## A First Course in Statistics, Twelfth Edition

By James T. McClave and Terry Sincich

**Contents:**

Preface 11

Applications Index 19

Chapter 1 Statistics, data, and Statistical Thinking 25

1.1 The Science of Statistics 26

1.2 Types of Statistical Applications 27

1.3 Fundamental Elements of Statistics 29

1.4 Types of Data 33

1.5 Collecting Data: Sampling and Related Issues 35

1.6 The Role of Statistics in Critical Thinking and Ethics 40

Statistics in Action: Social Media Network Usage—Are You Linked In? 26

Using Technology: MINITAB: Accessing and Listing Data 49

Chapter 2 Methods for describing Sets of data 53

2.1 Describing Qualitative Data 55

2.2 Graphical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data 66

2.3 Numerical Measures of **Central Tendency** 78

2.4 Numerical Measures of Variability 89

2.5 Using the Mean and Standard Deviation to Describe Data 95

2.6 Numerical Measures of Relative Standing 103

2.7 Methods for Detecting Outliers: Box Plots and z-Scores 107

2.8 Graphing Bivariate Relationships (Optional) 117

2.9 Distorting the Truth with Descriptive Statistics 122

Statistics in Action: Body Image Dissatisfaction: Real or Imagined? 54

Using Technology: MINITAB: Describing Data 136

TI-83/TI–84 Plus Graphing Calculator: Describing Data 137

Chapter 3 Probability 139

3.1 Events, Sample Spaces, and Probability 141

3.2 Unions and Intersections 154

3.3 Complementary Events 157

3.4 The Additive Rule and Mutually Exclusive Events 159

3.5 Conditional Probability 166

3.6 The Multiplicative Rule and Independent Events 169

Statistics in Action: Lotto Buster! Can You Improve Your Chance of Winning? 140

Using Technology: TI-83/TI-84 Plus Graphing Calculator: Combinations and Permutations 189

Chapter 4 Random Variables and Probability distributions 190

4.1 Two Types of Random Variables 192

4.2 Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 195

4.3 The Binomial Random Variable 207

4.4 Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables 218

4.5 The Normal Distribution 220

4.6 Descriptive Methods for Assessing Normality 233

4.7 Approximating a Binomial Distribution with a Normal Distribution (Optional) 242

4.8 Sampling Distributions 247

4.9 The Sampling Distribution of x and the Central Limit Theorem 254

Statistics in Action: Super Weapons Development—Is the Hit Ratio Optimized? 191

Using Technology: MINITAB: Binomial Probabilities, Normal Probability, and Simulated

Sampling Distribution 271

Chapter 5 inferences based on a Single Sample 276

5.1 Identifying and Estimating the **Target Parameter** 277

5.2 Confidence Interval for a Population Mean: Normal (z) Statistic 279

5.3 Confidence Interval for a Population Mean: Student’s t-Statistic 289

5.4 Large-Sample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 299

5.5 Determining the Sample Size 306

5.6 Confidence Interval for a Population Variance (Optional) 313

Statistics in Action: Medicare Fraud Investigations 277

Using Technology: MINITAB: Confidence Intervals 326

TI-83/TI-84 Plus Graphing Calculator: Confidence Intervals 328

Chapter 6 inferences based on a Single Sample 330

6.1 The Elements of a Test of Hypothesis 331

6.2 Formulating Hypotheses and Setting Up the Rejection Region 337

6.3 Observed Significance Levels: p-Values 342

6.4 Test of Hypothesis about a Population Mean: Normal (z) Statistic 347

6.5 Test of Hypothesis about a Population Mean: Student’s t-Statistic 355

6.6 Large-Sample Test of Hypothesis about a Population Proportion 362

6.7 Test of Hypothesis about a Population Variance (Optional) 370

6.8 A Nonparametric Test about a Population Median (Optional) 376

Statistics in Action: Diary of a KLEENEX® User—How Many Tissues in a Box? 331

Using Technology: MINITAB: Tests of Hypotheses 388

TI-83/TI-84 Plus Graphing Calculator: Tests of Hypotheses 390

Chapter 7 Comparing Population Means 391

7.1 Identifying the Target Parameter 392

7.2 Comparing Two Population Means: Independent Sampling 393

7.3 Comparing Two Population Means: Paired Difference Experiments 411

7.4 Determining the Sample Size 423

7.5 A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Two Populations: Independent Samples (Optional) 427

7.6 A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Two Populations: Paired Difference Experiment (Optional) 436

7.7 Comparing Three or More Population Means: Analysis of Variance (Optional) 445

Statistics in Action: ZixIt Corp. v. Visa USA Inc.—A Libel Case 392

Using Technology: MINITAB: Comparing Means 467

TI-83/TI-84 Plus Graphing Calculator: Comparing Means 469

Chapter 8 Comparing Population Proportions 473

8.1 Comparing Two Population Proportions: Independent Sampling 475

8.2 Determining the Sample Size 482

8.3 Testing Category Probabilities: Multinomial Experiment 485

8.4 Testing Categorical Probabilities: Two-Way (Contingency) Table 494

Statistics in Action: The Case of the Ghoulish Transplant Tissue 474

Using Technology: MINITAB: Categorized Data Analysis 520

TI-83/TI-84 Plus Graphing Calculator:Categorical Data Analyses 521

Chapter 9 Simple linear Regression 523

9.1 Probabilistic Models 525

9.2 Fitting the Model: The Least Squares Approach 529

9.3 Model Assumptions 542

9.4 Assessing the Utility of the Model: Making Inferences about the Slope b1 547

9.5 The Coefficients of Correlation and Determination 556

9.6 Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction 566

9.7 A Complete Example 574

9.8 A Nonparametric Test for Correlation (Optional) 578

Statistics in Action: Can “Dowsers” Really Detect Water? 524

Using Technology: MINITAB: Simple Linear Regression 597

TI-83/TI-84 Plus Graphing Calculator: Simple Linear Regression 599

Appendices

Appendix a Summation Notation 601

Appendix b Tables 603

Table I Binomial Probabilities 604

Table II Normal Curve Areas 608

Table III Critical Values of t 609

Table IV Critical Values of x2 610

Table V Critical Values of TL and TU for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 612

Table VI Critical Values of T0 in the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test 613

Table VII Percentage Points of the F-Distribution, a = .10 614

Table VIII Percentage Points of the F-Distribution, a = .05 616

Table IX Percentage Points of the F-Distribution, a = .025 618

Table X Percentage Points of the F-Distribution, a = .01 620

Table XI Critical Values of Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient 622

Appendix C Calculation Formulas for Analysis of Variance (Independent Sampling) 623

Short Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Exercises 624

Index 631

Credits 636

Selected Formulas 638