Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, 13th Edition PDF by Elaine N Marieb and Suzanne M Keller

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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, Thirteenth Edition

By Elaine N. Marieb and Suzanne M. Keller

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, 13th Edition PDF by Elaine N Marieb and Suzanne M Keller

Contents

1 The Human Body:

An Orientation 23

1.1 An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology 23

1.1a Anatomy 23

1.1b Physiology 24

1.1c Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology 24

1.2 Levels of Structural Organization 24

1.2a From Atoms to Organisms 24

1.2b Organ System Overview 25

Integumentary System • Skeletal System • Muscular System • Nervous System • Endocrine System

  • Cardiovascular System • Lymphatic System
  • Respiratory System • Digestive System • Urinary System • Reproductive System

1.3 Maintaining Life 29

1.3a Necessary Life Functions 29

Maintaining Boundaries • Movement • Responsiveness

  • Digestion • Metabolism • Excretion • Reproduction
  • Growth

1.3b Survival Needs 31

1.4 The Language of Anatomy 32

1.4a Anatomical Position 33

1.4b Directional Terms 33

1.4c Regional Terms 35

Anterior Body Landmarks • Posterior Body Landmarks

1.4d Body Planes and Sections 36

1.4e Body Cavities 38

Dorsal Body Cavity • Ventral Body Cavity • Other Body

Cavities

1.5 Homeostasis 40

1.5a Components of Homeostatic Control

Systems 40

1.5b Feedback Mechanisms 41

Summary 42

Review Questions 43

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 44

A CLOSER LOOK Medical Imaging: Illuminating the Body 32

2 Basic Chemistry 45

2.1 Concepts of Matter and Energy 45

2.1a Matter 45

2.1b Energy 46

Forms of Energy • Energy Form Conversions

2.2 Composition of Matter 47

2.2a Elements and Atoms 47

2.2b Atomic Structure 47

The Basic Atomic Subparticles • Planetary and Orbital

Models of an Atom

2.2c Identifying Elements 49

Atomic Number • Atomic Mass Number • Atomic

Weight and Isotopes

2.3 Molecules and Compounds 52

2.4 Chemical Bonds and Chemical

Reactions 53

2.4a Bond Formation 53

Role of Electrons • Types of Chemical Bonds

2.4b Patterns of Chemical Reactions 57

Synthesis Reactions • Decomposition Reactions

  • Exchange Reactions • Factors Influencing the Rate of

Chemical Reactions

2.5 Biochemistry: The Chemical

Composition of Living Matter 59

2.5a Inorganic Compounds 60

Water • Salts • Acids and Bases

2.5b Organic Compounds 63

Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids

  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Summary 77

Review Questions 80

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 81

FOCUS ON CAREERS Pharmacy Technician 75

3 Cells and

Tissues 82

PART I: CELLS 82

3.1 Overview of the Cellular Basis

of Life 82

3.2 Anatomy of a Generalized Cell 83

3.2a The Plasma Membrane 83

The Fluid Mosaic Model • Cell Membrane Junctions

3.2b The Nucleus 85

Nuclear Envelope • Nucleolus • Chromatin

3.2c The Cytoplasm 87

Cytosol and Inclusions • Organelles

3.2d Cell Extensions 91

Cilia and Flagella • Microvilli

3.2e Cell Diversity 94

3.3 Cell Physiology 96

3.3a Membrane Transport 96

Passive Processes: Diffusion and Filtration • Active Processes

3.3b Cell Division 102

Preparations: DNA Replication • Events of Cell Division

3.3c Protein Synthesis 105

Genes: The Blueprint for Protein Structure • The Role

of RNA • The Process of Protein Synthesis

PART II: BODY TISSUES 108

3.4 Epithelial Tissue 108

3.4a Hallmarks of Epithelium 108

3.4b Classification of Epithelia 109

