood Strip and Plank Floor

Installation 604

Parquet Flooring 606

Engineered and Laminate

Wood Flooring 607

Bamboo Flooring 607

Resilient Flooring 608

Linoleum and Sheet Vinyl 608

Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT) 608

Rubber Flooring 609

Cork Flooring 610

Seamless Flooring Materials 610

Carpeting 611

Introduction to Carpet Systems 611

Carpet Fibers 611

Carpet Construction 612

Woven Carpets 612

Tufted, Knitted, Flocked,

and Bonded Carpet 613

Carpet Cushions 613

Carpet Installation 614

Raised-Access Flooring 615

Review Questions 615

Key Terms 616

Activities 616

Additional Resources 616

Part VI Specialties, Equipment, and

Furnishings

Division 10 Specialties

CSI MasterFormat 617

Division 11 Equipment

CSI MasterFormat 618

Division 12 Furnishings

CSI MasterFormat 619

Chapter 35 Specialties, Equipment, and

Furnishings 620

Learning Objectives 620

Visual Display Boards 620

Compartments and Cubicles 621

Louvers, Grilles, Vents, and Screens 621

Service Wall Systems 622

Walls and Corner Guards 622

Access Flooring 623

Pest Control 623

Fireplaces and Stoves 623

Manufactured Exterior Specialties 623

Flagpoles 623

Identifying Devices 623

Pedestrian Control Devices 625

Lockers and Shelving 625

Fire Protection Specialties 625

Protective Covers 625

Postal Specialties 625

Demountable Partitions 626

Operable Partitions 627

Exterior Protection Devices for

Openings 627

Telephone Specialties 627

Toilet and Bath Accessories 627

Scales 627

Wardrobe and Closet Specialties 627

Residential and Commercial

Equipment 628

Maintenance Equipment 628

Security and Ecclesiastical

Equipment 628

Mercantile Equipment 628

Solid-Waste-Handling Equipment 629

Office Equipment 629

Construction Materials:

Security of Valuables 630

Residential Equipment and

Unit Kitchens 630

Fluid Waste Treatment and

Disposal 630

Medical Equipment 631

Furnishings 631

Artwork 631

Murals and Wall Hangings 631

Sculpture 632

Stained Glass 632

Ecclesiastical Artwork 633

Fabrics 633

Manufactured Casework 633

Window Treatment 633

Furniture and Accessories 634

Rugs and Mats 634

Multiple Seating 635

Interior Plants and Planters 635

Review Questions 635

Key Terms 636

Activities 636

Additional Resources 636

Part VII Special Construction and

Conveying Systems

Division 13 Special Construction

CSI MasterFormat 637

Chapter 36 Special Construction 638

Learning Objective 638

Special Facility Components 638

Pools and Spas 638

Special-Purpose Rooms 639

Special Structures 640

Fabric and Membrane Structures 640

Fabric Membranes 641

Air-Supported Structures 641

Geodesic Structures 643

Space Frames 644

Integrated Assemblies 644

Pre-Engineered Structures 645

Waste and Utilities Sections 645

Measurement and Control

Instrumentation 645

Review Questions 645

Key Terms 645

Activity 646

Additional Resources 646

Division 14 Conveying Equipment

CSI MasterFormat 647

Chapter 37 Conveying Systems 648

Learning Objectives 648

Elevator Code Standards 648

Elevator Components 649

Elevator Hoistways 649

Hoistway Doors 649

Machine Rooms 649

Venting Hoistways 649

Hoistway Sizes 650

Elevator Cars 651

Elevator Types 652

Electric Passenger Elevators 652

Traction Driving Mechanisms 652

Geared Traction Elevators 652

Gearless Traction Elevators 653

Electric Elevator Control 653

Platform Safeties 653

Cables (Roping) 654

Winding Drum Machines 655

Counterweights 655

Operating Systems 655

Hydraulic Elevators 656

Freight Elevators 656

Observation Elevators 657

Residential Elevators 658

Automated Transfer Systems 658

Dumbwaiters 658

Cart and Tote Box Transfer Systems 659

Wheelchair Lifts and Stair Lifts 660

Escalators 660

Escalator Components 661

Standards and Safety 661

Installation Examples 662

Escalator Sizes 662

Moving Walks and Ramps 662

Other Conveying Equipment 663

Shuttle Transit 663

Conveyers and Pneumatic

Tube Systems 664

Pneumatic Tube Systems 664

Material Conveyors 665

Cranes and Hoists 666

Review Questions 667

Key Terms 667

Activity 667

Additional Resources 668

Division 21 Fire Suppression

CSI MasterFormat 669

Chapter 38 Fire-Suppression Systems 670

Learning Objectives 670

Fire Codes 670

Fire and Smoke Management 670

Fire Management 671

Smoke Control Systems 672

Fire-Suppression Systems 673

Automated Water Sprinkler

Systems 673

Sprinkler Heads 674

Foam Fire-Suppressant Systems 676

Gas Fire-Suppression Systems 676

Dry Chemical Systems 677

Manual Fire-Suppression Systems 677

Review Questions 679

Key Terms 679

Activities 679

Additional Resources 679

Division 22 Plumbing CSI MasterFormat 680

Chapter 39 Plumbing Systems 681

Learning Objectives 681

Plumbing Codes 681

Potable Water Supply 681

Potable Water Distribution Systems 682

Gas Distribution Systems 683

Piping, Tubing, and Fittings 683

Pipe Connections 687

Water Pipe Fittings 688

Valves 688

Pipe Insulation 689

Water Pipe Sizing 690

Sanitary Piping 691

Calculating Waste Pipe Sizes 694

Sanitary Piping Systems 694

Indirect Wastes 695

Residential Sanitary Piping 695

Multistory Building Sanitary

Piping Systems 695

The Sovent System 698

Non-Potable Water Systems 699

Roof Drainage 700

Plumbing Equipment 701

Water Heating 701

Construction Techniques:

Solar Hot Water 702

Plumbing Fixtures 704

Review Questions 708

Key Terms 709

Activities 709

Additional Resources 709

Division 23 Heating, Ventilating,

and Air-Conditioning

CSI MasterFormat 710

Chapter 40 Heating, Air-Conditioning,

Ventilation, and Refrigeration 711

Learning Objectives 711

HVAC Codes 711

Heat Balance 711

Heat Transfer 712

Sensible and Latent Heat 712

Human Comfort 713

Ventilation 713

Methods of Ventilation 715

Types of Air Filters 715

Fuel and Energy Used For HVAC 716

Coal 716

Fuel Oil 716

Natural Gas 717

Propane and Butane 717

Solid Waste 717

Wood 717

Electricity 718

Geothermal 718

Ground Heat 718

Solar 718

Air Heating Equipment 718

Warm-Air Furnaces 718

Heat Pumps 720

Air-Conditioning With Duct Systems 724

All-Air Distribution Systems 725

Single-Zone Systems 725

Multi-Zone Systems 726

Reheat Systems 726

Variable Air Volume Systems 726

Dual-Duct Systems 728

Types Of Duct Systems 728

Ducts 728

Duct Pressure 728

Duct Classification 729

Forced-Air Duct Systems 730

Supply-Air Outlets and Return-Air

Inlets for Warm-Air Heating Systems 731

Types of Supply Outlets 732

Diffuser Applications 733

Return-Air Inlets and Exhaust-Air

Inlets 734

Humidity Control 734

Humidification Equipment 734

Construction Materials:

Building Commissioning 735

Desiccant Dehumidification 735

Hydronic (Hot Water) Heating Systems 736

One-Pipe Systems 736

Two-Pipe Direct-Return System 737

Two-Pipe Reverse-Return System 737

Multi-Zone Two-Pipe Systems 737

Hydronic Controls 738

Expansion Chambers 738

Pipe Systems for Water Heating

and Cooling 739

Two-Pipe Systems 739

Four-Pipe Systems 739

Steam Heating Systems 739

Two-Pipe Steam Heating Systems 740

Boilers 740

Terminal Equipment For Hot-Water

and Steam-Heating Systems 742

Natural Convection Terminal

Units 742

Forced-Convection Heating

Units 743

Chilled-Water Cooling Systems

For Large Buildings 744

Centrifugal Chillers 745

The Absorption Chiller Refrigeration

System 746

Single-Effect Absorption Chillers 747

Double-Effect Absorption Chillers 747

Positive-Displacement Chillers 748

Evaporative Air Coolers 748

Direct Evaporative Air Coolers 748

Indirect Evaporative Air Coolers 748

Radiant Heating And Cooling 748

Piping in Ceilings 749

Piping in Floors 749

Electric Heating Systems 749

Review Questions 752

Key Terms 753

Activities 753

Additional Resources 754

Division 26 Electrical

CSI MasterFormat 755

Chapter 41 Electrical Equipment and Systems 756

Learning Objectives 756

Electrical Loads 756

Basics of Electricity 756

Ohm’s Law 757

Conductors 757

AC and DC Current 757

Power and Energy 758

Electrical Codes 758

Electric Power Sources 758

Hydroelectric Power Generation 758

Fossil Fuel-Powered Generators 758

Nuclear-Powered Generators 759

On-Site Power Generation 759

Solar Energy 759

Wind Energy Systems 762

Cogeneration 762

Electrical Supply 763

Electrical Distribution Systems In

Buildings 763

The Service Entrance 764

Switchgear and Switchboards 765

Panelboards 765

Electrical Power Conductors 767

Cables 768

Flat Conductor Cables 769

Cable Bus and Busways 769

Raceways 769

Cable Trays 769

Conduit 769

Meters 772

Motor Control Centers 772

Transformers 772

Switches 773

Other Switches 774

Overcurrent Protection Devices 775

Lighting 776

Illumination Design

Considerations 776

Lighting-Related Measurements 777

Levels of Illumination 777

Measuring Illuminance Levels 777

Measuring Luminance 777

Glare 777

Reflection 777

Construction Materials:

Choosing Light and Color 779

Room Cavity Ratio 779

Lighting Systems 780

General Illumination 781

Task Lighting 781

Selective Lighting 781

Daylight Integration 782

Lighting Control Systems 782

Types of Lamps 782

Incandescent Lamps 783

Tungsten-Halogen Lamps 783

Fluorescent Lamps 784

High-Intensity Discharge Lamps 786

Light-Emitting Diodes 788

Review Questions 788

Key Terms 788

Activities 789

Additional Resources 789

Division 28 Electronic

Safety and Security

CSI MasterFormat 790

Chapter 42 Electronic Signal and

Security Systems 791

Learning Objectives 791

Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm

Systems 791

Security Systems 792

Surveillance Systems 793

Access Control Systems 793

Electronic Monitoring and Control 794

Construction Techniques:

Home Security Systems 795

Telecomunications and Data Systems 795

Review Questions 796

Key Terms 796

Activities 796

Additional Resources 796

Appendices

Appendix A: Level 2 Numbers and Titles 797

Appendix B: MasterFormat 818

Appendix C: U.S. and Canadian Professional and Technical Organizations 821

Appendix D: Metric Information 837

Appendix E: Weights of Building Materials 839

Appendix F: Names and Atomic Symbols of Selected Chemical Elements 841

Appendix G: Coefficients of Thermal Expansion for Selected Construction Materials 843

Appendix H: Conversion Tables 844

Glossary 849

Index 866

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