Nutrition for Health and Health Care, 8th Edition PDF by Linda Kelly DeBruyne and Kathryn Pinna

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Nutrition for Health and Health Care, Eighth Edition

By Linda Kelly DeBruyne, Kathryn Pinna

Nutrition for Health and Health Care, Eighth Edition

Contents:

Preface xvi

Acknowledgments xx

Chapter 1

Overview of Nutrition and Health 1

1.1 Food Choices 2

1.2 The Nutrients 6

Six Classes of Nutrients 6

kCalories: A Measure of Energy 7

1.3 Nutrient Recommendations 8

Dietary Reference Intakes 9

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges 11

1.4 National Nutrition Surveys 12

National Health Goals 12

National Trends 12

1.5 Dietary Guidelines, Fitness Guidelines, and Food Guides 13

Dietary Ideals 13

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 15

Fitness Guidelines 16

The USDA Dietary Patterns 18

MyPlate 24

1.6 Food Labels 25

The Ingredient List 25

Nutrition Facts Panel 25

Claims on Labels 27

Nutrition in Practice Finding the Truth about

Nutrition 33

Chapter 2

Digestion and Absorption 37

2.1 Anatomy of the Digestive Tract 38

The Digestive Organs 39

The Involuntary Muscles and the Glands 40

2.2 The Process of Digestion 43

Digestion in the Mouth 43

Digestion in the Stomach 43

Digestion in the Small and Large Intestines 44

2.3 The Absorptive System 46

The Small Intestine 46

Absorption of Nutrients 47

2.4 Transport of Nutrients 48

The Vascular System 48

The Lymphatic System 48

Transport of Lipids: Lipoproteins 48

2.5 The Health and Regulation of the GI Tract 51

Gastrointestinal Hormones and Nerve Pathways 51

Gastrointestinal Microbes 52

The System at Its Best 52

Nutrition in Practice Food Safety 55

Chapter 3

Carbohydrates 65

3.1 The Chemist’s View of Carbohydrates 66

Monosaccharides 66

Disaccharides 67

Polysaccharides 67

3.2 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates 70

3.3 Glucose in the Body 71

Storing Glucose as Glycogen 71

Using Glucose for Energy 71

Regulation of Blood Glucose 72

3.4 Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners 73

Sugars 73

Alternative Sweeteners: Sugar Alcohols 77

Alternative Sweeteners: Nonnutritive Sweeteners 78

3.5 Health Effects of Starch and Dietary Fibers 80

Carbohydrates: Disease Prevention and

Recommendations 80

Carbohydrates: Food Sources 83

Carbohydrates: Food Labels and Health Claims 85

Nutrition in Practice The Glycemic Index in Nutrition

Practice 88

Chapter 4

Lipids 93

4.1 The Chemist’s View of Lipids 94

Triglycerides 94

Fatty Acids 94

Phospholipids 97

Sterols 98

4.2 Digestion and Absorption of Lipids 99

4.3 Roles of Body Fat 100

4.4 Health Effects and Recommended

Intakes of Fats 101

Fats and Heart Health 101

Recommendations 105

4.5 Fats in Foods 106

Finding the Fats in Foods 106

Cutting Saturated Fats and Choosing Unsaturated

Fats 108

Nutrition in Practice Figuring out Fats 114

Chapter 5

Protein 121

5.1 The Chemist’s View of Proteins 122

The Structure of Proteins 122

Nonessential and Essential Amino Acids 123

5.2 Protein Digestion and Absorption 124

5.3 Protein Turnover and Nitrogen Balance 124

Protein Turnover 125

Nitrogen Balance 125

5.4 Roles of Body Proteins 125

5.5 Protein and Health 129

Protein Deficiency 129

Malnutrition 129

Protein Excess 131

Protein and Amino Acid Supplements 131

Protein Recommendations and Intakes 132

5.6 Protein in Foods 133

Protein Quality 133

Protein Sparing 135

Protein on Food Labels 135

Nutrition in Practice Plant-Based Diets 138

Chapter 6

Energy Balance and Body Composition 145

6.1 Energy Imbalance 146

Feasting 146

The Economics of Fasting 147

6.2 Energy Balance 150

Energy In 150

Energy Out 150

Estimating Energy Requirements 153

