Careers in Fashion PDF by Bonnie Szumski

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Careers in Fashion
Bonnie Szumski
Careers in Fashion

Contents
Introduction: The Big Break? 4
Fashion Designer 8
Textile Designer 16
Costume Designer 24
Model 32
Fashion Buyer 40
Fashion Writer 47
Fashion Stylist 54
Fashion Photographer 61
Interview with a Textile Designer 69
Other Jobs in the Fashion Industry 73
Index 74
Picture Credits 79
About the Author 80

Introduction
While the most celebrated fashion careers are in fashion and costume design, the fashion industry includes many other careers. For example, textile designers design the patterns on fabric, milliners design hats, and other designers work with jewelry and handbags. Other careers include assistants who help designers, fashion photographers, and fashion magazine editors; assistants shop for supplies and help these professionals in various other ways. It takes many people to successfully manage a fashion show or a photo shoot, for example. In addition, fashion is a retail business, and there are many careers that are involved in making it successful. Buyers, merchandisers, retailers, and sales assistants all contribute to the sale of fashions.

Many careers in fashion seem to be very similar to other careers that rely on raw artistic talent and being in the right place at the right time. Successful people in fashion tell similar stories to those told by well-known actors, painters, and musicians. While all might be talented and work hard, most describe a moment when they were able to get that fi rst big break that allowed them to enter this extremely competitive industry. Fashion designer Rachel Roy, for example, describes on the Teen Vogue website the day in 2006 when her big break occurred, bringing her in contact with well-known fashion designers. “André Leon Talley came in unexpectedly during a sales market to view my collection. Upon seeing it, he suggested Anna Wintour see it, too.” Roy continues, “Th e next thing I knew, I was at the Vogue offi ces presenting my collection on two models.” Th e story seems to be repeated over and over—budding designers, photographers, or bloggers have a brush with fame and the next thing they know, they’ve hit it big.

Years of Hard Work
Th ese stories can be discouraging for someone who wants to start out in fashion because they seem to suggest that you can only make it if you know someone infl uential in the industry. But those who investigate further will fi nd that these are not the only stories. For most people, breaking into fashion takes years of hard work, determination, and a lot of rejection. On the Teen Vogue website, Steven Kolb, the CEO of Fashion Designers of America, argues that the years of hard work are the reality: “Th ere are no big breaks. It is little cracks along the way that further a person’s career. Every little success you have is added to the next success.” In other words, wannabe fashionistas who follow their passion, who do not settle for anything less, who put in time and eff ort will eventually land their dream career.

Many fashion industry insiders are willing to impart advice about how to enter their fi eld. Th eir stories are as varied as any other artistic profession. Many did not, for example, go to a fashion school; rather, they opted for a liberal arts degree. Fashion designer Whitney Port describes her fashion journey on Teen Vogue’s website this way: I knew I wanted to attend USC, but they didn’t off er a fashion major. I decided to focus on gender studies so I could learn more about the history of how men and women have worked together and separately to create equality. As a female designer and businesswoman, the studies helped me realize how important women’s empowerment is. I feel that the balance between what I learned through my jobs and internships in the fashion world paired with the studies and knowledge I gained from USC was a great base to help me in my career and my designs.

Some College Is Recommended
While some fashion professionals, such as designers Ralph Lauren and Steve Madden, did not attend any college, most fashion professionals recommend at least some college. Port, for instance, later went to art college and pursued sculpture and other visual arts. Because technical skills and knowledge form the basis of many fashion industry jobs, most in the industry emphasize the importance of learning those essential skills and developing a knowledge base. Photographers, for instance, need to have strong knowledge of digital cameras and software techniques. Designers need to understand sewing, construction, and fabric. Style writer Andrew Bevan chose a traditional route—journalism—to enter his writing career, as he described in another story on the Teen Vogue website:

I think my college education prepared me a lot for my career in fashion journalism. I got great basic writing skills from my teachers who were working journalists, and studying both narrative and documentary fi lms really helped me become a more visual person. My internships at Ralph Lauren and Charlie Rose’s talk show really gave me hands-on experience. And last but not least, I worked a lot of retail when I was in college and I always say to anyone interested in getting into the fashion industry: never underestimate the power of working in retail. It’s the best way to understand how people shop and what clothes they are drawn to, and it’s great training to become a people person.

People in the industry frequently talk about passion—passion for fashion, fabric, clothing, images—a passion that grows with them from a very early age. Th ese artistic people fi nd something deeply satisfying in their work with fashion and a connection with the people they meet in the fashion world. Many in the industry say that they simply could not—and would not—do anything else. Passionate about fashion? Th e careers highlighted in this book capture just a few of the many ways you can turn that enthusiasm into a satisfying career.


