The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, Sixth Edition PDF by John M. Blain

8:06 AM
The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, Sixth Edition
By John M. Blain
The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, Sixth Edition

Contents
1.1 Introduction ……………………………………………….. 1
2.12 The Blender Screen Header......................................................... 33 2.13 The 3D View Editor Header.......................................................... 34 2.14 The Widget Panel......................................................................... 34 2.15 Tool Panel and Object Properties Panel.......................................35 2.16 Properties Editor Tabs.................................................................. 35 2.17 The Preferences Editor.................................................................37 2.18 3D View Editor - Background Color.............................................. 38 2.19 Workspaces.................................................................................. 39 2.20 Creating New Workspaces........................................................... 39 2.21 Themes.........................................................................................41 2.22 Saving a Theme............................................................................44 CH03 Navigate and Save ….................................................................................45 3.1 Files and Folders.......................................................................... 46 3.2 Saving a File.................................................................................47 3.3 Window File Explorer....................................................................48 3.4 Windows File Explorer Diagram................................................... 49 3.5 Blender File Browser.................................................................... 50 3.6 Opening Files............................................................................... 51 3.7 File Browser Header Features......................................................52 3.8 Make a New Folder.......................................................................52 3.9 Display Options............................................................................ 52 3.10 Saving Your Work......................................................................... 53 3.11 The Concept of Files.................................................................... 54 3.12 Append or Link Command............................................................54 3.13 Importing Objects......................................................................... 55 3.14 Activating Import File Types......................................................... 56 3.15 Packing Data................................................................................ 57 CH04 Objects in the 3D View Editor ….............................................................. 59 4.1 Modeling Workflow Philosophy..................................................... 60 4.2 Starting a New File....................................................................... 60 4.3 Modifying the Scene..................................................................... 61 4.4 Object Mode and Edit Mode......................................................... 61 4.5 3D View Editor Cursor.................................................................. 61 4.6 Selecting/Deselecting Objects......................................................62 4.7 Adding Objects............................................................................. 63 4.8 Object Primitives...........................................................................63 4.9 Locating the 3D Viewport Editor Cursor....................................... 64 4.10 Deleting Objects........................................................................... 65 4.11 Duplicating Objects.......................................................................65 4.12 Object Mode Manipulation............................................................65 4.13 The Last Operator Panel.............................................................. 66 4.14 Tool Panel – Widgets....................................................................67 4.15 Manipulation Units........................................................................ 67

4.16 Measuring – Ruler/Protractor........................................................69 4.17 Precision Manipulation................................................................. 70 4.18 Coloring Objects........................................................................... 71 4.19 Other Types of Objects................................................................. 74 4.20 Naming Objects............................................................................ 74 4.21 The Header Buttons Menu........................................................... 76 4.22 Meta Shapes................................................................................ 77 CH05 Editing Objects...........................................................................................79 5.1 The Mesh Object.......................................................................... 80 5.2 Edit Mode Selection..................................................................... 80 5.3 Selecting Verts Edge Face........................................................... 82 5.4 Manipulating................................................................................. 82 5.5 Creating Vertices.......................................................................... 83 5.6 Adding and Deleting..................................................................... 85 5.7 Center Points................................................................................ 87 5.8 Joining and Separating................................................................ 88 5.9 Creating Vertex Groups................................................................ 91 5.10 Proportional Vertex Edit................................................................93 5.11 Inset Faces................................................................................... 94 5.12 Parenting...................................................................................... 96 CH06 Editing Tools.............................................................................................. 97 6.1 The Tool Panel – Edit Mode......................................................... 98 6.2 The Add Menu.............................................................................. 98 6.3 The Last Operator Panel.............................................................. 99 6.4 Extrusion...................................................................................... 99 6.5 The Extrude Region Tool.............................................................. 100 6.6 Inset Faces................................................................................... 101 6.7 The Inset Faces Tool.................................................................... 101 6.8 The Bevel Tool.............................................................................. 101 6.9 Edge and Loop Selection............................................................. 102 6.10 The Loop Cut Tool........................................................................ 102 6.11 The Knife Tool...............................................................................103 6.12 The Poly Build Tool....................................................................... 104 6.13 The Spin Tool................................................................................105 6.14 Creating a Spin Profile..................................................................106 6.15 Spin Duplication............................................................................108 6.16 The Screw Tool............................................................................. 109 6.17 The Smooth Tool...........................................................................109 6.18 The Edge Slide Tool......................................................................110 6.19 The Shrink Fatten Tool..................................................................110 6.20 The Shear Tool............................................................................. 110 6.21 The Rip Region Tool..................................................................... 110
CH07 Modifiers..................................................................................................... 111 7.1 Modifiers in General..................................................................... 112 7.2 The Modifier Stack....................................................................... 114 7.3 The Modifier Group.......................................................................115 7.4 The Simulate Group......................................................................115 7.5 Generate and Deform Modifiers................................................... 115 CH08 Editing with Generate Modifiers................................................................117 8.1 Modifiers – Generate.................................................................... 118 8.2 Array Modifier............................................................................... 120 8.3 Boolean Modifier.......................................................................... 122 8.4 Build Modifier................................................................................ 123 8.5 Decimate Modifier........................................................................ 124 8.6 Edge Split Modifier....................................................................... 125 8.7 Mask Modifier............................................................................... 126 8.8 Mirror Modifier.............................................................................. 127 8.9 Multiresolution Modifier................................................................ 129 8.10 Remesh Modifier...........................................................................129 8.11 Screw Modifier.............................................................................. 131 8.12 Skin Modifier................................................................................. 132 8.13 Solidify Modifier............................................................................ 133 8.14 Subdivision Surface Modifier........................................................ 135 8.15 Triangulation Modifier................................................................... 137 8.16 Wireframe Modifier....................................................................... 137 CH09 Editing with Deform Modifiers.................................................................. 139 9.1 Modifiers – Deform....................................................................... 140 9.2 Armature Modifier......................................................................... 140 9.3 Cast Modifier.................................................................................140 9.4 Corrective Smooth Modifier.......................................................... 141 9.5 Curve Modifier.............................................................................. 142 9.6 Displace Modifier.......................................................................... 143 9.7 Hook Modifier............................................................................... 144 9.8 Laplacian Deform Modifier............................................................146 9.9 Lattice Modifier............................................................................. 147 9.10 Mesh Deform Modifier.................................................................. 148 9.11 Shrinkwrap Modifier...................................................................... 149 9.12 Simple Deform Modifier................................................................ 150 9.13 Smooth Modifier........................................................................... 151 9.14 Smooth Corrective Modifier.......................................................... 152 9.15 Smooth Laplacian Modifier........................................................... 152 9.16 Surface Deform Modifier...............................................................153 9.17 Warp Modifier............................................................................... 155 9.18 Wave Modifier............................................................................... 157