6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition 155

Defining Healthy Body Weight 155

Body Composition 156

How Much Body Fat Is Too Much? 159

6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity 160

Health Risks of Underweight 160

Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity 160

Guidelines for Identifying Individuals at Risk from

Obesity 161

Other Risks of Obesity 161

Nutrition in Practice Eating Disorders 165

Chapter 7

Weight Management 171

7.1 Causes of Obesity 172

Genetics and Weight 172

Environmental Stimuli 175

7.2 Obesity Treatment: Who Should Lose? 177

7.3 Ineffective Obesity Treatments 178

Over-the-Counter Weight-Loss Products 178

Other Gimmicks 178

7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity 179

Obesity Drugs 179

Surgery 179

7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss 179

A Healthful Eating Plan 180

Physical Activity 183

Behavior and Attitude 184

Weight Maintenance 186

7.6 Strategies for Weight Gain 187

Nutrition in Practice Fad Diets 192

Chapter 8

The Vitamins 195

8.1 The Vitamins: An Overview 196

8.2 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins 198

Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene 198

Vitamin D 203

Vitamin E 207

Vitamin K 208

8.3 The Water-Soluble Vitamins 210

The B Vitamins 210

Thiamin 212

Riboflavin 212

Niacin 213

Pantothenic Acid and Biotin 214

Vitamin B6 214

Folate 215

Vitamin B12 216

Non–B Vitamins 218

Vitamin C 218

Nutrition in Practice Phytochemicals and Functional

Foods 225

Chapter 9

Water and the Minerals 231

9.1 Water and Body Fluids 232

Water Balance 232

Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 234

Acid–Base Balance 235

9.2 The Major Minerals 236

Sodium 236

Chloride 238

Potassium 238

Calcium 239

Phosphorus 243

Magnesium 243

Sulfate 245

9.3 The Trace Minerals 245

Iron 245

Zinc 250

Selenium 252

Iodine 253

Copper 254

Manganese 254

Fluoride 254

Chromium 255

Other Trace Minerals 255

Nutrition in Practice Vitamin and Mineral

Supplements 259

Chapter 10

Nutrition through the Life Span: Pregnancy and

Lactation 263

10.1 Pregnancy: The Impact of Nutrition on the Future 264

Nutrition Prior to Pregnancy 264

Prepregnancy Weight 264

Healthy Support Tissues 265

The Events of Pregnancy 266

Nutrient Needs during Pregnancy 268

Food Assistance Programs 274

Weight Gain 274

Weight Loss after Pregnancy 276

Physical Activity 276

Common Nutrition-Related Concerns of

Pregnancy 277

Problems in Pregnancy 279

Practices to Avoid 280

Adolescent Pregnancy 284

10.2 Breastfeeding 285

Nutrition during Lactation 285

Contraindications to Breastfeeding 287

Nutrition in Practice Encouraging Successful

Breastfeeding 293

Chapter 11

Nutrition through the Life Span: Infancy,

Childhood, and Adolescence 297

11.1 Nutrition of the Infant 298

Nutrient Needs during Infancy 298

Breast Milk 300

Infant Formula 304

The Transition to Cow’s Milk 305

Introducing First Foods 306

Looking Ahead 309

Mealtimes 309

11.2 Nutrition during Childhood 310

Energy and Nutrient Needs 311

Hunger and Malnutrition in Children 314

Lead Poisoning in Children 316

Food Allergy 316

Hyperactivity 318

Childhood Obesity 320

Mealtimes at Home 324

Nutrition at School 329

11.3 Nutrition during Adolescence 330

Growth and Development during Adolescence 330

Energy and Nutrient Needs 331

Food Choices and Health Habits 332

Nutrition in Practice Childhood Obesity and the Early

Development of Chronic Diseases 339

Chapter 12

Nutrition through the Life Span: Later

Adulthood 345

12.1 Nutrition and Longevity 346

Slowing the Aging Process 347

Nutrition and Disease Prevention 348

12.2 Nutrition-Related Concerns during

Late Adulthood 350

Cataracts and Macular Degeneration 350

