Preparing for the Project Management Professional Certification Exam, Third Edition by Michael W. Newell

10:24 PM Add Comment
Preparing for the Project Management Professional Certification Exam, Third Edition
By Michael W. Newell
Preparing for the Project Management Professional Certification Exam

CONTENTS
Preface xv
Introduction to Project Management 1
What Is Project Management Anyway? 2
Standards and Regulations 2
A True Story 5
Advantages of Project Management 6
Organizing for Project Management 7
The Projectized Organization 7
The Functional or Traditional Organization 9
The Matrix Organization 11
The Project Office and the Project Management Office 12
How the Project Manager Makes Projects Successful 13
The Project Life Cycle 14
Project Management Processes 15
Summary 17
1. Scope Management 18
Initiation of the Project 19
Project Charter 19
Statement of Work 20
Business Need 20
Scope Description 20
Environmental and Organizational Factors 21
Organizational Process Assets 21
Change Management Procedure 21
Risk Control Procedures 21
Organizational Knowledge Bases 21
Constraints and Assumptions 22
Project Selection Methods 22
Who Are Those Stakeholders? 22
Cost and Its Relationship to Price 23
Overbid or Underbid: Which Is Better for Your Company? 24
Getting to the Scope Baseline 26
Work Breakdown Structure 28
Systems Approach to Work Breakdown Structure 31
Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary 32
Additional Project Breakdown Structures 32
Scope Verification 33
Change Management 33
Project Justifications 34
The Breakeven Chart 35
Problems with Breakeven Charts 36
Average Rate of Return on Investment 36
Present Value of Money 37
Internal Rate of Return on Investment 40
Summary 46
2. Time Management 47
Activity Definition 47
Activity Sequencing 48
Activity on Arrow Diagramming 49
Gantt Charts and Milestone Charts 50
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) 51
Logical Relationships 52
Finish-Start Relationship (FS) 52
Start-Start Relationship (SS) 52
Finish-Finish Relationship (FF) 54
Start-Finish Relationship (SF) 55
Leads and Lags 56
Diagramming Relationships 56
Project Start and Project Finish Events 57
Logical Precedence Diagram 57
Activity Durations 57
Building the Network Diagram 58
Buffering the Schedule 63
Reverse Resource Allocation Scheduling 67
Critical Path Method (CPM) 68
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 68
Monte Carlo Simulation 73
The Simulation 73
Output from the Monte Carlo Simulation 74
Critical Chain Theory 74
Summary 76
3. Cost Management 77
Why We Need Cost Management 77
Project Life Cycle and Project Cost 78
Using the Work Breakdown Structure 78
Project 78
Cost Estimating 79
Types of Estimates 79
Top-Down Estimates 79
Bottom-Up Estimates 79
Analogous Estimates 80
Parametric Estimates 80
Control Estimates 81
Cost Budgeting 82
Cost Control 84
Earned Value Reporting 84
Cumulative Reporting 85
Earned Value Parameters 86
Difficulties in Data Collection 87
Reporting Work Complete 88
Examples 88
Calculated Values for Earned Value Reports 90
Financial Measures 93
Return on Sales 96
Return on Assets 96
Economic Value Added 97
Depreciation 98
Straight Line Depreciation 99
Accelerated Depreciation 99
Sum of the Years’ Digits 100
Double Declining Balances 101
Summary 101
4. Quality Management 103
Quality Planning 104
Quality Assurance 105
Cost of Quality 105
Deming’s Fourteen Points 107
Quality Control 107
Inspection 108
Sampling Inspection 108
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) 109
Buyer’s Risk and Seller’s Risk 109
Other Quality Control Techniques 110
Flowcharts and Diagrams 110
Cause and Effect Diagrams 110
Pareto Charts 110
Control Charts 113
Run Charts 116
Checklists 116
Kaizen 116
Benchmarking 117
Summary 117
5. Human Resources Management 118
Project Manager Roles and Responsibilities 119
Responsibility-Accountability Matrix 119
Project Schedule 120
Staffing Plan 120
Training Plan 120
Organization Chart 121
Strong Matrix, Weak Matrix, and Balanced Matrix Organizations 121
Strong Matrix 121
Weak Matrix 122
Balanced Matrix 122
Making Matrix Management Work 123
Personnel and Personal Evaluations 124
Motivation 125
Importance of Motivation 125
Industrial Revolution 125