CH10 Editing Using Curves.................................................................................159 10.1 Curves Circles and Paths............................................................. 160 10.2 Bezier Curves............................................................................... 161 10.3 Bezier Circle................................................................................. 163 10.4 Nurbs Path................................................................................... 163 10.5 Nurbs Circle.................................................................................. 163 10.6 Modeling from a Curve................................................................. 164 10.7 Closed Loops............................................................................... 165 10.8 Using Nurbs Curves..................................................................... 166 10.9 Nurbs Circle................................................................................. 167 10.10 Nurbs Curve................................................................................. 169 10.11 Lofting.......................................................................................... 170 CH11 Editing Techniques – Examples............................................................... 175 11.1 Creating a Landscape.................................................................. 176 11.2 Dupliverts..................................................................................... 177 11.3 Modeling an Aircraft......................................................................179 11.4 Sculpting – Sculpt Mode...............................................................182 11.5 Sculpting Demonstration.............................................................. 184 11.6 Creating a Humanoid Figure........................................................ 187 CH12 The Outliner and Collections.................................................................... 191 12.1 Collections in the Outliner Editor.................................................. 192 12.2 View Options in the Outliner Editor...............................................195 CH13 3D Text........................................................................................................ 197 13.1 Creating 3D Text in Blender..........................................................198 13.2 The Object data Button “a”...........................................................199 13.3 Fonts............................................................................................ 200 13.4 Creating Text on a Curve............................................................. 203 13.5 Converting Text to a Mesh Object................................................ 204 13.6 Converting Text to a Curve........................................................... 204 13.7 Entering External Font..................................................................205 CH14 Viewport Shading.......................................................................................207 14.1 Viewport Shading Options............................................................ 208 14.2 Wireframe Viewport Shading........................................................208 14.3 Solid Viewport Shading................................................................ 211 14.4 Color Display Options.................................................................. 213 14.5 Background Display..................................................................... 215 14.6 More Solid Viewport Shading....................................................... 216 14.7 Rendered Viewport Shading.........................................................217 14.8 Material Preview Viewport Shading..............................................218

14.9 World Settings.............................................................................. 219 CH15 Scene Lighting and Cameras....................................................................221 15.1 Scene Lighting..............................................................................222 15.2 Light Types....................................................................................222 15.3 Cameras....................................................................................... 226 15.4 Camera Settings...........................................................................227 15.5 Camera Switching........................................................................ 229 15.6 Camera Tracking.......................................................................... 231 15.7 Basic Scene Lighting.................................................................... 232 15.8 Background Scene Lighting......................................................... 234 15.9 Images as Background.................................................................234 15.10 Volumetric Lighting....................................................................... 239 CH16 Materials – Textures – Nodes................................................................... 241 16.1 Definition...................................................................................... 242 16.2 Materials in the Properties Editor................................................. 244 16.3 Multiple Material Slots.................................................................. 247 16.4 Materials Using Nodes................................................................. 249 16.5 Accessing and Viewing Node Effects........................................... 250 16.6 Noodle Curving.............................................................................254 16.7 The Shader Editor........................................................................ 254 16.8 The Shader Workspace............................................................... 256 16.9 Scene Arrangements.................................................................... 257 16.10 Mixing Material Example.............................................................. 257 16.11 Simple Node Arrangement........................................................... 258 16.12 Texture Nodes.............................................................................. 259 16.13 Unwrapping a Surface.................................................................. 259 16.14 Unwrapping with Seams.............................................................. 261 16.15 Applying a Texture........................................................................ 262 16.16 Mapping to a Surface................................................................... 264 16.17 Texture Painting........................................................................... 264 16.18 Vertex Painting............................................................................. 268 16.19 The Principled BSDF Node.......................................................... 271 19.20 Quick Example using BSDF......................................................... 273 16.21 Transparency Using Nodes.......................................................... 274 16.22 Other Node Uses..........................................................................275 16.23 Grouping Nodes........................................................................... 279 16.24 Compositing Nodes...................................................................... 282 16.25 Color Ramp Shader...................................................................... 285 16.26 Texture Displacement................................................................... 288 CH17 Rendering................................................................................................... 291 17.1 Rendering..................................................................................... 292 17.2 Properties Editor Render Buttons................................................ 292

17.3 Properties Editor Output Buttons..................................................293 17.4 The Dimensions Tab.....................................................................293 17.5 The Output Tab............................................................................. 295 17.6 Rendering a JPEG Image............................................................ 296 17.7 Rendering a Movie File................................................................ 297 17.8 Video Playback............................................................................. 299 17.9 Video Codecs............................................................................... 300 17.10 Making a Movie............................................................................ 300 CH18 Animation....................................................................................................301 18.1 The Animation Screen.................................................................. 302 18.2 Movement in the 3D View Editor.................................................. 303 18.3 Planning the Animation................................................................ 304 18.4 Keyframes Time and Interpolation............................................... 305 18.5 Animation Speed and Length....................................................... 306 18.6 Inserting Keyframes..................................................................... 307 18.7 Playing the Animation................................................................... 310 18.8 Automatic Keyframing.................................................................. 311 18.9 Controlling the Animation............................................................. 311 18.10 The Graph Editor.......................................................................... 313 18.11 Editing the Graph......................................................................... 316 18.12 Other Types of Curves................................................................. 324 18.13 The Curve Properties Panel......................................................... 327 18.14 Animating Rotation....................................................................... 328 18.15 Rotation Using F-Curves.............................................................. 329 18.16 Animating Other Features............................................................ 331 18.17 Keying Sets.................................................................................. 332 18.18 Animation Follow Path................................................................. 334 18.19 Displacement Sound Animation................................................... 341 18.20 Sound Effect and Cast Modifier.................................................... 345 019 Constraints.................................................................................................... 347 19.1 Introduction to Constraints............................................................348 19.2 Track to Constraint........................................................................348 19.3 Constraint Stack............................................................................349 19.4 Transform Constraint List …........................................................ 350 19.5 The Transform Constraint............................................................ 350 19.6 Tracking Constraint...................................................................... 351 19.7 Relationship Constraint.................................................................352 19.8 The Action Constraint................................................................... 352 19.9 The Shrinkwrap Constraint........................................................... 353 19.10 Extrusion Follow Path...................................................................355 CH20 Armatures & Character Rigging............................................................... 359 20.1 Single Bone Armature...................................................................360

