Sensation and Perception, 11th Edition PDF by E Bruce Goldstein and Laura Cacciamani

By

Sensation and Perception, Eleventh Edition

By E. Bruce Goldstein and Laura Cacciamani

Sensation and Perception, 11th Edition PDF by E Bruce Goldstein and Laura Cacciamani

Contents:

Chapter 1

Introduction to Perception 3

1.1 Why Read This Book? 5

1.2 Why Is This Book Titled Sensation and Perception? 5

1.3 The Perceptual Process 6

Distal and Proximal Stimuli (Steps 1 and 2) 7

Receptor Processes (Step 3) 7

Neural Processing (Step 4) 8

Behavioral Responses (Steps 5–7) 9

Knowledge 10

DEMONSTRATION | Perceiving a Picture 10

1.4 Studying the Perceptual Process 11

The Stimulus–Behavior Relationship (A) 11

The Stimulus–Physiology Relationship (B) 12

The Physiology–Behavior Relationship (C) 13

TEST YOuRSELF 1.1 13

1.5 Measuring Perception 13

Measuring Thresholds 14

METHOD | Determining the Threshold 14

Measuring Perception Above Threshold 15

METHOD | Magnitude Estimation 16

Something to Consider: Why Is the Difference

Between Physical and Perceptual Important? 18

TEST YOuRSELF 1.2 19

THINK ABOUT IT 19

KEY TERMS 19

Contents

Chapter 2

Basic Principles of Sensory Physiology 21

2.1 Electrical Signals in Neurons 21

Recording Electrical Signals in Neurons 22

METHOD | The Setup for Recording From a Single Neuron 22

Basic Properties of Action Potentials 23

Chemical Basis of Action Potentials 24

Transmitting Information Across a Gap 25

2.2 Sensory Coding: How Neurons Represent

Information 27

Specificity Coding 27

Sparse Coding 29

Population Coding 29

TEST YOuRSELF 2.1 30

2.3 Zooming Out: Representation in the Brain 30

Mapping Function to Structure 30

METHOD | Brain Imaging 31

Distributed Representation 33

Connections Between Brain Areas 33

METHOD | The Resting State Method of Measuring Functional

Connectivity 34

Something to Consider: The Mind–Body Problem 35

TEST YOuRSELF 2.2 36

THINK ABOUT IT 37

KEY TERMS 37

Chapter 3

The Eye and Retina 39

3.1 Light, the Eye, and the Visual Receptors 40

Light: The Stimulus for Vision 40

The Eye 40

DEMONSTRATION | Becoming Aware of the Blind Spot 43

DEMONSTRATION | Filling in the Blind Spot 43

3.2 Focusing Light Onto the Retina 43

Accommodation 43

DEMONSTRATION | Becoming Aware of What Is in Focus 44

Refractive Errors 44

3.3 Photoreceptor Processes 45

Transforming Light Energy Into Electrical Energy 45

Adapting to the Dark 46

METHOD | Measuring the Dark Adaptation Curve 46

Spectral Sensitivity 49

METHOD | Measuring a Spectral Sensitivity Curve 49

TEST YOURSELF 3.1 51

3.4 What Happens as Signals Travel Through

the Retina 51

Rod and Cone Convergence 51

DEMONSTRATION | Foveal Versus Peripheral Acuity 54

Ganglion Cell Receptive Fields 55

Something to Consider: Early Events Are Powerful 59

Developmental Dimension: Infant Visual Acuity 60

METHOD | Preferential Looking 60

TEST YOuRSELF 3.2 62

THINK ABOUT IT 63

KEY TERMS 64

Chapter 4

The Visual Cortex and Beyond 67

4.1 From Retina to Visual Cortex 67

Pathway to the Brain 68

Receptive Fields of Neurons in the Visual Cortex 69

METHOD | Presenting Stimuli to Determine Receptive

Fields 69

4.2 The Role of Feature Detectors in Perception 72

Selective Adaptation 72

METHOD | Psychophysical Measurement of the Effect of

Selective Adaptation to Orientation 72

Selective Rearing 74

4.3 Spatial Organization in the Visual Cortex 75

The Neural Map in the Striate Cortex (V1) 75

DEMONSTRATION | Cortical Magnification of Your Finger 76

The Cortex Is Organized in Columns 77

How V1 Neurons and Columns Underlie Perception

of a Scene 78

TEST YOuRSELF 4.1 79

4.4 Beyond the Visual Cortex 79

Streams for Information About What and Where 80

METHOD | Brain Ablation 80

Streams for Information About What and How 81

METHOD | Double Dissociations in Neuropsychology 81

4.5 Higher-Level Neurons 83

Responses of Neurons in Inferotemporal Cortex 83

Where Perception Meets Memory 85

Something to Consider: “Flexible” Receptive Fields 86