Scientific Management 125
Learning Curve Theory 125
Depression Era 126
World War II 126
Post–World War II 127
Motivational Ideas 127
Procedures vs. Motivation 127
Expectancy Theory 129
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 129
Hertzberg’s Motivation/Hygiene Theory 131
Supervisory Style and Delegation 132
Job and Work Design 132
Job Enlargement 133
Job Enrichment 134
Quality Circles 134
Power 135
Forms of Power 135
Coercive Power and Reward Power 135
Legitimate Power 136
Referent Power 136
Expert Power 136
Representative Power 137
Leadership 137
Theory X and Theory Y Managers 137
Conflict Resolution 137
Forcing 138
Smoothing 139
Compromise 139
Problem Solving 140
Withdrawal 140
Managing Meetings 140
Managing Meetings Effectively 142
Before the Meeting 142
Beginning the Meeting 142
Summary 143
6. Communications Management 144
Lessons Learned 144
General Model of Communications 146
Thinking 146
Encoding 146
Symbols 146
Transmitting 147
Perceiving 147
Decoding 147
Understanding 147
Barriers to Communications 147
Distorted Perceptions 147
Distrusted Sources 147
Transmission Errors 148
Improving Communications 148
Make the Message Relevant for the Receiver 148
Reduce the Message to Its Simplest Terms 148
Organize the Message into a Series of Stages 148
Repeat the Key Points 149
Verbal and Written Communications 149
Formal and Informal Communications 150
Formal Communications 150
Informal Communications 150
Improving Listening 151
Don’t Interrupt 151
Put the Speaker at Ease 152
Appear Interested 153
Cut Out Distractions 153
Periodically Sum Up What Was Said 153
Networking 153
Circular Networks 154
Chain Networks 154
The Wheel 155
Free and Open Communications 155
Management by Walking Around 157
Performance Reviews 157
Summary 158
7. Risk Management 160
When to Do Risk Management 161
The Risk Process 162
Risk Management Planning 162
Risk Breakdown Structure 162
Risk Identification 163
Documentation Reviews 163
Brainstorming 163
Delphi Technique 164
Nominal Group Technique 165
Crawford Slip 165
Expert Interviews 165
Root Cause Identification 166
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis 166
Checklists 166
Analogy 167
Diagramming Techniques 167
Recording of Risks Identified 169
Risk Assessment 169
Qualitative Risk Analysis 170
Risk Tolerance 170
Risk Probability 172
The Addition Rule 174
The Multiplication Rule 176
Risk Impact 178
Expected Value 178
Decision Trees 180
Risk Quantification 183
Comparative Ranking 184
Sensitivity Analysis 184
Grouping the Risks 185
Affinity Diagramming 186
Risk Response Planning 186
Risk Response Strategies 186
Avoidance 187
Transfer 187
Contracting 188
Acceptance 188
Mitigation 189
Budgeting for Risk 189
Risk Monitoring and Control 190
Summary 191
8. Contract and Procurement Management 192
Contract Management 193
Make or Buy 194
Contract Life Cycle 194
Requirement Process 195
Requisition Process 195
Solicitation Process 196
Award Process 197
Trade-Off Studies 197
Contract Process 198
Contract Administration 198
Contract Types 199
Fixed-Price or Lump-Sum Contract 199
Firm Fixed-Price Contract 200
Fixed-Price Plus Economic-Adjustment Contract 200
Fixed-Price Plus Incentive Contract 201
Cost-Plus Contract 201
Cost Plus Fixed-Fee Contract 202
Cost Plus Award-Fee Contract 202
Cost Plus Incentive-Fee Contract 203
Time-and-Material Contract 203
Procurement Management 203
Commodities 203
Unique Products and Services 204
Forward Buying 204
Blanket Orders 205
Split Orders 205
Summary 206
9. Professional Responsibility 207
Task 1 208
Task 2 209
Task 3 209
Task 4 210
Task 5 211
Code of Professional Conduct 211
10. What Is the PMP Exam Like? 213
Domain 1: Initiating the Project 214
Domain 2: Planning the Project 215
Domain 3: Executing the Project 216
Domain 4: Controlling the Project 216
Domain 5: Closing the Project 217
Domain 6: Professional Responsibility 217
Types of Questions on the Exam 218
Taking the Exam 219
Use of Practice Questions 220
The Application for PMP Certification 221
The Education Qualification 223
Joining PMI 223
Recertification 224
Practice Questions 225
Practice Questions Answer Key 303
Appendix: Probability Distributions 357
Bibliography 365
Index 367
About the Author 379