20.2 Adding Armatures......................................................................... 360 20.3 Child Parent Relationship............................................................. 364 20.4 Armature Display Types............................................................... 365 20.5 Multi-bone Armatures................................................................... 365 20.6 Multi-bone by Subdivision.............................................................367 20.7 Multi-bone by Extrusion................................................................ 367 20.8 X Mirror Extrusion.........................................................................369 20.9 Extruding Shoulder and Arms.......................................................370 20.10 Naming Bones.............................................................................. 370 20.11 Deforming a Mesh........................................................................ 371 20.12 The Armature Modifier.................................................................. 372 20.13 Assigning Vertices-Vertex Groups................................................ 374 20.14 Assigning Vertices-Set Parent to Menu........................................ 376 20.15 Assigning Vertices-Weight Paint.................................................. 376 20.16 Inverse Kinematics Constraint......................................................378 20.17 Spline IK Constraint......................................................................381 20.18 Forward........................................................................................ 382 20.19 Character Rigging........................................................................ 383 20.20 Creating the Armature.................................................................. 388 20.21 Adding More Bones...................................................................... 390 20.22 Creating Arm Bones..................................................................... 391 20.23 Creating Leg Bones..................................................................... 392 20.24 Bone Naming.............................................................................. 392 20.25 Assigning The Mesh..................................................................... 394 20.26 Vertex Groups.............................................................................. 395 20.27 Posing the Character Model......................................................... 396 20.28 Pre-Assembled Armatures........................................................... 399 CH21 Shape Keys & Action Editors................................................................... 401 21.1 Shape Key Editor..........................................................................402 21.2 Add a Key Slider........................................................................... 403 21.3 Set Limits of Movement................................................................ 404 21.4 Inserting Keyframes..................................................................... 404 21.5 Inserting Multiple Keyframes........................................................ 405 21.6 The Animation.............................................................................. 406 21.7 Additional Keyframes................................................................... 406 21.8 Action Editor................................................................................. 407 21.9 Shapes Keys and Action Editor in Practice.................................. 408 CH22 Particle Systems........................................................................................ 411 22.1 The Default Particle System......................................................... 413 22.2 The Emissions Tab....................................................................... 415 22.3 The Source Tab............................................................................ 415 22.4 The Cache Tab............................................................................. 415 22.5 The Velocity Tab........................................................................... 417 22.6 Particle Display............................................................................. 418

22.7 Particle Emission Options.............................................................419 22.8 Order of Emission........................................................................ 420 22.9 Normals........................................................................................ 422 22.10 Particle Modifiers.......................................................................... 425 22.11 Particles Array.............................................................................. 426 22.12 The Viewport Display Tab............................................................. 428 22.13 Particle Interaction........................................................................429 22.14 Wind Force Effect......................................................................... 430 22.15 Boids Particles..............................................................................432 22.16 Hair Particles................................................................................ 436 22.17 Particles for Arrays....................................................................... 441 22.18 More Arrays.................................................................................. 442 22.19 The Assignment Panel................................................................. 445 22.20 Particle Exercises......................................................................... 446 22.21 Multiple Particle Systems............................................................. 452 22.22 Keyed Particles............................................................................ 454 CH23 Physics and Simulation.............................................................................457 23.1 Real World Physics.......................................................................458 23.2 Modifiers and Physics.................................................................. 460 23.3 Force Field................................................................................... 460 23.4 Collision Physics.......................................................................... 461 23.5 Cloth Physics............................................................................... 461 23.6 Soft Body Physics........................................................................ 463 23.7 Fluid Simulation............................................................................ 464 23.8 Quick Methods..............................................................................474 23.9 Fluid Simulation Continued...........................................................476 23.10 Fluid Simulation Experiments....................................................... 480 23.11 Smoke and Fire Simulation.......................................................... 486 23.12 Force Fields................................................................................. 492 CH24 Dynamic Paint............................................................................................ 495 24.1 Dynamic Paint - Painting.............................................................. 496 025 Making a Movie..............................................................................................501 25.1 Making a Movie............................................................................ 502 25.2 Storyboard.................................................................................... 502 25.3 The Video File...............................................................................502 25.4 The Sound File............................................................................. 503 25.5 Video Editing Workspace..............................................................503 25.6 The File Browser Editor................................................................ 504 25.7 Preparation................................................................................... 505 25.8 Video Sequence Editor................................................................. 506 25.9 Rendering the Movie.................................................................... 511 25.10 Additional Features...................................................................... 511
25.11 Summary...................................................................................... 514 CH26 Cycles & Workbench Render................................................................... 515 26.1 Cycles Render.............................................................................. 516 26.2 How to Start Cycles...................................................................... 516 26.3 Create an Object Light Source..................................................... 520 26.4 Cycles in Practice......................................................................... 522 26.5 Workbench Render.......................................................................529 Internet Resources.............................................................................................. 535 Index..................................................................................................537
 

A Textbook of Practical Physiology, Eighth Edition PDF by CL Ghai

5:28 AM
A Textbook of Practical Physiology, Eighth Edition
By CL Ghai
A Textbook of Practical Physiology, Eighth Edition