Simple Epithelia • Stratified Epithelia • Glandular

Epithelium

3.5 Connective Tissue 113

3.5a Hallmarks of Connective Tissue 113

3.5b Extracellular Matrix 114

3.5c Types of Connective Tissue 114

Bone • Cartilage • Dense Connective Tissue • Loose

Connective Tissue • Blood

3.6 Muscle Tissue 118

3.6a Skeletal Muscle 118

3.6b Cardiac Muscle 118

3.6c Smooth Muscle 120

3.7 Nervous Tissue 120

3.8 Tissue Repair (Wound Healing) 120

Summary 124

Review Questions 126

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 127

A CLOSER LOOK IV Therapy and Cellular

“Tonics” 99

A CLOSER LOOK Cancer—An Intimate

Enemy 123

4 Skin and Body

Membranes 128

4.1 Classification of Body Membranes 128

4.1a Epithelial Membranes 129

Cutaneous Membrane • Mucous Membranes

  • Serous Membranes

4.1b Connective Tissue Membranes 129

4.2 The Integumentary System (Skin) 131

4.2a Functions of the Integumentary

System 131

4.2b Structure of the Skin 132

Epidermis • Dermis

4.2c Skin Color 137

4.2d Appendages of the Skin 138

Cutaneous Glands • Hair and Hair Follicles • Nails

4.2e Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin 142

Infections and Allergies • Burns • Skin Cancer

4.3 Developmental Aspects of Skin and

Body Membranes 146

Summary 148

Review Questions 150

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 151

A Closer Look A Wrinkle Out Of Time 136

FOCUS ON CAREERS Medical

Transcriptionist 146

SYSTEMS IN SYNC 147

5 The Skeletal

System 152

5.1 Bones: An Overview 152

5.1a Functions of the Bones 153

5.1b Classification of Bones 153

5.1c Structure of Bone 154

Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone • Microscopic Anatomy

5.1d Bone Formation, Growth, and

Remodeling 157

Bone Formation and Growth • Bone Remodeling

5.1e Bone Fractures 161

5.2 Axial Skeleton 164

5.2a Skull 164

Cranium • Facial Bones • The Hyoid Bone

5.2b Vertebral Column (Spine) 171

Cervical Vertebrae • Thoracic Vertebrae • Lumbar

Vertebrae • Sacrum • Coccyx

5.2c Thoracic Cage 173

Sternum • Ribs

5.3 Appendicular Skeleton 175

5.3a Bones of the Shoulder Girdle 176

5.3b Bones of the Upper Limbs 178

Arm • Forearm • Hand

5.3c Bones of the Pelvic Girdle 179

5.3d Bones of the Lower Limbs 182

Thigh • Leg • Foot

5.4 Joints 185

5.4a Fibrous Joints 185

5.4b Cartilaginous Joints 185

5.4c Synovial Joints 185

5.4d Types of Synovial Joints Based on

Shape 187

5.5 Developmental Aspects of the

Skeleton 191

5.5a Birth to Adulthood 191

5.5b Older Adults 192

Summary 195

Review Questions 196

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 198

Focus On Careers Radiologic Technologist 161

A CLOSER LOOK Joint Ventures 184

SYSTEMS IN SYNC 194

6 The Muscular

System 199

6.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues 199

6.1a Muscle Types 199

Skeletal Muscle • Smooth Muscle • Cardiac Muscle

6.1b Muscle Functions 203

Produce Movement • Maintain Posture and Body

Position • Stabilize Joints • Generate Heat • Additional

Functions

6.2 Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal

Muscle 203

6.3 Skeletal Muscle Activity 205

6.3a Stimulation and Contraction of Single

Skeletal Muscle Fibers 205

The Nerve Stimulus and the Action Potential

  • Mechanism of Muscle Contraction: The Sliding Filament Theory

6.3b Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle as a Whole 210

Graded Responses • Providing Energy for Muscle

Contraction • Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Deficit

  • Types of Muscle Contractions—Isotonic and Isometric
  • Muscle Tone • Effect of Exercise on Muscles