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The Certified Six Sigma Green Belt Handbook, Second Edition by Roderick A. Munro, Govindarajan Ramu, and Daniel J. Zrymiak

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The Certified Six Sigma Green Belt Handbook, Second Edition
by Roderick A. Munro, Govindarajan Ramu, and Daniel J. Zrymiak
The Certified Six Sigma Green Belt Handbook, Second Edition

Table of Contents
List of Figures and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . xxv
Part I Overview: Six Sigma and the Organization 1
Chapter 1 A. Six Sigma and Organizational Goals 2
1. Value of Six Sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Why Use Six Sigma versus Other Methodologies? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
How Six Sigma Philosophy and Goals Should Be Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Lead-Up to the Six Sigma Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Modern Six Sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Quality Pioneers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Business Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Process Inputs, Outputs, and Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Significance of Six Sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A Green Belt’s Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Potential Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
DMAIC Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
The Six Sigma Road Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Cost–Benefit Analysis: (Cost of Quality, Quality Cost, Cost of Poor
Quality, Cost of Current Quality) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2. Organizational Goals and Six Sigma Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Linking Projects to Organizational Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3. Organizational Drivers and Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Key Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Voice of the Customer (VOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Balanced Scorecard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Scoreboard/Dashboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Key Performance/Process Indicator (KPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chapter 2 B. Lean Principles in the Organization 31
1. Lean Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Some of the Top Lean Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Waste (Muda) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Additional Forms of Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2. Value Stream Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Value Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Chapter 3 C. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodologies 49
1. Road Maps for DFSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
IDOV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
DMADV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2. Basic Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Why Do FMEAs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
FMEA Forms/Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Steps in Performing FMEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Severity, Occurrence, and Detection Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Risk Priority Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Do’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Don’ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3. Design FMEA and Process FMEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Differences between Design and Process FMEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Part II Define Phase . 73
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Chapter 4 A. Project Identification 76
1. Project Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2. Process Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3. Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4. Process Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Systems Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5. Owners and Stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Chapter 5 B. Voice of the Customer (VOC) 85
1. Customer Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
2. Customer Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3. Customer Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Chapter 6 C. Project Management Basics . 95
1. Project Charter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Project Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
2. Project Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3. Project Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4. Project Planning Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5. Project Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6. Project Risk Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
7. Project Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Chapter 7 D. Management and Planning Tools 102
Activity Network Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Advanced Quality Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Affinity Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Cause-and-Effect Diagram (Fishbone, Ishikawa Diagram) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Check Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Customer Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Flowchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Focus Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Force-Field Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Gantt Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Graphical Charts, Control Charts, and other Statistical Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Variables Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Attributes Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Charts for Other Kinds of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Interrelationship Diagram (Digraph) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Matrix Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Multivoting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Nominal Group Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
PDCA (PDSA and SDCA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Prioritization Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Process Decision Program Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Quality Function Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Risk Priority Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Sampling Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Suppliers-Inputs-Process-Outputs-Customers (SIPOC) Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 123
Tree Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Written Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Tool Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Chapter 8 E. Business Results for Projects . 126
1. Process Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2. Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Chapter 9 F. Team Dynamics and Performance 131
Team Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Team Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Virtual Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
1. Team Stages and Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Stage 1: Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Stage 2: Storming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Stage 3: Norming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Stage 4: Performing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Stage 5: Transitioning/Adjourning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Stage 6: Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Team Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Negative Team Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2. Team Roles and Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
3. Team Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Nominal Group Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Multivoting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4. Team Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Part III Measure Phase 153
Chapter 10 A. Process Analysis and Documentation . 154
Process Maps and Flowcharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Written Procedures and Work Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Process Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Relationship Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Chapter 11 B. Probability and Statistics 168
1. Basic Probability Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Simple Events Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Compound Events Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Relations between Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Mutually Exclusive Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
The Multiplicative Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Permutations and Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
2. Central Limit Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Definition and Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Use of Central Limit Theorem in Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Use of Central Limit Theorem in Hypothesis Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Drawing Valid Statistical Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Chapter 12 C. Statistical Distributions . 179
Binomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Normal Approximations of the Binomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Poisson Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Normal Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Chi-Square Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Degrees of Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
t-Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
F-Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Chapter 13 D. Collecting and Summarizing Data 192
1. Types of Data and Measurement Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
2. Sampling and Data Collection Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Techniques for Assuring Data Accuracy and Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Types of Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Check Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
3. Descriptive Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Cumulative Frequency Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
4. Graphical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Stem-and-Leaf Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Box Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
The Run Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Scatter Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Normal Probability Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Weibull Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Chapter 14 E. Measurement System Analysis . 217
Chapter 15 F. Process and Performance Capability 237
1. Process Performance vs. Process Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Test Results for X – Chart of Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Test Results for R Chart of Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
2. Process Capability Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Steps for Process Capability Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Sampling with Respect to Statistical Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
3. Process Capability (Cp, Cpk) and Process Performance (Pp, Ppk) Indices . . . . 245
Process Capability Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