TEST YOuRSELF 4.2 87

THINK ABOUT IT 87

KEY TERMS 87

Chapter 5

Perceiving Objects and Scenes 89

DEMONSTRATION | Perceptual Puzzles in a Scene 89

5.1 Why Is It So Difficult to Design a Perceiving

Machine? 91

The Stimulus on the Receptors Is Ambiguous 91

Objects Can Be Hidden or Blurred 93

Objects Look Different From Different Viewpoints 94

5.2 Perceptual Organization 94

The Gestalt Approach to Perceptual Grouping 94

Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization 96

Perceptual Segregation 99

TEST YOuRSELF 5.1 102

5.3 Recognition by Components 102

5.4 Perceiving Scenes and Objects in Scenes 103

Perceiving the Gist of a Scene 103

METHOD | Using a Mask to Achieve Brief Stimulus

Presentations 104

Regularities in the Environment: Information for

Perceiving 105

DEMONSTRATION | Visualizing Scenes and Objects 106

The Role of Inference in Perception 107

TEST YOuRSELF 5.2 109

5.5 Connecting Neural Activity and Object/Scene

Perception 110

Brain Responses to Objects and Faces 110

Brain Responses to Scenes 113

The Relationship Between Perception and Brain

Activity 113

Neural Mind Reading 114

METHOD | Neural Mind Reading 114

Something to Consider: The Puzzle of Faces 116

Developmental Dimension: Infant Face

Perception 118

TEST YOuRSELF 5.3 120

THINK ABOUT IT 120

KEY TERMS 121

Chapter 6

Visual Attention 123

6.1 What Is Attention? 124

6.2 The Diversity of Attention Research 124

Attention to an Auditory Message: Cherry and Broadbent’s

Selective Listening Experiments 124

Attention to a Location in Space: Michael Posner’s Precueing

Experiment 125

METHOD | Precueing 125

Attention as a Mechanism for Binding Together an Object’s

Features: Anne Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory 126

DEMONSTRATION | Visual Search 126

6.3 What Happens When We Scan a Scene by Moving

Our Eyes? 127

Scanning a Scene with Eye Movements 127

How Does the Brain Deal with What Happens When the Eyes

Move? 128

6.4 Things That Influence Visual Scanning 130

Visual Salience 130

DEMONSTRATION | Attentional Capture 130

The Observer’s Interests and Goals 131

Scene Schemas 131

Task Demands 132

TEST YOuRSELF 6.1 133

6.5 The Benefits of Attention 133

Attention Speeds Responding 133

Attention Influences Appearance 134

6.6 The Physiology of Attention 135

Attention to Objects Increases Activity in Specific Areas

of the Brain 135

Attention to Locations Increases Activity in Specific Areas

of the Brain 135

Attention Shifts Receptive Fields 136

6.7 What Happens When We Don’t Attend? 136

DEMONSTRATION | Change Detection 137

6.8 Distraction by Smartphones 138

Smartphone Distractions While Driving 138

Distractions Beyond Driving 139

6.9 Disorders of Attention: Spatial Neglect and

Extinction 141

Something to Consider: Focusing Attention by

Meditating 142

Developmental Dimension: Infant Attention and

Learning Object Names 143

METHOD | Head-Mounted Eye Tracking 144

TEST YOuRSELF 6.2 145

THINK ABOUT IT 145

KEY TERMS 146

Chapter 7

Taking Action 149

7.1 The Ecological Approach to Perception 150

The Moving Observer Creates Information in the

Environment 150

Reacting to Information Created by Movement 151

The Senses Work Together 152

DEMONSTRATION | Keeping Your Balance 152

Affordances: What Objects Are Used for 152

7.2 Staying on Course: Walking and Driving 154

Walking 154

Driving a Car 155

7.3 Finding Your Way Through the Environment 155

The Importance of Landmarks 156

Cognitive Maps: The Brain’s “GPS” 157

Individual Differences in Wayfinding 158

TEST YOuRSELF 7.1 159

7.4 Interacting with Objects: Reaching, Grasping,

and Lifting 160

Reaching and Grasping 160

Lifting the Bottle 162

Adjusting the Grip 163

7.5 Observing Other People’s Actions 164

Mirroring Others’ Actions in the Brain 164

Predicting People’s Intentions 165

7.6 Action-Based Accounts of Perception 167

Something to Consider: Prediction is Everywhere 168

Developmental Dimension: Infant Affordances 169