Contents

General Introduction xvii
SECTION ONE: HEMATOLOGY
1-1 The Compound Microscope 2
1-2 The Study of Common Objects 13
1-3 Collection of Blood Samples 14
1-4 Hemocytometry (Cell Counting)
The Diluting Pipettes 23
1-5 Hemocytometry (Cell Counting)
The Counting Chamber 28
1-6 Examination of Fresh Blood:
A. Drop Preparation
B. Preparing a Peripheral Blood Film 31
1-7 Estimation of Hemoglobin 34
1-8 The Red Cell Count 45
1-9 Determination of Hematocrit (Hct)
(Packed Cell Volume; PCV) 53
1-10 Normal Blood Standards (Absolute Corpuscular Values and Indices) 57
1-11 The Total Leukocyte Count (TLC)
White Cell Count (WCC) 60
1-12 Staining a Peripheral Blood Film
The Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) 69
1-13 The Cooke-Arneth Count (Arneth Count) 85
1-14 Absolute Eosinophil Count 87
1-15 Study of Morphology of Red Blood Cells 89
1-16 The Reticulocyte Count 90
1-17 Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) 93
1-18 Blood Grouping (Syn: Blood Typing) 98
1-19 Tests for Hemostasis
(Bleeding time; Coagulation time; Platelet count; and other tests) 111
1-20 Osmotic Fragility of Red Blood Cells
(Syn: Osmotic Resistance of Red Blood Corpuscles) 128
1-21 Specific Gravity of Blood and Plasma
(Copper Sulphate Falling Drop Method of Philips and van Slyke) 132
1-22 Determination of Viscosity of Blood 136
SECTION TWO: HUMAN EXPERIMENTS
Unit I: Respiratory System
2-1 Stethography: Recording of Normal and Modified Movements of Respiration 139
2-2 Determination of Breath Holding Time (BHT) 145
2-3 Spirometry (Determination of Vital Capacity, Peak Expiratory
Flow Rate, and Lung Volumes and Capacities) 146
2-4 Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) 157
2-5 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
(Cardiopulmonary-Cerebral Resuscitation (CPCR)) 160
Unit II: Cardiovascular System
2-6 Recording of Systemic Arterial Blood Pressure 167
2-7 Effect of Posture, Gravity and Muscular Exercise on
Blood Pressure and Heart Rate 182
2-8 Cardiac Efficiency Tests (Exercise Tolerance Tests) 186
2-9 Demonstration of Carotid Sinus Reflex 187
2-10 Demonstration of Venous Blood Flow 188
2-11 Recording of Venous Pressure 189
2-12 Demonstration of Triple Response 190
2-13 Electrocardiography (ECG) 191
2-14 Experiments on Student Physiography 197
Unit III: Special Sensations
2-15 Perimetry (Charting the Field of Vision) 200
2-16 Mechanical Stimulation of the Eye 205
2-17 Physiological Blind Spot 205
2-18 Near Point and Near Response 206
2-19 Sanson Images 206
2-20 Demonstration of Stereoscopic Vision 207
2-21 Dominance of the Eye 207
2-22 Subjective Visual Sensations 208
2-23 Visual Acuity 208
2-24 Color Vision 211
2-25 Tuning-Fork Tests of Hearing 213
2-26 Localization of Sounds 218
2-27 Masking of Sounds 218
2-28 Sensation of Taste 219
2-29 Sensation of Smell 220
Unit IV: Nervous System, Nerve and Muscle
2-30 Electroencephalography (EEG) 222
2-31 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests, Nerve Conduction Studies,
Motor Nerve Conduction in Median Nerve 226
2-32 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests
Sensory Nerve Conduction in Ulnar Nerve 230
2-33 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests Electromyography (EMG) 231
2-34 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests Evoked Potentials Brainstem Auditory,
Visual, Somatosensory and Motor Evoked Potentials 234
2-35 Electroneurodiagnostic Tests
The Hoffmann’s Reflex (H-Reflex ) 236
2-36 Study of Human Fatigue Mosso’s Ergograph and Hand-Grip Dynamometer 237
2-37 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Tests
(Autonomic Function Tests; AFTs) 240
Unit V: Reproductive System
2-38 Semen Analysis 245
2-39 Pregnancy Diagnostic Tests 248
2-40 Birth Control Methods 250
SECTION THREE: CLINICAL EXAMINATION
3-1 Outline for History Taking and General Physical Examination 255
3-2 Clinical Examination of the Respiratory System 258
3-3 Clinical Examination of the Cardiovascular System 263
3-4 Clinical Examination of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) and Abdomen 272
3-5 Clinical Examination of the Nervous System 276
SECTION FOUR: EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY
(AMPHIBIAN AND MAMMALIAN EXPERIMENTS)
4-1 Study of Apparatus 310
4-2 Dissection of Gastrocnemius Muscle-Sciatic Nerve Preparation 316
4-3 Simple Muscle Twitch (Effect of a Single Stimulus) 317
4-4 Effect of Changing the Strength of Stimulus 322
4-5 Effect of Temperature on Muscle Contraction 324
4-6 Velocity of Nerve Impulse 326
4-7 Effect of Two Successive Stimuli 327
4-8 Genesis of Tetanus (Effect of Many Successive Stimuli) 329
4-9 Phenomenon of Fatigue and its Site (Effect of Continued Stimulation) 331
4-10 Effect of Load and Length on Muscle Contraction (Free- and After-Loading) 332
4-11 Exposure of Frog’s Heart and Normal Cardiogram 335
4-12 Effect of Temperature on Frog’s Heart 337
4-13 Effect of Adrenalin, Acetylcholine and Atropine on Heart 337
4-14 Effect of Stimulation of Vagosympathetic Trunk and Crescent;
Vagal Escape; Effect of Nicotine and Atropine 339
4-15 Properties of Cardiac Muscle (Stannius Ligatures) 341
4-16 Perfusion of Isolated Heart of Frog 343
4-17 Study of Reflexes in Spinal and Decerebrate Frogs 344
4-18 Experiments on Anesthetized Dog 345
SECTION FIVE: CHARTS
5-1 Jugular Venous Pulse Tracing 349
5-2 Cardiac Cycle 351
5-3 Oxygen Dissociation Curve 353
5-4 Strength-duration Curve 356
5-5 Action Potential in a Large, Myelinated Nerve Fiber 357
5-6 Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle Fibers 360
5-7 Dye Dilution Curve 361
5-8 Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) 364
SECTION SIX: CALCULATIONS
Calculations 369
Appendix 375
Index 379

Preface to the Eighth Edition
The first edition of this book was published over 25 years ago. During this period of evolution, the growth and development of the book has been an on-going process depending, as it does, on the feedback received from many teachers and students. They have been generous in their appreciation as well as in their criticism. I have tried to incorporate many of their suggestions in the present edition. I owe them my thanks and hope that I will continue to receive such help in the future as well.

The material included in this book conforms to the syllabi and courses laid down by the Medical and Dental Councils of India from time-to-time, courses that are mandatory and are followed by all colleges.

The 8th Edition has been extensively revised and updated by incorporating the latest concepts and developments in the subject. Figures and text that were not found to be helpful have been deleted/replaced and over twenty-five new Figures/Diagrams have been added.

Questions/Answers, at the end of most Experiments, have been particularly appreciated by junior teachers and students. They are not intended to replace the standard textbooks but only to obviate the necessity for the students to refer to textbooks again and again. They also act as bridges between theory and practical.

A new feature of the book is the introduction of OSPEs at the end of most Experiments—a tool that is being used widely for assessing the practical skills of the students during class tests and university examinations.

Most medical students are overawed and overwhelmed by the enormous amount of medical information available today. Besides, there is the language barrier. Every attempt has, therefore, been made to make the book easily-readable and understandable by our students who come from a wide spectrum of educational backgrounds.

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the valuable suggestions received from many sources. I am particularly indebted to Dr DK Soni, Dr AK Anand, Dr RS Sharma, Dr Ashok Kumar, Dr Parveen Gupta, Dr R Vijayalakshmy, Dr Mrs S Vasugi, Dr P Rajan, Dr Aruna Patel, Dr BS Malipatil, Dr Shailendra Chandar, Dr R Latha, Dr K Sarayu, among others.

I am thankful to Shri Jitendar P Vij (Chairman and Managing Director), M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India and his dedicated team for their enthusiasm in doing an excellent job.
 

Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 14th Edition PDF by John E. Hall and Michael E. Hall

5:17 AM
Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 14th Edition
By John E. Hall and Michael E. Hall
Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 14th Edition

Brief Contents:

UNIT I - Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology
1. Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the "Internal Environment"
2. The Cell and Its Functions
3. Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis, cell function, and cell reproduction
UNIT II - Membrane Physiology, Nerve, and Muscle
4. Transport of Substances Through Cell Membranes
5. Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials
6. Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
7. Excitation of Skeletal Muscle: Neuromuscular Transmission and Excitation-Contraction Coupling
8. Excitation and Contraction of Smooth Muscle
UNIT III - The Heart
9. Cardiac Muscle; The Heart as a Pump and Function of the Heart Valves
10. Rhythmical Excitation of the Heart
11. The Normal Electrocardiogram
12. Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac Muscle and Coronary Blood Flow Abnormalities:
Vectorial Analysis
13.Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation
UNIT IV - The Circulation
14. Overview of the Circulation; Biophysics of Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
15. Vascular Distensibility and Functions of the Arterial and Venous Systems
16. The Microcirculation and Lymphatic System: Capillary Fluid Exchange, Interstitial Fluid, and Lymph
Flow
17. Local and Humoral Control of Tissue Blood Flow
18. Nervous Regulation of the Circulation and Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure
19. Role of the Kidneys in Long-Term Control of Arterial Pressure and in Hypertension: The Integrated
System for Aterial Pressure Regulation
20. Cardiac Output, Venous Return, and Their Regulation
21. Muscle Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Exercise; the Coronary Circulation and Ischemic Heart
Disease
22. Cardiac Failure
23. Heart Valves and Heart Sounds; Valvular and Congenital Heart Defects
24. Circulatory Shock and Its Treatment
UNIT V - The Body Fluids and Kidneys
25. The Body Fluid Compartments: Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids; Edema
26. The Urinary System: Functional Anatomy and Urine Formation by the Kidneys
27. Glomerular Filtration, Renal Blood Flow, and Their Control
28. Renal Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
29. Urine Concentration and Dilution; Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium
Concentration
30. Renal Regulation of Potassium, Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium; Integration of Renal
Mechanisms for Control of Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
31. Acid-Base Regulation
32. Diuretics, Kidney Diseases
UNIT VI - Blood Cells, Immunity, and Blood Coagulation
33. Red Blood Cells, Anemia, and Polycythemia
34. Resistance of the Body to Infection: I. Leukocytes, Granulocytes, the Monocyte-Macrophage System,
and Inflammation
35. Resistance of the Body to Infection: II. Immunity and Allergy
36. Blood Types; Transfusion; Tissue and Organ Transplantation
37. Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation
UNIT VII - Respiration
38. Pulmonary Ventilation
39. Pulmonary Circulation, Pulmonary Edema, Pleural Fluid
40. Principles of Gas Exchange; Diffusion of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Through the Respiratory
Membrane
41. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Blood and Tissue Fluids
42. Regulation of Respiration
43. Respiratory Insufficiency - Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Oxygen Therapy
UNIT VIII - Aviation, Space, and Deep-Sea Diving Physiology
44. Aviation, High Altitude, and Space Physiology
45. Physiology of Deep-Sea Diving and Other Hyperbaric Conditions
UNIT IX - The Nervous System: A. General Principles and Sensory Physiology
46. Organization of the Nervous System, Basic Functions of Synapses, and Neurotransmitters
47. Sensory Receptors, Neuronal Circuits for Processing Information
48. Somatic Sensations: I. General Organization, the Tactile and Position Senses
49. Somatic sensations: II. Pain, Headache, and Thermal Sensations
UNIT X - The Nervous System: B. The Special Senses
50. The Eye: I. Optics of Vision
51. The Eye: II. Receptor and Neural Function of the Retina
52. The Eye: III. Central Neurophysiology of Vision
53. The Sense of Hearing
54. The Chemical Senses - Taste and Smell
UNIT XI - The Nervous System: C. Motor and Integrative Neurophysiology
55. Motor Functions of the Spinal Cord; the Cord Reflexes
56. Cortical and Brain Stem Control of Motor Function
57. Contributions of the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia to Overall Motor Control
58. Cerebral Cortex, Intellectual Functions of the Brain, Learning, and Memory
59. Behavioral and Motivational Mechanisms of the Brain - The Limbic System and the Hypothalamus
60. States of Brain Activity - Sleep, Brain Waves, Epilepsy, Psychoses, and Dementia
61. The Autonomic Nervous System and the Adrenal Medulla
62. Cerebral Blood Flow, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Brain Metabolism
UNIT XII - Gastrointestinal Physiology
63. General Principles of Gastrointestinal Function - Motility, Nervous Control, and Blood Circulation
64. Propulsion and Mixing of Food in the Alimentary Tract
65. Secretory Functions of the Alimentary Tract
66. Digestion and Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract
67. Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders
UNIT XIII - Metabolism and Temperature Regulation
68. Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate
69. Lipid Metabolism
70. Protein Metabolism
71. The Liver as an Organ
72. Dietary Balances; Regulation of Feeding; Obesity and Starvation; Vitamins and Minerals
73. Energetics and Metabolic Rate
74. Body Temperature Regulation and Fever
UNIT XIV - Endocrinology and Reproduction
75. Introduction to Endocrinology
76. Pituitary Hormones and Their Control by the Hypopthalamus
77. Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
78. Adenocortical Hormones
79. Insulin, Glucagon, and Diabetes Mellitus
80. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism, Vitamin D, Bone, and Teeth
81. Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male (and Function of the Pineal Gland)
82. Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones
83. Pregnancy and Lactation
84. Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
UNIT XV - Sports Physiology
85. Sports Physiology

Preface
The first edition of the Textbook of Medical Physiology was written by Arthur C. Guyton almost 65 years ago. Unlike most major medical textbooks, which often have 20 or more authors, the first eight editions of the Textbook of Medical Physiology were written entirely by Dr. Guyton. He had a gift for communicating complex ideas in a clear and interesting manner that made studying physiology fun. He wrote the book to help students learn physiology, not to impress his professional colleagues.

Dr. John Hall worked closely with Dr. Guyton for almost 30 years and had the privilege of writing parts of the 9th and 10th editions and of assuming sole responsibility for completing the subsequent editions. Dr. Michael Hall has joined in the preparation of the 14th edition of the Textbook of Medical Physiology. He is a physician trained in internal medicine, cardiology, and physiology and has brought new insights that have helped greatly to achieve the same goal as for previous editions— to explain, in language easily understood by students, how the different cells, tissues, and organs of the human body work together to maintain life.

This task has been challenging and fun because researchers continue to unravel new mysteries of body functions. Advances in molecular and cellular physiology have made it possible to explain some physiology principles in the terminology of molecular and physical sciences rather than in merely a series of separate and unexplained biological phenomena. However, the molecular events that underpin the functions of the body’s cells provide only a partial explanation of human physiology. The total function of the human body requires complex control systems that communicate with each other and coordinate the molecular functions of the body’s cells, tissues, and organs in health and disease.

The Textbook of Medical Physiology is not a reference book that attempts to provide a compendium of the most recent advances in physiology. It is a book that continues the tradition of being written for students. It focuses on the basic principles of physiology needed to begin a career in the health care professions, such as medicine, dentistry, and nursing, as well as graduate studies in the biological and health sciences. It should also be useful to physicians and health care professionals who wish to review the basic principles needed for understanding the pathophysiology of human disease. We have attempted to maintain the same unified organization of the text that has been useful to students in the past and to ensure that the book is comprehensive enough that students will continue to use it during their professional careers.

Our hope is that the Textbook of Medical Physiology conveys the majesty of the human body and its many functions and that it stimulates students to study physiology throughout their careers. Physiology links the basic sciences and medicine. The great beauty of physiology is that it integrates the individual functions of all the body’s different cells, tissues, and organs into a functional whole, the human body. Indeed, the human body is much more than the sum of its parts, and life relies upon this total function, not just on the function of individual body parts in isolation from the others.