4. Short-Term vs. Long-Term Capability and Sigma Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Short-Term vs. Long-Term Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Part IV Analyze Phase 253
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Chapter 16 A. Exploratory Data Analysis . 254
1. Multi-vari studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Procedure for Multi-Vari Sampling Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
2. Correlation and Linear Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Correlation versus Causation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Correlation Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Simple Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Confidence Interval for the Regression Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Multiple Linear Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Chapter 17 B. Hypothesis Testing 279
1. Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
The Null and Alternative Hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Types of Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
One-Tail Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Two-Tail Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Required Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Statistical and Practical Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
What Is a Desired Power? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
When to Calculate Statistically Significant Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
How to Calculate Statistically Significant Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Power and Sample Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
2. Tests for Means, Variances, and Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Test for Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Hypothesis Tests for Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Student’s t-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Confidence Intervals for the Mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Test for Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Confidence Intervals for Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Test for Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Confidence Intervals for Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
One Population Proportion (p-Test) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Paired-Comparison Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Two-Mean, Equal Variance t-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Two-Mean, Unequal Variance t-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Paired t-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
F-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Single-Factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
One-Way ANOVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Chi Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Procedure for Chi-Square (c2) Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Contingency Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Parametric and Nonparametric Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Part V Improve Phase 313
Chapter 18 A. Design of Experiments (DOE) 314
1. Basic Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Experimental Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Experimental Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Planned Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Randomization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Repetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
DOE Overview—Planning and Organizing Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
2. DOE Graphs and Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Main Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Interaction Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Balanced Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Effects and Confounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Design and Analysis of One-Factor Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Design and Analysis of Full Factorial Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Design and Analysis of Two-Level Fractional Factorial Experiments . . . 333
Two-Level Fractional Factorial Experiment Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Two-Level Fractional Factorial Experiment Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Testing Main Effects and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Design of Experiments Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Chapter 19 B. Root Cause Analysis 338
Phase 1: Identify the Opportunity (Problem Identification) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Phase 2: Analyze the Current Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Phase 3: Develop the Optimal Solution(s) (Correction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Phase 4: Implement Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Phase 5: Study the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Phase 6: Standardize the Solution (Recurrence Control) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Phase 7: Plan for the Future (Effectiveness Assessment) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Corrective Action System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Root Cause Analysis Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Identify Root Cause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Cause-and-Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
5 Whys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Is/Is Not Comparative Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Cause-and-Effect (X–Y) Relational Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Root Cause Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Chapter 20 C. Lean Tools 349
1. Waste Elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Relevance of Lean to Six Sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Comparison of Lean to Traditional Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Examples of Lean Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Pull Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Mistake-Proofing (Error-Proofing or Poka-Yoke) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
5S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Visual Factory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Kaizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Kanban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Total Productive Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Standard Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
2. Cycle-Time Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Standard Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Process Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
SIPOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Process Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Process Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Process Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Other Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Work Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Countermeasure Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Quick Changeover/Setup Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Cycle Time Reduction Through Constraints Management . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
3. Kaizen and Kaizen Blitz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Incremental Continuous Improvement (Kaizen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Kaizen Blitz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Breakthrough Continuous Improvement (Kaikaku) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Organizing for Kaizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Kaizen Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Part VI Control Phase . 373
Chapter 21 A. Statistical Process Control (SPC) 374
1. SPC Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Statistical Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
SPC Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Objectives and Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Process Capability: Special versus Common Causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Process Data: Discrete versus Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Discrete Data (Attributes Control Charts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Continuous Data (Variables Control Charts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Process Behavior Charts (Control Charts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
2. Rational Subgrouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Rational Subgrouping Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Rational Subgrouping Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
3. Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Selection and Application of Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Variables Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Control Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
and R Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
and s Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Individuals and Moving Range Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Median Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Attributes Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
p Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
np Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
u Control Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
c Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Analysis of Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Chapter 22 B. Control Plan 413
Examples of Process Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Dynamic Control Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Gage Control Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Standard Operating Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Continual Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Process Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Chapter 23 C. Lean Tools for Process Control . 424
1. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Loss Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
2. Visual Factory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 431
Visual Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Visual Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Part VII Appendices 439
Appendix A ASQ Code of Ethics 440
Appendix B The ASQ Certification Process 442
Appendix C Six Sigma Green Belt Body of Knowledge Map
2006–2014 . 451
Appendix D ASQ Certified Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB) Body of
Knowledge (2014) . 458
Appendix E ASQ Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CSSYB) Body of
Knowledge (2014) . 466
Appendix F ASQ Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) Body of
Knowledge (2015) . 471
Appendix G ASQ Certified Six Sigma Master Black Belt (CSSMBB)
Body of Knowledge (2010) . 482
Appendix H ASQ Honorary Members 492
Appendix I Control Limit Formulas 494
Appendix J Constants for Control Charts 495
Appendix K Areas under Standard Normal Curve 496
Appendix L F Distributions . 500
Appendix M Binomial Distribution 510
Appendix N Chi-Square Distribution 512
Appendix O Exponential Distribution . 514
Appendix P Poisson Distribution 516
Appendix Q Values of the t-Distribution . 518
Appendix R CSSGB Handbook CD-ROM . 520
Appendix S Acronym List 522
Appendix T Quality Gamebox 552
Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 555
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . 559
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 587