TEST YOuRSELF 7.2 171

THINK ABOUT IT 171

KEY TERMS 172

Chapter 8

Perceiving Motion 175

8.1 Functions of Motion Perception 176

Detecting Things 176

Perceiving Objects 176

Perceiving Events 176

Social Perception 177

Taking Action 178

8.2 Studying Motion Perception 179

When Do We Perceive Motion? 179

Comparing Real and Apparent Motion 180

Two Real-Life Situations We Want to Explain 180

8.3 The Ecological Approach to Motion

Perception 181

8.4 The Corollary Discharge and Motion

Perception 181

TEST YOuRSELF 8.1 182

8.5 The Reichardt Detector 182

8.6 Single-Neuron Responses to Motion 183

Experiments Using Moving Dot Displays 184

Lesioning the MT Cortex 185

Deactivating the MT Cortex 185

METHOD | Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) 185

Stimulating the MT Cortex 185

METHOD | Microstimulation 185

8.7 Beyond Single-Neuron Responses to Motion 186

The Aperture Problem 187

DEMONSTRATION | Movement of a Bar Across an Aperture 187

Solutions to the Aperture Problem 187

8.8 Motion and the Human Body 188

Apparent Motion of the Body 188

Biological Motion Studied by Point-Light Walkers 188

8.9 Motion Responses to Still Pictures 190

Something to Consider: Motion, Motion, and More

Motion 192

Developmental Dimension: Infants Perceive Biological

Motion 192

TEST YOuRSELF 8.2 194

THINK ABOUT IT 194

KEY TERMS 194

Chapter 9

Perceiving Color 197

9.1 Functions of Color Perception 198

9.2 Color and Light 199

Reflectance and Transmission 200

Color Mixing 201

9.3 Perceptual Dimensions of Color 203

TEST YOuRSELF 9.1 204

9.4 The Trichromacy of Color Vision 204

A Little History 204

Color-Matching Evidence for Trichromacy 205

METHOD | Color Matching 205

Measuring the Characteristics of the Cone Receptors 205

The Cones and Trichromatic Color Matching 206

Color Vision with Only One Pigment: Monochromacy 207

Color Vision with Two Pigments: Dichromacy 208

TEST YOuRSELF 9.2 210

9.5 The Opponency of Color Vision 210

Behavioral Evidence for Opponent-Process Theory 210

METHOD | Hue Cancellation 211

Physiological Evidence for Opponent-Process Theory 211

Questioning the Idea of Unique Hues 213

9.6 Color Areas in the Cortex 213

TEST YOuRSELF 9.3 214

9.7 Color in the World: Beyond Wavelength 215

Color Constancy 215

DEMONSTRATION | Adapting to Red 216

Lightness Constancy 220

DEMONSTRATION | The Penumbra and Lightness

Perception 222

DEMONSTRATION | Perceiving Lightness at a Corner 222

Something to Consider: We Perceive Color from

Colorless Wavelengths 223

Developmental Dimension: Infant Color Vision 225

TEST YOuRSELF 9.4 226

Think About It 226

KEY TERMS 227

Chapter 1 0

Perceiving Depth and Size 229

10.1 Perceiving Depth 229

10.2 Oculomotor Cues 231

DEMONSTRATION | Feelings in Your Eyes 231

10.3 Monocular Cues 231

Pictorial Cues 231

Motion-Produced Cues 234

DEMONSTRATION | Deletion and Accretion 234

10.4 Binocular Depth Information 236

DEMONSTRATION | Two Eyes: Two Viewpoints 236

Seeing Depth with Two Eyes 236

Binocular Disparity 238

Disparity (Geometrical) Creates Stereopsis (Perceptual) 240

The Correspondence Problem 242

10.5 The Physiology of Binocular Depth

Perception 243

10.6 Depth Information Across Species 244

TEST YOuRSELF 10.1 246

10.7 Perceiving Size 247

The Holway and Boring Experiment 247

Size Constancy 250

DEMONSTRATION | Perceiving Size at a Distance 250

DEMONSTRATION | Size–Distance Scaling and Emmert’s Law 250

10.8 Illusions of Depth and Size 252

The Müller-Lyer Illusion 252

DEMONSTRATION | The Müller-Lyer Illusion with Books 253

The Ponzo Illusion 254

The Ames Room 254

Something to Consider: The Changing Moon 255

Developmental Dimension: Infant Depth

Perception 257

Binocular Disparity 257

Pictorial Cues 257

METHOD | Preferential Reaching 258

TEST YOuRSELF 10.2 259

Think About It 259

Key Terms 259

Chapter 1 1

Hearing 263

11.1 Physical Aspects of Sound 264

Sound as Pressure Changes 264

Pure Tones 265