This brings us to an important question: How are the separate organs and systems coordinated to maintain proper function of the entire body? Fortunately, our bodies are endowed with a vast network of feedback controls that achieve the necessary balances without which we would be unable to live. Physiologists call this high level of internal bodily control homeostasis. In disease states, functional balances are often seriously disturbed, and homeostasis is impaired. When even a single disturbance reaches a limit, the whole body can no longer live. One of the goals of this text is to emphasize the effectiveness and beauty of the body’s homeostasis mechanisms as well as to present their abnormal functions in disease.

Another objective is to be as accurate as possible. Suggestions and critiques from many students, physiologists, and clinicians throughout the world have checked factual accuracy as well as balance in the text. Even so, because of the likelihood of error in sorting through many thousands of bits of information, we issue a further request for all readers to send notations of error or inaccuracy to us. Physiologists understand the importance of feedback for proper function of the human body; feedback is also important for progressive improvement of a textbook of physiology. To the many persons who have already helped, we express sincere thanks. Your feedback has helped to improve the text.

A brief explanation is needed about several features of the 14th edition. Although many of the chapters have been revised to include new principles of physiology and new figures to illustrate these principles, the text length has been closely monitored to limit the book’s size so that it can be used effectively in physiology courses for medical students and health care professionals. New references have been chosen primarily for their presentation of physiological principles, for the quality of their own references, and for their easy accessibility. The selected bibliography at the end of the chapters lists mainly review papers from recently published scientific journals that can be freely accessed from the PubMed site at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/. Use of these references, as well as cross-references from them, provides much more extensive coverage of the entire field of physiology.

Our effort to be as concise as possible has, unfortunately, necessitated a more simplified and dogmatic presentation of many physiological principles than we normally would have desired. However, the bibliography can be used to learn more about the controversies and unanswered questions that remain in understanding the complex functions of the human body in health and disease.

Another feature of the book is that the print is set in two sizes. The material in large print constitutes the fundamental physiological information that students will require in virtually all of their medical studies. The material in small print and highlighted with a pale lavender background (or identified by beginning and ending double gray arrowheads in the ebook version) is of several different kinds: (1) anatomic, chemical, and other information that is needed for immediate discussion but that most students will learn in more detail in other courses; (2) physiological information of special importance to certain fields of clinical medicine; and (3) information that will be of value to those students who wish to study specific physiological mechanisms more deeply. The ebook version provides links to additional content including video animations and self-assessment questions that can be accessed with computers, smart phones, and electronic tablets. For additional self-assessment beyond these textbook supplements, the reader may consider using a copy of Guyton and Hall Physiology Review, which includes more than 1000 practice questions referenced to the textbook. We hope that these ancillary materials will assist readers in testing their understanding of basic principles of physiology.

We express sincere thanks to many persons who have helped to prepare this book, including our colleagues in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center who provided valuable suggestions. The members of our faculty and a brief description of the research and educational activities of the department can be found at http://physiology.umc.edu/.

We are especially grateful to Stephanie Lucas for excellent assistance and to James Perkins for excellent illustrations. We also thank Elyse O’Grady, Jennifer Shreiner, Grace Onderlinde, Rebecca Gruliow, and the entire Elsevier team for continued editorial and production excellence. Finally, we thank the many readers who continue to help us improve the Textbook of Medical Physiology. We hope that you enjoy the current edition and find it even more useful than previous editions.
 

Green Productivity and Cleaner Production: A Guidebook for Sustainability PDF by Guttila Yugantha Jayasinghe, Shehani Sharadha Maheepala and Prabuddhi Chathurika Wijekoon

3:19 AM
Green Productivity and Cleaner Production: A Guidebook for Sustainability
By Guttila Yugantha Jayasinghe, Shehani Sharadha Maheepala and Prabuddhi Chathurika Wijekoon
Green Productivity and Cleaner Production: A Guidebook for Sustainability