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Chemical Principles of Synthetic Fibre Dyeing by S. M. Burkinshaw

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Chemical Principles of Synthetic Fibre Dyeing
by S. M. Burkinshaw
Chemical Principles of Synthetic Fibre Dyeing

Contents
1. Polyester 1
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Disperse dyes 2
1.2.1. Aqueous phase transfer 9
1.2.2. Thermodynamics of dyeing 10
1.2.3. Kinetics of dyeing 19
1.2.4. Effect of crystal form of the dye on dye adsorption 23
1.2.5. Effect of particle size and distribution on dye adsorption 25
1.2.6. Effect of dispersing agents on dye adsorption 26
1.2.7. Effect of levelling agents on dye adsorption 28
1.2.8. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption 29
1.2.9. Isomorphism 32
1.2.10. Oligomers 34
1.2.11. Carrier dyeing 35
1.2.12. Solvent-assisted dyeing 57
1.2.13. Solvent dyeing 58
1.2.14. High-temperature dyeing 61
1.2.15. Thermofixation 66
1.2.16. Afterclearing 68
1.3. Azoic colorants 69
1.4. Vat dyes 70
References 70
2. Nylon 77
2.1. Introduction 77
2.2. Anionic dyes 80
2.2.1. Barre effects 81
2.2.2. Acid dyes 83
2.2.3. Mordant dyes 126
2.2.4. Direct dyes 130
2.2.5. Reactive dyes 133
2.3. Cationic dyes 134
2.4. Non-ionic dyes 135
2.4.1. Disperse dyes 135
2.4.2. Disperse reactive dyes 140
2.4.3. Azoic colorants 148
2.4.4. Vat dyes 149
References 150
3. Acrylic 157
3.1. Introduction 157
3.2. Cationic dyes 159
3.2.1. Thermodynamics of dye·adsorption 160
3.2.2. Kinetics of dye adsorption 165
3.2.3. Effect of pH on dye adsorption 167
3.2.4. Effect of electrolyte on dye adsorption 168
3.2.5. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption 169
3.2.6. Effect of water on PAN fibres 173
3.2.7. Carrier dyeing 175
3.2.8. Retarding agents 181
3.2.9. Dye-fibre characteristics 183
3.2.10. Migrating cationic dyes 185
3.2.11. Gel dyeing 185
3.3. Disperse dyes 186
3.3.1. Thermodynamics of dyeing 186
3.3.2. Kinetics of dyeing 188
3.3.3. General considerations 189
References 190
4. Microfibres 194
4.1. Introduction 194
4.1.1. General considerations 196
4.1.2. Microfibre production 199
4.2. Polyester microfibrcs 201
4.2.1. Mass-reduced polyester fibres 205
4.3. Polyamide micro fibres 211
References 216
Dye Index 219
Subject Index 221

Preface
This book is based on a series of lectures given to final year undergraduates and MSc students of the Department of Colour Chemistry and Dyeing at The University of Leeds. As such, the main intention, in writing the first three chapters of the book, was to provide these students, and others who have a fundamental understanding of dyeing, with an overview of the theories of dyeing the three major synthetic fibres, namely polyester, nylon and acrylic. In the case of a reader who has less knowledge of dyeing or one who may be newly entering the field, each of the first three chapters includes an introduction to the various dye classes that have been used to dye the three fibre types.