Arthritis 350

The Aging Brain 351

12.3 Energy and Nutrient Needs during

Late Adulthood 354

Energy and Energy Nutrients 354

Vitamins and Minerals 356

Nutrient Supplements for Older Adults 357

The Effects of Drugs on Nutrients 359

12.4 Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults 359

Individual Preferences 360

Meal Setting 360

Depression 360

Food Assistance Programs 361

Meals for Singles 361

Nutrition in Practice Hunger and Community

Nutrition 367

Chapter 13

Nutrition Care and Assessment 373

13.1 Nutrition in Health Care 374

How Illness Affects Nutrition Status 374

Responsibility for Nutrition Care 375

Identifying Risk for Malnutrition 376

The Nutrition Care Process 377

13.2 Nutrition Assessment 379

Historical Information 379

Dietary Assessment 380

Anthropometric Data 383

Biochemical Analyses 386

Nutrition-Focused Physical Examination 389

Nutrition in Practice Nutritional Genomics 393

Chapter 14

Nutrition Intervention

and Diet-Drug Interactions 397

14.1 Implementing Nutrition Care 398

Care Planning 398

Approaches to Nutrition Care 400

14.2 Dietary Modifications 402

Energy Intakes in Hospital Patients 402

Modified Diets 402

Variations in the Diet Order 406

14.3 Foodservice 408

Food Selection 408

Food Safety 408

Improving Food Intake 408

14.4 Diet-Drug Interactions 411

Drug Effects on Food Intake 411

Drug Effects on Nutrient Absorption 411

Dietary Effects on Drug Absorption 411

Drug Effects on Nutrient Metabolism 412

Dietary Effects on Drug Metabolism 413

Drug Effects on Nutrient Excretion 414

Dietary Effects on Drug Excretion 414

Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Toxicity 414

Nutrition in Practice Complementary and Alternative

Therapies 419

Chapter 15

Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Support 427

15.1 Enteral Nutrition 428

Oral Supplements 429

Candidates for Tube Feedings 429

Tube Feeding Routes 430

Enteral Formulas 432

Administration of Tube Feedings 435

Medication Delivery during Tube Feedings 439

Tube Feeding Complications 440

Transition to Table Foods 440

15.2 Parenteral Nutrition 442

Candidates for Parenteral Nutrition 442

Venous Access 443

Parenteral Solutions 444

Administering Parenteral Nutrition 448

Managing Metabolic Complications 449

15.3 Nutrition Support at Home 451

Candidates for Home Nutrition Support 451

Planning Home Nutrition Care 451

Quality-of-Life Issues 452

Nutrition in Practice Inborn Errors of

Metabolism 457

Chapter 16

Nutrition in Metabolic and Respiratory

Stress 463

16.1 The Body’s Responses to Stress and Injury 464

Hormonal Responses to Stress 465

The Inflammatory Response 466

16.2 Nutrition Treatment of Acute Stress 467

Determining Nutritional Requirements 468

Approaches to Nutrition Care in Acute Stress 470

16.3 Nutrition and Respiratory Stress 471

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 472

Respiratory Failure 474

Nutrition in Practice Multiple Organ Dysfunction

Syndrome 480

Chapter 17

Nutrition and Upper Gastrointestinal

Disorders 483

17.1 Conditions Affecting the Mouth and Esophagus 484

Dry Mouth 484

Dysphagia 484

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 488

17.2 Conditions Affecting the Stomach 491

Dyspepsia 491

Nausea and Vomiting 492

Gastroparesis 492

Gastritis 493

Peptic Ulcer Disease 493

17.3 Gastric Surgery 495

Gastrectomy 495

Bariatric Surgery 498

Nutrition in Practice Nutrition and Oral Health 505

Chapter 18

Nutrition and Lower Gastrointestinal

Disorders 509

18.1 Common Intestinal Problems 510

Constipation 510

Intestinal Gas 511

Diarrhea 512

18.2 Malabsorption 514

Fat Malabsorption 515

Bacterial Overgrowth 517

Lactose Intolerance 517

18.3 Disorders of the Pancreas 519

Pancreatitis 519