6.4 Muscle Movements, Roles, and Names 214

6.4a Types of Body Movements 214 Special Movements

6.4b Interactions of Skeletal Muscles in the Body 218

6.4c Naming Skeletal Muscles 220

6.4d Arrangement of Fascicles 220

6.5 Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles 221

6.5a Head and Neck Muscles 221

Facial Muscles • Neck Muscles

6.5b Trunk Muscles 223

Anterior Muscles • Posterior Muscles

6.5c Muscles of the Upper Limb 226

Muscles Causing Movement at the Elbow Joint

6.5d Muscles of the Lower Limb 227

Muscles Causing Movement at the Hip Joint • Muscles

Causing Movement at the Knee Joint • Muscles

Causing Movement at the Ankle and Foot

6.6 Developmental Aspects of the Muscular System 231

Summary 238

Review Questions 240

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 241

A Closer Look Anabolic Steroids: Dying To Win? 223

Systems In Sync 237

7 The Nervous

System 242

7.1 Organization of the Nervous System 243

7.1a Structural Classification 244

7.1b Functional Classification 244

7.2 Nervous Tissue: Structure and Function 244

7.2a Supporting Cells 244

7.2b Neurons 246

Anatomy • Classification

7.2c Physiology: Nerve Impulses 251

7.2d Physiology: Reflexes 254

7.3 Central Nervous System 256

7.3a Functional Anatomy of the

Brain 256

Cerebral Hemispheres • Diencephalon • Brain Stem

  • Cerebellum

7.3b Protection of the Central Nervous

System 264

Meninges • Cerebrospinal Fluid • The Blood-Brain Barrier

7.3c Brain Dysfunctions 268

7.3d Spinal Cord 270

Gray Matter of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Roots

  • White Matter of the Spinal Cord

7.4 Peripheral Nervous System 273

7.4a Structure of a Nerve 273

7.4b Cranial Nerves 274

7.4c Spinal Nerves and Nerve Plexuses 274

7.4d Autonomic Nervous System 274

Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems Compared

  • Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Division • Anatomy

of the Sympathetic Division • Autonomic Functioning

7.5 Developmental Aspects of the Nervous

System 285

Summary 289

Review Questions 292

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 293

A Closer Look The “Terrible Three” 268

A Closer Look Tracking Down Cns Problems 287

Systems In Sync 288

8 Special

Senses 294

PART I: THE EYE AND VISION 295

8.1 Anatomy of the Eye 295

8.1a External and Accessory Structures 295

8.1b Internal Structures: The Eyeball 297

Layers Forming the Wall of the Eyeball • Lens

8.2 Physiology of Vision 303

8.2a Pathway of Light through the Eye and

Light Refraction 303

8.2b Visual Fields and Visual Pathways to the

Brain 304

8.2c Eye Reflexes 306

PART II: THE EAR: HEARING AND

BALANCE 306

8.3 Anatomy of the Ear 307

8.3a External (Outer) Ear 307

8.3b Middle Ear 308

8.3c Internal (Inner) Ear 308

8.4 Hearing 308

8.5 Equilibrium 311

8.5a Static Equilibrium 311

8.5b Dynamic Equilibrium 312

8.5c Hearing and Equilibrium Deficits 313

PART III: CHEMICAL SENSES:

SMELL AND TASTE 314

8.6 Olfactory Receptors and the Sense of Smell 314

8.7 Taste Buds and the Sense of Taste 315

PART IV: DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE SPECIAL SENSES 317

Summary 319

Review Questions 321

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 323

A CLOSER LOOK Visual Pigments—The Actual

Photoreceptors 301

A CLOSER LOOK Bringing Things into Focus 305

FOCUS ON CAREERS Physical Therapy

Assistant 313

9 The Endocrine System 324

9.1 The Endocrine System and Hormone

Function—An Overview 325

9.1a The Chemistry of Hormones 325

9.1b Hormone Action 325

Direct Gene Activation • Second-Messenger System

9.1c Stimuli for Control of Hormone Release 327

Hormonal Stimuli • Humoral Stimuli • Neural Stimuli

9.2 The Major Endocrine Organs 328

9.2a Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus 329

9.2b Pineal Gland 332

9.2c Thyroid Gland 333

9.2d Parathyroid Glands 335

9.2e Thymus 336

9.2f Adrenal Glands 336

Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex • Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla

9.2g Pancreatic Islets 340

9.2h Gonads 341

Hormones of the Ovaries • Hormones of the Testes

9.3 Other Hormone-Producing Tissues and

Organs 345

9.4 Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine

System 345

Summary 348

Review Questions 351

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 352

A CLOSER LOOK Potential Uses for Growth

Hormone 332

SYSTEMS IN SYNC 347

10 Blood 353

10.1 Composition and Functions

of Blood 353

10.1a Components 354

10.1b Physical Characteristics and

Volume 354

10.1c Plasma 354

10.1d Formed Elements 354

Erythrocytes • Leukocytes • Platelets

10.1e Hematopoiesis (Blood Cell

Formation) 360

Formation of Red Blood Cells • Formation of White

Blood Cells and Platelets

10.2 Hemostasis 362

10.2a Phases of Hemostasis 363

10.2b Disorders of Hemostasis 364

10.3 Blood Groups and Transfusions 365

10.3a Human Blood Groups 365

10.3b Blood Typing 366

10.4 Developmental Aspects

of Blood 368

Summary 369

Review Questions 370

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 372

FOCUS ON CAREERS Phlebotomy

Technician 367

11 The Cardiovascular

System 373

11.1 The Heart 374

11.1a Anatomy of the Heart 374

Size, Location, and Orientation • Coverings and Walls

of the Heart

11.1b Chambers and Associated Great

Vessels 375

11.1c Heart Valves 378

Cardiac Circulation

11.1d Physiology of the Heart 381

Intrinsic Conduction System of the Heart: Setting the

Basic Rhythm • Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds

  • Cardiac Output

11.2 Blood Vessels 387

11.2a Microscopic Anatomy of Blood

Vessels 388

Tunics • Structural Differences in Arteries, Veins, and

Capillaries

11.2b Gross Anatomy of Blood Vessels 391

Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation • Major

Veins of the Systemic Circulation • Special Circulations

11.2c Physiology of Circulation 396

Arterial Pulse • Blood Pressure • Capillary Exchange

of Gases and Nutrients • Fluid Movements at

Capillary Beds

11.3 Developmental Aspects of the

Cardiovascular System 405

Summary 409

Review Questions 411

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 413

A CLOSER LOOK Electrocardiography: (Don’t) Be

Still My Heart 384

A CLOSER LOOK Atherosclerosis? Get Out the

Cardiovascular Plumber’s Snake! 403

SYSTEMS IN SYNC 408

12 The Lymphatic

System and Body

Defenses 414

PART I: THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 414

12.1 Lymphatic Vessels 415

12.2 Lymph Nodes 416

12.3 Other Lymphoid Organs 418

PART II: BODY DEFENSES 419

12.4 Innate Body Defenses 420

12.4a Surface Membrane Barriers: First Line of

Defense 420

12.4b Cells and Chemicals: Second Line of

Defense 422

Natural Killer Cells • Inflammatory Response

  • Phagocytes • Antimicrobial Proteins • Fever

12.5 Adaptive Body Defenses 427

12.5a Antigens 428

12.5b Cells of the Adaptive Defense System:

An Overview 428

Lymphocytes • Antigen-Presenting Cells

12.5c Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immune

Response 431

Active and Passive Humoral Immunity • Antibodies

12.5d Cellular (Cell-Mediated) Immune

Response 436

12.5e Organ Transplants and Rejection 438

12.5f Disorders of Immunity 443

Part Iii: Developmental Aspects Of The Lymphatic System And Body Defenses 446

Summary 449

Review Questions 451

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 453

A CLOSER LOOK COVID-19: A Global

Pandemic 440

A CLOSER LOOK AIDS: An Ongoing

Pandemic 446

SYSTEMS IN SYNC 448

13 The Respiratory

System 454

13.1 Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory

System 454

13.1a The Nose 455

13.1b The Pharynx 456

13.1c The Larynx 457

13.1d The Trachea 458

13.1e The Main Bronchi 458

13.1f The Lungs 459

The Bronchial Tree • Respiratory Zone Structures and

the Respiratory Membrane

13.2 Respiratory Physiology 463

13.2a Mechanics of Breathing 463

Inspiration • Expiration

13.2b Respiratory Volumes and Capacities 466

Nonrespiratory Air Movements • Respiratory Sounds

13.2c External Respiration, Gas Transport, and

Internal Respiration 467

External Respiration • Gas Transport in the Blood

  • Internal Respiration

13.2d Control of Respiration 470

Neural Regulation: Setting the Basic Rhythm

  • Nonneural Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and

Depth

13.3 Respiratory Disorders 472

13.4 Developmental Aspects of the

Respiratory System 475

Summary 477

Review Questions 480

Critical Thinking And Clinical Application Questions 481

A Closer Look Too Clean For Our Own Good? 474

Systems In Sync 476

14 The Digestive

System and Body

Metabolism 482

Part I: Anatomy And Physiology Of The Digestive System 482

14.1 Anatomy of the Digestive System 482

14.1a Organs of the Alimentary Canal 483

Mouth • Pharynx • Esophagus • Stomach • Small

Intestine • Large Intestine

14.1b Accessory Digestive Organs 492

Teeth • Salivary Glands • Pancreas • Liver and

Gallbladder

14.2 Functions of the Digestive System 496

14.2a Overview of Gastrointestinal Processes

and Controls 496

14.2b Activities Occurring in the Mouth,

Pharynx, and Esophagus 498

Food Ingestion and Breakdown • Food Propulsion—

Swallowing and Peristalsis

14.2c Activities of the Stomach 500

Food Breakdown • Food Propulsion

14.2d Activities of the Small Intestine 502

Chyme Breakdown and Absorption • Chyme Propulsion

14.2e Activities of the Large Intestine 504

Nutrient Breakdown and Absorption • Propulsion of

Food Residue and Defecation

14.2f The Microbiota 505

PART II: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM 507

14.3 Nutrition 507

14.3a Dietary Recommendations 507

14.3b Dietary Sources of the Major

Nutrients 508

Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals

14.4 Metabolism 510

14.4a Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein

Metabolism in Body Cells 510

Carbohydrate Metabolism • Fat Metabolism • Protein

Metabolism

14.4b The Central Role of the Liver in

Metabolism 513

General Metabolic Functions • Cholesterol Metabolism

and Transport

14.4c Body Energy Balance 516

Regulation of Food Intake • Metabolic Rate and Body

Heat Production • Body Temperature Regulation

Part III: Developmental Aspects Of The Digestive System And Metabolism 521

Summary 524

Review Questions 530

Critical Thinking And Clinical

Application Questions 532

A CLOSER LOOK Peptic Ulcers: “Something Is

Eating at Me” 506

A CLOSER LOOK Obesity: Magical Solution

Wanted 522

SYSTEMS IN SYNC 523

15 The Urinary

System 533

15.1 Kidneys 534

15.1a Location and Structure 534

Kidney Structure • Blood Supply

15.1b Nephrons 535

15.1c Urine Formation and Characteristics 538

Glomerular Filtration • Tubular Reabsorption • Tubular

Secretion • Nitrogenous Wastes • Characteristics of Urine

15.2 Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and

Urethra 542

15.2a Ureters 542

15.2b Urinary Bladder 543

15.2c Urethra 544

15.2d Micturition 544

15.3 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base

Balance 546

15.3a Maintaining Water Balance of

Blood 546

Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments • The Link

between Water and Electrolytes • Regulation of Water

Intake and Output

15.3b Maintaining Electrolyte Balance 549

15.3c Maintaining Acid-Base Balance of

Blood 551

Blood Buffers • Respiratory Mechanisms • Renal

Mechanisms

15.4 Developmental Aspects of the Urinary

System 553

Summary 557

Review Questions 559

Critical Thinking And Clinical

Application Questions 561

A CLOSER LOOK Renal Failure and the Artificial

Kidney 545

FOCUS ON CAREERS Licensed Practical

Nurse (LPN) 554

SYSTEMS IN SYNC 556

16 The Reproductive

System 562

16.1 Anatomy of the Male Reproductive

System 563

16.1a Testes 563

16.1b Duct System 563

Epididymis • Ductus Deferens • Urethra

16.1c Accessory Glands and Semen 565

Seminal Vesicles • Prostate • Bulbourethral Glands Semen

16.1d External Genitalia 566

16.2 Male Reproductive Functions 567

16.2a Spermatogenesis 567

16.2b Testosterone Production 569

16.3 Anatomy of the Female Reproductive

System 571

16.3a Ovaries 571

16.3b Duct System 571

Uterine Tubes • Uterus • Vagina

16.3c External Genitalia and Female

Perineum 574

16.4 Female Reproductive Functions and

Cycles 575

16.4a Oogenesis and the Ovarian Cycle 575

16.4b Hormone Production by the Ovaries 577

16.4c Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle 578

16.5 Mammary Glands 578

16.6 Pregnancy and Embryonic

Development 581

16.6a Accomplishing Fertilization 582

16.6b Events of Embryonic and Fetal

Development 583

16.6c Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother 587

Anatomical Changes • Physiological Changes

16.6d Childbirth 589

Initiation of Labor • Stages of Labor

16.7 Developmental Aspects of the

Reproductive System 591

Summary 595

Review Questions 599

Critical Thinking And Clinical

Application Questions 601

A CLOSER LOOK Contraception: Preventing

Pregnancy 592

SYSTEMS IN SYNC 594

Appendixes

Appendix A: Answers to Did You Get It?

Questions and Multiple Choice Review Questions 603

Appendix B: Word Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes 610

Appendix C: Periodic Table of the Elements 612

Appendix D: Key Information about Vitamins and

Many Essential Minerals 613

Glossary 617

Credits 630

Index 631

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