Contents

Foreword....................................................................................................................ix
Authors.......................................................................................................................xi
Chapter 1 Basic Approach to Green Productivity .................................................1
Guttila Yugantha Jayasinghe, Shehani Sharadha Maheepala, and Prabuddhi Chathurika Wijekoon
1.1 A Basic Approach to Green Productivity...................................1
1.2 Productivity................................................................................1
1.3 Sustainability..............................................................................5
1.4 Sustainable Development Goals and Green Productivity..........7
References.............................................................................................9
Chapter 2 Green Productivity.............................................................................. 11
Guttila Yugantha Jayasinghe, Shehani Sharadha Maheepala, and Prabuddhi Chathurika Wijekoon
2.1 Introduction.............................................................................. 11
2.2 GP Methodology....................................................................... 16
2.2.1 Step 1: Getting Started................................................ 16
2.2.1.1 Task 1: Team Formation.............................. 16
2.2.1.2 Task 2: Walk-Through Survey and Information Collection................................ 17
2.2.2 Step 2: Planning.......................................................... 19
2.2.2.1 Task 3: Identification of Problems and Causes................................................... 19
2.2.2.2 Task 4: Setting Objectives and Targets........20
2.2.3 Step 3: Generation, Evaluation, and Prioritization of GP Options.............................................................. 21
2.2.3.1 Task 5: Generation of GP Options............... 21
2.2.3.2 Task 6: Screening, Evaluation, and Prioritization of GP Options........................ 21
2.2.4 Step 4: Implementation of GP Options.......................23
2.2.4.1 Task 7: Formulation of GP Implementation Plan....................................23
2.2.4.2 Task 8: Implementation of Selected Option..........................................................24
2.2.4.3 Task 9: Training, Awareness Building, and Developing Competence.......................24
2.2.5 Step 5: Monitoring and Review...................................26
2.2.5.1 Task 10: Monitoring and Evaluation of Results..........................................................26
2.2.5.2 Task 11: Management Review.....................27
2.2.6 Step 6: Sustaining GP..................................................27
2.2.6.1 Task 12: Incorporation of Changes into Organizational System of Management......27
2.2.6.2 Task 13: Identification of New/Additional Problem Areas for Continuous Improvement.............................28
References...........................................................................................29
Chapter 3 Green Productivity Tools and Techniques..........................................31
Guttila Yugantha Jayasinghe, Shehani Sharadha Maheepala, and Prabuddhi Chathurika Wijekoon
3.1 Green Productivity Tools..........................................................31
3.1.1 Brainstorming.............................................................31
3.1.1.1 The Benefits of Brainstorming ...................32
3.1.2 Flowcharts...................................................................32
3.1.2.1 Main Steps to Develop a Flowchart.............33
3.1.3 Process Flow Diagram................................................34
3.1.4 Plant Layout.................................................................34
3.1.5 Eco-Maps....................................................................35
3.1.5.1 Main Steps to Develop an Eco-Map............36
3.1.6 Concentration Diagrams.............................................37
3.1.6.1 Steps to Develop a Concentration Diagram.......................................................37
3.1.7 Check Sheets...............................................................38
3.1.8 Checklist......................................................................40
3.1.9 Material Balance.........................................................41
3.1.9.1 Steps to Develop a Material Balance...........42
3.1.10 Energy Balance...........................................................42
3.1.10.1 Steps to Calculate an Energy Balance.........44
3.1.11 Cause-and-Effect Diagram (Fishbone/Ishikawa diagram)......................................................................44
3.1.1.1 Steps to Develop a Cause-and-Effect Diagram.......................................................45
3.1.12 Control Charts.............................................................45
3.1.13 Spider Web Diagram...................................................47
3.1.13.1 Steps to Develop a Spider Web Diagram.....47
3.1.14 Cost–Benefit Analysis.................................................48
3.1.14.1 Steps to Produce a Cost–Benefit Analysis.......................................................49
3.1.15 Benchmarking.............................................................49
3.1.15.1 Typical Benchmarking Methodology..........49
3.1.16 Decision Matrix...........................................................51
3.1.16.1 Steps to Develop a Decision Matrix............51
vii
3.2 Green Productivity Techniques................................................51
3.2.1 Improved Operating Procedures.................................52
3.2.2 Waste Segregation.......................................................53
3.2.3 Good Housekeeping Practices....................................54
3.2.3.1 Benefits of Good Housekeeping..................55
3.2.4 The 5S Technique........................................................55
3.2.5 The Concept of 7 Wastes ............................................55
3.2.5.1 Overproduction............................................56
3.2.5.2 Waiting.........................................................56
3.2.5.3 Transporting................................................57
3.2.5.4 Inappropriate Processing.............................57
3.2.5.5 Unnecessary Inventory................................57
3.2.5.6 Unnecessary/Excessive Motion...................57
3.2.5.7 Defects.........................................................57
3.2.6 Preventive and Productive Maintenance (PPM).........58
3.2.7 Recycle, Reuse, and Recovery.....................................59
3.2.7.1 Reuse............................................................59
3.2.7.2 Recycle.........................................................59
3.2.7.3 Recover .......................................................59
3.2.8 Energy Conservation...................................................60
3.2.9 Input Material Changes...............................................61
3.2.10 Process/Equipment Changes.......................................61
3.2.10.1 Improving Operation Procedures................61
3.2.10.2 Equipment Modification..............................61
3.2.10.3 Material Changes.........................................61
3.2.11 Pollution Control.........................................................62
3.2.11.1 Air Emission Control...................................62
3.2.11.2 Wastewater Management.............................66
3.2.11.3 Solid Waste Management............................66
3.2.12 Design for the Environment........................................67
3.2.13 Life Cycle Assessment................................................68
3.2.13.1 LCA Goal and Scope Definition..................69
3.2.13.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Analysis...........69
3.2.13.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA).......70
3.2.13.4 Interpretation...............................................71
3.2.13.5 Uses of the Life Cycle Assessment Process.........................................................72
3.2.13.6 Data Analysis in the Life Cycle Assessment Process.....................................73
3.2.13.7 Types of Life Cycle Assessment Process ....74
3.2.14 Green Purchasing........................................................78
3.2.14.1 Benefits of Green Purchasing......................78
3.2.14.2 Steps of Green Procurement........................79
References...........................................................................................79
Chapter 4 End-of-Pipe Treatment Techniques.....................................................83
Guttila Yugantha Jayasinghe, Shehani Sharadha Maheepala, and Prabuddhi Chathurika Wijekoon
4.1 Waste Management..................................................................83
4.2 End-of-Pipe Treatment.............................................................84
4.2.1 Gaseous Waste Treatment...........................................85
4.2.1.1 Wet Scrubbers..............................................85
4.2.1.2 Dry Absorption (Dry Scrubbers).................90
4.2.1.3 Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs)................92
4.2.1.4 Fabric Filters................................................95
4.2.2 Liquid Waste Treatment..............................................97
4.2.2.1 Filtration (Membrane Separation)...............97
4.2.2.2 Aerobic Treatment.......................................97
4.2.2.3 Anaerobic Treatment.................................103
4.2.3 Solid Waste Treatment..............................................106
4.2.3.1 Thermal Treatment....................................107
4.2.3.2 Sanitary Landfills .....................................111
4.2.3.3 Composting................................................115
References.........................................................................................122
Chapter 5 Cleaner Production............................................................................125
Guttila Yugantha Jayasinghe, Shehani Sharadha Maheepala, and Prabuddhi Chathurika Wijekoon
5.1 Introduction............................................................................125
5.2 History of Cleaner Production Development.........................125
5.3 Elements of Cleaner Production.............................................126
5.4 The Cleaner Production Assessment Approach.....................127
5.4.1 Planning and Organization........................................127
5.4.2 Pre-Assessment and Assessment...............................127
5.4.3 Feasibility Analysis...................................................128
5.4.4 Implementation..........................................................128
5.4.5 Continuation..............................................................128
5.5 Benefits of a CP Program.......................................................129
5.6 Issues with the CP Technique.................................................131
5.7 National Cleaner Production Centers (NCPC).......................131
5.8 CP Policy................................................................................131
5.9 Barriers...................................................................................132
References.........................................................................................133
Index.......................................................................................................................135

Foreword
Green productivity (GP) and cleaner production (CP) strategies have been devel­oped to simultaneously enhance both productivity and environmental sustainability. The application of green productivity tools and techniques in the appropriate proce­dure is important to improve the productivity and environmental performance of an organization and to ultimately achieve overall socio-economic development. GP is applicable not only in the manufacturing sector but also in the agricultural and ser­vices sectors. GP plays a vital role in addressing the interactions between economic activities and community development while acting on environmental protection and awareness in the public sector. GP and CP address all elements of a production sys­tem, including inputs, processes, outputs, and waste (including environmental pol­lution). It ensures that products or services meet customers’ requirements and that productivity is maintained or improved.

This book will encourage readers to realize the mistakes of conventional pro­ductivity, and equip them with an understanding of green productivity as one of the initial steps in commencing sustainability. It demonstrates the GP approach and outlines how to achieve sustainability in a methodical way through green productiv­ity. This book will act not only as a textbook and reference material for academics of the sector but also as a tool for initiating sustainability within businesses and communities. It is an effort to describe the concept of green productivity and cleaner production in a convenient manner and is accessible to every level of reader who is interested in the topic. The green productivity methodology, tools, and techniques and cleaner production strategy described in the book enable reader to determine how they can contribute to the greening process.
 