METHOD | Using Decibels to Shrink Large Ranges

of Pressures 266

Complex Tones and Frequency Spectra 267

11.2 Perceptual Aspects of Sound 268

Thresholds and Loudness 268

Pitch 270

Timbre 271

TEST YOuRSELF 11.1 271

11.3 From Pressure Changes to Electrical Signals 272

The Outer Ear 272

The Middle Ear 272

The Inner Ear 273

11.4 How Frequency Is Represented in the Auditory

Nerve 276

Békésy Discovers How the Basilar Membrane Vibrates 276

The Cochlea Functions as a Filter 277

METHOD | Neural Frequency Tuning Curves 278

The Outer Hair Cells Function as Cochlear Amplifiers 278

TEST YOuRSELF 11.2 279

11.5 The Physiology of Pitch Perception: The Cochlea 280

Place and Pitch 280

Temporal Information and Pitch 281

Problems Remaining to Be Solved 281

11.6 The Physiology of Pitch Perception:

The Brain 282

The Pathway to the Brain 282

Pitch and the Brain 282

11.7 Hearing Loss 284

Presbycusis 284

Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 284

Hidden Hearing Loss 285

Something to Consider: Explaining Sound to

an 11-Year Old 286

Developmental Dimension: Infant Hearing 286

Thresholds and the Audibility Curve 286

Recognizing Their Mother’s Voice 287

TEST YOuRSELF 11.3 288

THINK ABOUT IT 288

KEY TERMS 288

Chapter 1 2

Hearing in the Environment 291

12.1 Sound Source Localization 292

Binaural Cues for Sound Localization 293

Spectral Cues for Localization 294

12.2 The Physiology of Auditory Localization 296

The Jeffress Neural Coincidence Model 296

Broad ITD Tuning Curves in Mammals 297

Cortical Mechanisms of Localization 298

12.3 Hearing Inside Rooms 299

Perceiving Two Sounds That Reach the Ears at Different

Times 300

Architectural Acoustics 301

TEST YOuRSELF 12.1 302

12.4 Auditory Scene Analysis 302

Simultaneous Grouping 303

Sequential Grouping 303

Something to Consider: Interactions Between Hearing

and Vision 306

The Ventriloquism Effect 306

The Two-Flash Illusion 306

Understanding Speech 306

Interactions in the Brain 307

Echolocation in Blind People 307

Listening to or Reading a Story 308

TEST YOuRSELF 12.2 309

Think About It 309

Key Terms 309

Chapter 1 3

Perceiving Music 311

13.1 What Is Music? 311

13.2 Does Music Have an Adaptive Function? 312

13.3 Outcomes of Music 313

Musical Training Improves Performance in Other Areas 313

Music Elicits Positive Feelings 313

Music Evokes Memories 313

13.4 Musical Timing 314

The Beat 315

Meter 315

Rhythm 316

Syncopation 316

The Power of the Mind 317

13.5 Hearing Melodies 319

Organized Notes 319

Intervals 319

Trajectories 320

Tonality 320

TEST YOURSELF 13.1 321

13.6 Creating Emotions 321

Structural Features Linking Music and Emotion 322

Expectancy and Emotion in Music 323

METHOD | Studying Syntax in Language Using the

Event-Related Potential 323

Physiological Mechanisms of Musical Emotions 325

Something to Consider: Comparing Music and

Language Mechanisms in the Brain 327

Evidence for Shared Mechanisms 327

Evidence for Separate Mechanisms 327

Developmental Dimension: How Infants Respond to

the Beat 329

Newborns’ Response to the Beat 329

Older Infants’ Movement to the Beat 329

Infants’ Response to Bouncing to the Beat 329

METHOD | Head-Turning Preference Procedure 330

13.7 Coda: Music Is “Special” 330

TEST YOuRSELF 13.2 331

THINK ABOUT IT 331

KEY TERMS 331

Chapter 1 4

Perceiving Speech 335

14.1 The Speech Stimulus 336

The Acoustic Signal 336

Basic Units of Speech 337

14.2 Variability of the Acoustic Signal 338

Variability From Context 338

Variability in Pronunciation 339

14.3 Some History: The Motor Theory of Speech

Perception 340

The Proposed Connection Between Production and

Perception 340

The Proposal That “Speech Is Special” 340

TEST YOuRSELF 14.1 342

14.4 Information for Speech Perception 342

Motor Processes 342

The Face and Lip Movements 343

Knowledge of Language 344

The Meaning of Words in Sentences 345

DEMONSTRATION | Perceiving Degraded Sentences 345

DEMONSTRATION | Organizing Strings of Sounds 346