The subject of the theory of dyeing polyester, nylon and acrylic fibres has attracted enormous interest over several decades and, whilst none of the first three chapters represents an exhaustive account of the vast amount of published literature, it was intended that the references presented should provide the reader with a broad, general background of knowledge. Accounts are provided of the dyeing of the three types of fibre with several dye classes; whilst, nowadays, some of the classes of dye included either enjoy little usage or are not commercially employed owing to various reasons, it was decided to include such dye classes so as to provide a balanced view of the dyeing of these fibres. In a similar manner, although carrier dyeing is currently little used owing, primarily, to environmental reasons, this subject, which has attracted a great deal of attention in published literature, has been included. Furthermore, as the subject of carrier dyeing spans each of the Chapters 1-3 and as carrier dyeing was of greatest importance with regard to the dyeing of polyester, an account of the carrier dyeing of this fibre in Chapter I comprises a detailed description of this subject that included references to work carried out using other fibres, this having been done in an attempt to provide an account of the evolution of the theory of carrier dyeing.

The final chapter of the book concerns the dyeing of microfibre, which, although a relatively recent textile substrate, continues to grow in importance. The intention in writing Chapter 4 was to demonstrate why the dyeing of microfibre differs to that of conventional decitex fibre by the use of explanatory accounts of the effects that decreasing linear filament density have upon the colour yield and fastness properties of dyeings.

1. Polyester
1.1. Introduction

The undeniable outstanding success of polyester fibres, which were commercially introduced by ICI in 1948 under the trade name 'Terylene', can be attributed to their excellent textile properties and generally very high chemical resistance under typical dyeing and finishing conditions. The poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibres, which, typically, are prepared from terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol [1-3], now enjoy world-wide production and are marketed under a variety of trade names. Although other polyester fibres, such as the 'Kodel II' (Eastman) range prepared from 1,4-dimethylolcyclohexane and terephthalic acid [2, 4] are also available, this account concerns only the dyeing of PET fibres.

Owing to the compact and highly crystalline structure of the hydrophobic fibres the rate of dye diffusion within the fibres is very low. Copolymerisation of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid with a third comonomer such as ethylene oxide, isophthalic acid or 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, reduces the structural regularity of the homopolymer thereby improving the dyeability of the fibre with disperse dyes. The use of nonionic comonomers results in 'non-carrier dyeing' or 'deep-dyeing' PET fibres [5] and the use of anionic comonomers, such as 5-sulphoisophthalic acid imparts basic-dyeability to the fibres while the use of certain nitrogen- containing comonomers confers substantivity towards anionic dyes [3]; high-shrink PET fibres are also obtained by copolymerisation [6]. Additionally, the pilling performance of the fibre is enhanced by means of copolymerisation. Physical modifications employed in fibre production, such as modifications of the spinning conditions or the use of shorter molecular chains [6] also alters the fibre structure thereby modifying the dyeability and pilling performance of the fibre [2]. The 'Kodel II' (Eastman) range of poly(l,4-dimethylolcyclohexane) fibres [2, 4] also are modified in a similar manner as PET fibres [4].

PET fibres possess high resistance to oxidising and reducing agents and also to many organic solvents at room temperature although some solvents, at or near their boiling points, and in some cases at room temperature, induce shrinkage of unset fibres [7]. The fibres are prone to hydrolysis in the presence of dilute acids or alkalis as well as water [1]; however, this is of relatively little significance even under high-temperature dyeing conditions (130°C) provided that the pH is maintained within the range 4.5 to 6 [5]. Although possessing reasonable resistance to dilute aqueous acids, they are slowly degraded by concentrated acids; whilst the fibre will withstand typical alkaline conditions encountered in vat dyeing of PET/cotton blends, hot, concentrated alkali solutions hydrolyse the polymer although this is limited to surface saponification of the fibre at temperatures up to the boil [5]. Controlled saponification by means of treatment with hot aqueous sodium hydroxide is used to enhance the aesthetics of PET fabrics. Although it was observed in 1950 [8] that treatment of PET filaments with potassium hydroxide increased the fineness of the filaments, the use of sodium hydroxide to reduce fabric mass and thus enhance fabric aesthetics was first disclosed in 1952 [9] and later developed to impart high lustre [10]. Caustic treatment is now mainly used to improve the suppleness [11] of the fibre, the change in aesthetics, which is a direct function of fabric mass reduction [11], being dependent upon the temperature, duration and concentration of sodium hydroxide employed [11-13]. It has been demonstrated [14] that such alkali treatment enhances the dyeability of the fibre and it is considered [5] that alkali-treated PET is dyed more rapidly and to deeper shades than untreated fibre. A more detailed discussion of the mass reduction of PET fabric and its effects on dyeability is given in Chapter 4.