Cystic Fibrosis 520

18.4 Disorders of the Small Intestine 522

Celiac Disease 522

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 524

Short Bowel Syndrome 527

18.5 Disorders of the Large Intestine 530

Irritable Bowel Syndrome 530

Diverticular Disease of the Colon 531

Colostomies and Ileostomies 532

Nutrition in Practice Probiotics and Intestinal

Health 538

Chapter 19

Nutrition and Liver Diseases 541

19.1 Fatty Liver and Hepatitis 542

Fatty Liver 542

Hepatitis 543

19.2 Cirrhosis 544

Consequences of Cirrhosis 545

Treatment of Cirrhosis 548

Nutrition Therapy for Cirrhosis 548

19.3 Liver Transplantation 552

Nutrition in Practice Alcohol in Health and

Disease 557

Chapter 20

Nutrition and Diabetes Mellitus 561

20.1 Overview of Diabetes Mellitus 562

Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus 562

Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus 563

Types of Diabetes Mellitus 563

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 565

Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus 565

Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus 567

20.2 Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus 569

Treatment Goals 569

Evaluating Diabetes Treatment 570

Nutrition Therapy: Dietary Recommendations 571

Nutrition Therapy: Meal-Planning Strategies 573

Insulin Therapy 576

Antidiabetic Drugs 579

Physical Activity and Diabetes Management 580

Sick-Day Management 581

20.3 Diabetes Management in Pregnancy 582

Pregnancy in Women with Type 1 or Type 2

Diabetes 582

Gestational Diabetes 582

Nutrition in Practice The Metabolic Syndrome 587

Chapter 21

Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases 591

21.1 Atherosclerosis 593

Consequences of Atherosclerosis 593

Causes of Atherosclerosis 593

21.2 Coronary Heart Disease 595

Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease 595

Evaluating Risk for Coronary Heart

Disease 595

Lifestyle Management to Reduce CHD Risk 596

Vitamin Supplementation and CHD Risk 600

Lifestyle Changes for Hypertriglyceridemia 601

Drug Therapies for CHD Prevention 601

Treatment of Heart Attack 603

21.3 Stroke 603

Stroke Prevention 604

Stroke Management 604

21.4 Hypertension 605

Factors That Influence Blood Pressure 605

Factors That Contribute to Hypertension 605

Treatment of Hypertension 607

21.5 Heart Failure 610

Consequences of Heart Failure 610

Medical Management of Heart Failure 611

Nutrition in Practice Helping People with Feeding

Disabilities 616

Chapter 22

Nutrition and Renal Diseases 621

22.1 Nephrotic Syndrome 623

Consequences of the Nephrotic Syndrome 623

Treatment of the Nephrotic Syndrome 623

22.2 Acute Kidney Injury 626

Causes of Acute Kidney Injury 626

Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury 626

Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury 627

22.3 Chronic Kidney Disease 629

Consequences of Chronic Kidney Disease 629

Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease 631

Kidney Transplantation 636

22.4 Kidney Stones 638

Formation of Kidney Stones 638

Consequences of Kidney Stones 639

Prevention and Treatment of Kidney Stones 639

Nutrition in Practice Dialysis 644

Chapter 23

Nutrition, Cancer, and HIV Infection 649

23.1 Cancer 650

How Cancer Develops 650

Nutrition and Cancer Risk 651

Consequences of Cancer 654

Treatments for Cancer 654

Nutrition Therapy for Cancer 657

23.2 HIV Infection 661

Prevention of HIV Infection 661

Consequences of HIV Infection 662

Treatments for HIV Infection 664

Nutrition Therapy for HIV Infection 665

Nutrition in Practice Ethical Issues in Nutrition

Care 671

Appendix A Aids to Calculation A-2

A.1 Conversion Factors A-2

A.2 Percentages A-2

A.3 Weights and Measures A-3