Learning About Words in a Language 346

TEST YOuRSELF 14.2 347

14.5 Speech Perception in Difficult Circumstances 347

14.6 Speech Perception and the Brain 349

Something to Consider: Cochlear Implants 351

Developmental Dimension: Infant-Directed Speech 353

TEST YOuRSELF 14.3 354

THINK ABOUT IT 355

KEY TERMS 355

Chapter 1 5

The Cutaneous Senses 357

Perception by the Skin and Hands

15.1 Overview of the Cutaneous System 358

The Skin 358

Mechanoreceptors 358

Pathways From Skin to Cortex and Within the Cortex 359

Somatosensory Areas in the Cortex 361

15.2 Perceiving Details 362

METHOD | Measuring Tactile Acuity 363

Receptor Mechanisms for Tactile Acuity 363

DEMONSTRAT ION | Comparing Two-Point Thresholds 364

Cortical Mechanisms for Tactile Acuity 364

15.3 Perceiving Vibration and Texture 365

Vibration of the Skin 365

Surface Texture 366

DEMONSTRAT ION | Perceiving Texture with a Pen 367

TEST YOuRSELF 15.1 368

15.4 Perceiving Objects 368

DEMONSTRAT ION | Identifying Objects 368

Identifying Objects by Haptic Exploration 368

The Cortical Physiology of Tactile Object Perception 369

15.5 Social Touch 371

Sensing Social Touch 371

The Social Touch Hypothesis 371

Social Touch and the Brain 372

Top-Down Influences on Social Touch 372

Pain Perception

15.6 The Gate Control Model of Pain 373

15.7 Top-Down Processes 374

Expectation 375

Attention 375

Emotions 376

TEST YOuRSELF 15.2 376

15.8 The Brain and Pain 376

Brain Areas 376

Chemicals and the Brain 377

15.9 Social Aspects of Pain 378

Pain Reduction by Social Touch 379

The Effect of Observing Someone Else’s Pain 379

The “Pain” of Social Rejection 380

Something to Consider: Plasticity and the Brain 382

Developmental Dimension: Social Touch in Infants 383

TEST YOuRSELF 15.3 385

THINK ABOUT IT 385

KEY TERMS 386

Chapter 1 6

The Chemical Senses 389

16.1 Some Properties of the Chemical Senses 390

16.2 Taste Quality 390

Basic Taste Qualities 391

Connections Between Taste Quality and a Substance’s

Effect 391

16.3 The Neural Code for Taste Quality 391

Structure of the Taste System 391

Population Coding 393

Specificity Coding 394

16.4 Individual Differences in Taste 396

TEST YOuRSELF 16.1 397

16.5 The Importance of Olfaction 397

16.6 Olfactory Abilities 398

Detecting Odors 398

Identifying Odors 398

DEMONSTRATION | Naming and Odor Identification 398

Individual Differences in Olfaction 398

Loss of Smell in COVID-19 and Alzheimer’s Disease 399

16.7 Analyzing Odorants: The Mucosa and

Olfactory Bulb 400

The Puzzle of Olfactory Quality 400

The Olfactory Mucosa 401

How Olfactory Receptor Neurons Respond to Odorants 401

METHOD | Calcium Imaging 402

The Search for Order in the Olfactory Bulb 403

TEST YOuRSELF 16.2 404

16.8 Representing Odors in the Cortex 405

How Odorants Are Represented in the Piriform Cortex 405

How Odor Objects Are Represented in the Piriform

Cortex 406

How Odors Trigger Memories 407

16.9 The Perception of Flavor 408

DEMONSTRATION | Tasting With and Without the Nose 408

Taste and Olfaction Meet in the Mouth and Nose 408

Taste and Olfaction Meet in the Nervous System 408

Flavor Is Influenced by Cognitive Factors 410

Flavor Is Influenced by Food Intake: Sensory-Specific

Satiety 410

Something to Consider: The Community of the

Senses 411

Correspondences 412

Influences 412

Developmental Dimension: Infant Chemical

Sensitivity 413

TEST YOuRSELF 16.3 415

THINK ABOUT IT 415

KEY TERMS 415

Appendix

A The Difference Threshold 417

B Magnitude Estimation

and the Power Function 418

C The Signal Detection

Approach 420

A Signal Detection Experiment 420

The Basic Experiment 421

Payoffs 421

What Does the ROC Curve Tell Us? 422

Signal Detection Theory 423

Signal and Noise 423

Probability Distributions 423

The Criterion 423

The Effect of Sensitivity on the ROC Curve 424

Glossary 426

References 445

Name Index 472

Subject Index 483

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