Barriness in PET fibres arises mainly from variations in crystallinity introduced during primary spinning, drawing, texturising and heat setting prior to dyeing; generally, barre effects introduced during texturising and heat setting are more prevalent than those imparted during drawing. Although an increase in crystallinity reduces the accessibility of the dye to those regions in which dye adsorption occurs, and thus rate of dyeing, the availability of such regions is aiso reduced, thereby reducing the saturation value of the fibre.

Although acid- and basic-dyeable variants have been developed for use in blends with conventional PET fibres, these variants enjoy considerably less usage than their disperse-dyeable counterpart. Nowadays, virtually all PET fibres are dyed using disperse dyes, although the fibres are dyeable with vat dyes, azoic colorants and, in the case of anionic-modified PET, cationic dyes.


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The Science of Footwear by Ravindra S. Goonetilleke

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The Science of Footwear
By Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
The Science of Footwear

Contents
Preface.................................................................................................................... xiii
Acknowledgments.....................................................................................................xv
Editor......................................................................................................................xvii
Contributors.............................................................................................................xix
Part I T he Human Foot
Chapter 1 Foot Structure and Anatomy.................................................................3
Ma Xiao, Yan Luximon, and Ameersing Luximon
Chapter 2 Foot Morphology................................................................................. 19
Inga Krauss and Marlene Mauch
Chapter 3 Foot Characteristics and Related Empirical Models........................... 47
Shuping Xiong, Asanka S. Rodrigo, and Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
Anthony C. Redmond
Part II Scanning and Processing
Chapter 5 3D Shape Capture of Human Feet and Shoe Lasts........................... 113
Carl G. Saunders and Jeffrey Chang
Chapter 6 3D Surface Scanning......................................................................... 127
Sudhakar Rajulu and Brian D. Corner
Chapter 7 Three-Dimensional Data Processing Techniques............................. 147
Jianhui Zhao, Yihua Ding, and Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
Part III Footwear Design
Chapter 8 Capturing Footwear Needs for Delighting Customers...................... 177
Emily Y.L. Au and Ravindra S. Goonetilleke
Chapter 9 Shoe-Last Design and Development................................................. 193
Ameersing Luximon and Yan Luximon
Chapter 10 Computer-Aided Design of Footwear............................................... 213
Ajay Joneja and Fan Sai Kit
Chapter 11 High-Heeled Shoes............................................................................ 261
Makiko Kouchi
Chapter 12 Footbed Design................................................................................. 279
Ravindra S. Goonetilleke and Thilina W. Weerasinghe
Chapter 13 Design of Insoles............................................................................... 291
Tammy M. Owings and Georgeanne Botek
Chapter 14 Design of Custom Shoe Lasts for Challenging Feet.........................309
Carl G. Saunders, Claudia Kieserling, and Johan Steenwyk
Chapter 15 Finite Element Analysis Methods in Footwear Design..................... 321
Philip Azariadis
Chapter 16 Footwear—The Forgotten Treatment—Clinical Role
of Footwear.................................................................................. 341
Helen Branthwaite, Nachiappan Chockalingam, and Aoife Healy
Part IV Testing
Chapter 17 Foot Pressure Measurements............................................................ 359
Ewald M. Hennig
Chapter 18 Plantar Pressure Analysis.................................................................. 377
Noël Keijsers
Chapter 19 Virtual Shoe Test Bed.......................................................................409
Sandra Alemany, José Olaso, Sergio Puigcerver,
and Juan Carlos González
Chapter 20 Measuring the Motion Control Properties of Footwear:
Assessment of Footwear and Foot Function Should Be
Harmonized....................................................................................... 437
Stephen Urry, Lloyd Reed, and William Gordon
Part V Footwear Effects
Chapter 21 Footwear Effects on Running Kinematics........................................ 457
Joseph Hamill, Allison H. Gruber, and Ross H. Miller
Chapter 22 Footwear Influences on Running Biomechanics............................... 475
Gordon A. Valiant, Allison R. Medellin, Lorilynn Bloomer,
and Sharna M. Clark-Donovan
Chapter 23 Effects of Footwear on Muscle Function..........................................489
George S. Murley and Karl Landorf
Chapter 24 Postural Stability Measurement: Implications for Footwear
Interventions...................................................................................... 513
Anna Lucy Hatton and Keith Rome
Chapter 25 Footwear, Balance, and Falls in the Elderly...................................... 535
Jasmine C. Menant and Stephen R. Lord
Part VI A ctivity-Specific Footwear
Chapter 26 Soccer Shoe Design and Its Influence on Player’s Performance....... 561
Ewald M. Hennig and Katharina Althoff
Chapter 27 Footwear for Preventing Acute Sport-Related Ankle
Ligamentous Sprain Injury................................................................ 577
Daniel Tik-Pui Fong, Kai-Ming Chan, and Kam-Ming Mok
Chapter 28 Kinematics Analysis of Walking with Negative-Heeled Shoes
on Treadmills.................................................................................... 595
Youlian Hong and Jing Xian Li
Chapter 29 Athletic Footwear Research by Industry and Academia..................605
Thorsten Sterzing, Wing Kai Lam, and Jason Tak-Man Cheung
Part VII Customization
Chapter 30 Mass Customization and Footwear................................................... 625
Chenjie Wang and Mitchell M. Tseng
Chapter 31 Strategic Capabilities to Implement Mass Customization
of Athletic Footwear: The Example of Miadidas..............................643
Frank Piller, Evalotte Lindgens, and Frank Steiner
Chapter 32 selve Model: Custom Shoes in the Twenty-First Century.................663
Claudia Kieserling
Chapter 33 Footwear Customization for Manufacturing Sustainability............. 673
Claudio R. Boër and Paolo Pedrazzoli