Systems Approach to the Design of Commercial Aircraft PDF by Scott Jackson and Ricardo Moraes dos Santos

3:13 AM
Systems Approach to the Design of Commercial Aircraft
By Scott Jackson and Ricardo Moraes dos Santos
Systems Approach to the Design of Commercial Aircraft

Contents

Preface.......................................................................................................................ix
Acknowledgments.....................................................................................................xi
About the Authors.................................................................................................. xiii
Chapter 1 Vision ................................................................................................... 1
Chapter 2 Systems................................................................................................. 3
Types of Systems.................................................................................. 3
The Systems View................................................................................ 4
Cohesion .......................................................................................... 4
Emergence ....................................................................................... 4
Holism ............................................................................................. 5
Hierarchy ......................................................................................... 5
Boundary ......................................................................................... 5
Typical Systems in the Aviation Domain............................................. 6
Other Properties of Systems................................................................. 8
Properties Associated with Some Systems .......................................... 8
The Hierarchy of Systems Theory ....................................................... 9
Systems Engineering.......................................................................... 10
Systems in the Broader View ........................................................ 10
Systems Architecting ......................................................................... 10
Systems of Systems (SoS) Engineering......................................... 11
References .......................................................................................... 11
Chapter 3 Systems Theory.................................................................................. 13
References .......................................................................................... 14
Chapter 4 Worldviews ......................................................................................... 15
A View of an Aircraft Across Worldviews ........................................ 17
References .......................................................................................... 17
Chapter 5 Commercial Aircraft in the Context of Systems Theory................... 19
Summary of the Expanded View of Systems Engineering................20
Systems Engineering: The Broader View ..................................... 21
The Systems Engineering Context ..................................................... 21
Seven Thought-Provoking Ideas About Systems Engineering .......... 22
References ..........................................................................................25
Chapter 6 The Engineering of Systems in a Systems Theory Context...............27
The Vee Model ...................................................................................27
The Procurement Specifcation ..........................................................28
Recommendations .............................................................................. Other Systems Aspects.......................................................................30
References .......................................................................................... 31
Chapter 7 The Systems Approach....................................................................... 33
Related Disciplines.............................................................................34
References ..........................................................................................
Chapter 8 Systems Architecting .........................................................................37
Systems Architecting and Systems Engineering................................39
Systems Architecting in the Aircraft Life Cycle................................ An Architecting Tool: The Rich Picture ............................................ 41
Architecting: An Overview................................................................42
References ..........................................................................................42
Chapter 9 Complexity in a Systems Theory Context..........................................
Complexity and Architecting .............................................................46
References .......................................................................................... 47
Chapter 10 Humans in the System........................................................................49
Humans in an Aircraft Resilience Context ........................................49
Humans in Aviation Automation Context .......................................... The Billings Rules .........................................................................51
References .......................................................................................... 52
Chapter 11 Risk..................................................................................................... 53
Basic Risk Theory..............................................................................53
Risk Handling .................................................................................... 53
Some Final Comments on Risk..........................................................54
Recommended Actions ...................................................................... Reference............................................................................................ 55
Chapter 12 Cybersecurity ..................................................................................... 57
Airworthiness Certifcation Process Overview..................................58
Aircraft Evolution and Connectivity Aspects ....................................58
References ..........................................................................................59
Chapter 13 Safety.................................................................................................. 61
Safety as an Emergent Property of Systems ...................................... 61
Safety and Decisions ..........................................................................63
Organizational Biases.........................................................................65
Example Organizational Biases .........................................................66
Mitigation Approaches ....................................................................... 67
Self-Mitigation............................................................................... 67
Automated Mitigation.................................................................... 67
Group Methods...................................................................................68
Summary of Cognitive Bias Conclusions...........................................69
Summary of Emotion and Cognitive Bias on Flawed Decisions and Safety ..........................................................................69
Safety and Accidents..........................................................................71
Decision Errors by Life Cycle Phases................................................71
Component Failures ........................................................................... 75
References .......................................................................................... 76
Chapter 14 The Supply Chain...............................................................................79
What is the Supply Chain? .................................................................79
Supply Chain Risks ............................................................................79
Summary of Supply Chain Risks.......................................................80
Reference............................................................................................80
Chapter 15 Aircraft Systems with Feedback Loops ............................................. 81
How a Feedback System Works?........................................................ 81
Feedback Loops With Balancing Loops ............................................82
Feedback Loops With Reinforcing Loops .........................................83
Reference............................................................................................83
Chapter 16 A Final Word......................................................................................85
References ..........................................................................................85
Systems Approach Glossary with Aviation Examples........................................87
Index........................................................................................................................95

Preface
Previous books, for example, Jackson (1997, 2015), focus on the use of the principles of systems engineering for the defnition and development of commercial aircraft. This book takes a broader approach. It places the development of commercial air­craft in the broader scope of systems science and its derivative processes of systems thinking, systems approach, and fnally systems engineering.

We also discuss the felds of complexity, systems architecting, and cognitive bias which are part of systems science. Terms from systems science include holism, emer­gence, hierarchy, and cohesion.

The good news is that aviation fatalities have fallen dramatically in recent years. The phenomena of complexity and cognitive bias have been shown to be factors in many of the remaining accidents. An understanding of these phenomena promises to bring the fatality rate even lower. The goal is that a deeper understanding of com­mercial aircraft in the context of systems science will contribute to that trend.

This book is an elaboration of material from workshops at aircraft companies worldwide. It does not contain any material that refects internal processes in those companies; this book is intended to be generic.

Vision
The idea of this book is to prepare the audience for the new perspective in a practi­cal way, the authors put the vision about the entire experience of several years using systems approach to solve problems and create new opportunities for new systems in the commercial aviation scope.

This approach includes aspects that this book addresses, for example, safety, cybersecurity, architecture, and design decisions.

Another important point is the infuence of human cognitive aspects on decisions. The authors explore cognitive bias as a cause of accidents. This book includes a discussion about important accidents and tries to connect those biases through new perspective about these accidents.

An aircraft, including the pilot, is a system, that is, a collection of parts that act together (the principle of holism) to achieve a stated purpose, that is, to deliver pas­sengers and cargo to a destination safely and economically. The parts acting together achieve powered fight. The aircraft, including the pilot, is part of a larger system called the world aviation system. Even the aircraft with pilot and passenger loaded can’t achieve its purpose without the support of enabling subsystems like the naviga­tion system, the ground support system, and the loading and unloading support system.

To accomplish the purpose, the parts must individually be qualifed by test, dem­onstration, analysis, or inspection to achieve its performance level and constraints, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) and durability, and environments during all phases of the life cycle to include purchase, deployment, operation, support, and retirement. The qualifcation of the parts must also include the interaction among the parts (the principle of interactions).

The process for defning the aircraft is called the systems approach, which begins with identifying the stakeholder needs. Stakeholders for the aircraft include, at a minimum, the airline customers, the passengers, the aircraft manufacturer, and the regulatory agencies. The airline customers will defne the minimum expected performance and cost goals. The regulatory agencies will establish the minimum acceptable safety levels. The aircraft manufacturer will demonstrate compliance with these safety levels (the process of certifcation).

After the stakeholder needs are identifed, the aircraft itself is defned by two major processes systems, architecting and systems engineering. The purpose of sys­tems architecting is to defne the major parts of the aircraft both functionally and physically. For most modern aircraft, these parts consist of the wings, the fuselage, the empennage (the tail), and the propulsion. The purpose of systems engineering is to assure that the aircraft satisfes the stakeholder needs and that its component parts support this purpose.