Appendix B WHO: Nutrition Recommendations B-1

Appendix C Choose Your Foods: Food Lists

for Diabetes and Weight Management C-1

C.1 The Food Lists C-1

C.2 Choices C-2

C.3 The Foods on the Lists C-2

C.4 Managing Energy, Carbohydrate, Fat, and Sodium C-2

Appendix D Physical Activity and Energy

Requirements D-1

Appendix E Nutrition Assessment: Supplemental

Information E-1

E.1 Weight Gain during Pregnancy E-1

E.2 Growth Charts E-1

E.3 Measures of Body Fat and Lean Tissue E-2

E.4 Nutritional Anemias E-8

E.5 Cautions about Nutrition Assessment E-12

Appendix F Enteral Formulas F-1

Appendix G Dysphagia Diets: IDDSI Framework G-1

Appendix H Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) H-1

Appendix I Daily Values for Food Labels I-1

Appendix J Body Mass Index (BMI) J-1

Glossary GL-1

Index IN-1

Case Studies

Chapter 10

Woman in Her First Pregnancy 287

Chapter 11

Boy with Disruptive Behavior 319

Chapter 12

Older Man with a Poor Diet 360

Chapter 13

Nutrition Screening and Assessment 390

Chapter 14

Implementing Nutrition Care 401

Chapter 15

Injured Hiker Requiring Enteral Nutrition Support 442

Patient with Intestinal Disease Requiring Parenteral

Nutrition 450

Chapter 16

Patient with a Severe Burn 471

Elderly Man with Emphysema 475

Chapter 17

Woman with GERD 491

Nutrition Care after Gastric Surgery 498

Chapter 18

Patient with Short Bowel Syndrome 529

Young Adult with Irritable Bowel Syndrome 531

Chapter 19

Man with Cirrhosis 552

Chapter 20

Child with Type 1 Diabetes 581

Woman with Type 2 Diabetes 583

Chapter 21

Patient with Cardiovascular Disease 610

Chapter 22

Woman with Acute Kidney Injury 628

Man with Chronic Kidney Disease 636

Chapter 23

Woman with Cancer 660

Man with HIV Infection 667

How To Features

Chapter 1

Calculate the Energy a Food Provides 8

Chapter 3

Reduce Intakes of Added Sugars 75

Chapter 4

Make Heart-Healthy Choices—by Food Group 108

Chapter 5

Calculate Recommended Protein Intakes 133

Chapter 6

Estimate Energy Requirements 154

Chapter 7

Apply Behavior Modification to Manage Body

Fatness 185

Chapter 9

Cut Salt Intake 237

Add Calcium to Daily Meals 243

Add Iron to Daily Meals 251

Chapter 11

Protect against Lead Toxicity 317

Chapter 12

Turn Convenience Foods into Nutritious Meals 363

Stretch Food Dollars and Reduce Waste 370

Chapter 13

Measure Length and Height 384

Measure Weight 384

Estimate and Evaluate Changes in Body Weight 386

Chapter 14

Estimate Appropriate Energy Intakes for Hospital Patients 403

Help Hospital Patients Improve Their Food

Intakes 409

Prevent Diet-Drug Interactions 415

Chapter 15

Help Patients Improve Intakes with Oral Supplements 429

Help Patients Cope with Tube Feedings 436

Plan a Tube Feeding Schedule 438

Administer Medications to Patients Receiving Tube

Feedings 440

Express the Osmolar Concentration of a Solution 443

Calculate the Macronutrient and Energy Content of a

Parenteral Solution 447

Chapter 16

Estimate Energy Needs Using Disease-Specific Stress

Factors 469

Chapter 17

Improve Acceptance of Mechanically Altered Foods 487

Manage Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 490

Alter the Diet to Reduce Symptoms of Dumping Syndrome 497

Alter Dietary Habits to Achieve and Maintain Weight Loss after

Bariatric Surgery 500

Chapter 18

Follow a Fat-Restricted Diet 518

Chapter 19

Help the Cirrhosis Patient Eat Enough Food 550

Chapter 20

Use Carbohydrate Counting in Clinical Practice 574

Chapter 21

Implement a Heart-Healthy Diet 600

Reduce Sodium Intake 609

Chapter 22

Help Patients Comply with a Renal Diet 636

Chapter 23

Increase the Energy and Protein Content of Meals 658

Help Patients Handle Food-Related Problems 659

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