Preface
The global footwear market in 2011 was $241,294.3 million, and it grew by 5% from the year before. In the next five years, the footwear market is expected to grow by 29% (MarketLine, 2012) with most footwear manufactured in South-East Asia. Footwear suppliers have maintained their position in the market by differentiating the products, by offering specialized items, and by manufacturing high-end designer footwear, all of which require careful thought and research. All footwear go through the same process — from eliciting market needs to design, from manufacture to testing, and finally to market even though how each aspect is executed changes every day. Footwear-related information and research are spread across different disciplines. I have focused on bringing together high-quality contributions from designers, biomechanists, ergonomists, engineers, podiatrists, and scientists from industry and academia into one book. The differing perspectives give a holistic view of the science behind footwear. The book contains very useful data from past research and the state-of-the-art methodologies that are now used in the design and manufacture of footwear. The first four chapters are related to the foot. Feet among people are quite varied, and knowing the various characteristics helps with the design as well as the selection of footwear.

In the early days, lasts were made using simple measurements taken from people’s feet. Even today, foot length is the common measurement to determine the size of a shoe that one can wear. With improvements in technology, we now have sophisticated devices that can give the complete three-dimensional shape of an object. These scanning technologies are ideal for determining the shapes and sizes of feet and for matching the fit for shoes and feet using differing algorithms and techniques. The three chapters on scanning and processing give a very broad view of the various processes and highlight the challenges of using the scanning technologies. Even though shoes were primarily “carved” by artisans, modern-day shoemaking uses various technologies so that multiples of the same product can be made reliably knowing the basic needs of the consumers. The use of computers, scanners, numerically controlled machines, and rapid prototyping machines is quite common in footwear manufacture. The chapters on design provide an exclusive coverage of these computer-aided technologies. A number of chapters outline the design aspects of the various components of a shoe from mass manufacturing to personalized shoes and components. Footwear testing may be performed in vivo or in vitro. Both types have been covered. Footwear is meant to enhance safety, improve performance, and reduce stress on the human body. However, not all footwear can make a positive impact on a person, and some could be detrimental, if not carefully selected. The various effects of footwear are highlighted, and many chapters discuss activity-specific footwear as well. In today’s world, high variability, injury, or being “outsized” often makes one search for a more personalized and customized product. The last few chapters discuss the issues of customization with a view to minimizing waste, enhancing overall performance, and delighting customers.

The figures in the book are all in black and white. Color figures are on the CRC website related to the book, Science of Footwear. Each chapter in the book has excellent content, written by an expert. Anyone interested in footwear has all the information he or she needs, from eliciting customer needs to testing footwear. The book will undoubtedly be useful to academicians, practitioners, designers, researchers, and all others working in the area of footwear who strive to incorporate the biomechanical and ergonomics principles into footwear to enhance performance, safety, and comfort and to reduce injury.


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