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Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History PDF by Fred S. Kleiner

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Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History
By Fred S. Kleiner
Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History

Contents
PREFACE xi
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS ART HISTORY? 1
Art History in the 21st Century 2
Different Ways of Seeing 12
CHAPTER 1
ART BEFORE HISTORY 15
Paleolithic Art 15
Neolithic Art 24
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Paleolithic Cave Painting 20
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Art in the Old Stone Age 21
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The World’s Oldest
Paintings? 22
THE BIG PICTURE 29
CHAPTER 2
THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST 31
Sumer 32
Akkad and the Third Dynasty of Ur 39
Second Millennium BCE 43
Assyria 45
Neo-Babylonia and Persia 47
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Gods and Goddesses
of Mesopotamia 33
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Mesopotamian Seals 39
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Enheduanna, Priestess and Poet 41
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: The Piety of Gudea 42
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Hammurabi’s Law Code 43
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Babylon, City of Wonders 48
THE BIG PICTURE 51
CHAPTER 3
EGYPT UNDER
THE PHARAOHS 53
The Predynastic and Early Dynastic Periods 54
The Old Kingdom 59
The Middle Kingdom 64
The New Kingdom 67
First Millennium BCE 77
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Gods and Goddesses of Egypt 54
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Mummification and Immortality 57
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Building the Great Pyramids 60
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Hatshepsut, the Woman Who Would Be King 68
THE BIG PICTURE 79
CHAPTER 4
THE PREHISTORIC AEGEAN 81
Cycladic Art 82
Minoan Art 84
Mycenaean Art 90
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Archaeology, Art History, and the Art
Market 83
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Theran Eruption and the Chronology
of Aegean Art 87
THE BIG PICTURE 97
CHAPTER 5
ANCIENT GREECE 99
Geometric and Orientalizing Periods 100
Archaic Period 105
Early and High Classical Periods 118
Late Classical Period 137
Hellenistic Period 145
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Gods and Goddesses
of Mount Olympus 101
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Greek Vase Painting 104
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Greek Temple Plans 109
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Doric and Ionic Orders 110
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Herakles, Greatest of Greek
Heroes 120
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Hollow-Casting Life-Size
Bronze Statues 122
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Polykleitos’s Prescription for the Perfect
Statue 124
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Hegeso Stele 134
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Corinthian Capital 144
THE BIG PICTURE 155
CHAPTER 6
SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
BEFORE 1200 157
India and Pakistan 157
Southeast Asia 174
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Buddhism and Buddhist
Iconography 161
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Ashoka’s Conversion to Buddhism 162
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Stupa 163
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The Painted Caves
of Ajanta 167
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Hinduism and Hindu
Iconography 168
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Hindu Temples 172
THE BIG PICTURE 179
CHAPTER 7
CHINA AND KOREA TO 1279 181
China 181
Korea 202
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Shang Bronze-Casting 183
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Chinese Jade 185
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Daoism and Confucianism 186
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Silk and the Silk Road 188
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Chinese Wooden Construction 189
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Chinese Painting Materials
and Formats 190
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Xie He’s Six Canons 191
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Chinese Earthenwares
and Stonewares 196
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY Chan Buddhism 201
THE BIG PICTURE 205
CHAPTER 8
JAPAN BEFORE 1333 207
Japan before Buddhism 207
Buddhist Japan 210
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Shinto 211
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Heian Court Culture 217
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Heian and Kamakura Artistic
Workshops 219
THE BIG PICTURE 221
CHAPTER 9
THE ETRUSCANS 223
Early Etruscan Art 224
Later Etruscan Art 231
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Etruscan Counterparts
of Greco-Roman Gods and Heroes 225
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Etruscan Artists in Rome 226
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The “Audacity” of Etruscan Women 227
THE BIG PICTURE 235
CHAPTER 10
THE ROMAN EMPIRE 237
Republic 239
Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius 244
Early Empire 254
High Empire 263
Late Empire 276
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: An Outline of Roman History 239
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Roman Concrete Construction 241
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Art for Former Slaves 243
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: An Eyewitness Account of the Eruption
of Mount Vesuvius 245
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Roman House 247
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Role Playing in Roman Portraiture 254
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: The Golden House of Nero 259
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Spectacles in the Colosseum 260
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Hadrian and Apollodorus of
Damascus 269
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Iaia of Cyzicus and the Art
of Encaustic Painting 275
THE BIG PICTURE 287
CHAPTER 11
LATE ANTIQUITY 289
Dura-Europos 289
The Catacombs and Funerary Art 291
Architecture and Mosaics 295
Luxury Arts 304
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Jewish Subjects in Christian
Art 293
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Life of Jesus in Art 296
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Mosaics 303
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Medieval Manuscript
Illumination 305
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Ivory Carving 307
THE BIG PICTURE 309
CHAPTER 12
BYZANTIUM 311
Early Byzantine Art 312
Middle Byzantine Art 327
Late Byzantine Art 335
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Pendentives and Squinches 315
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Theodora, a Most Unusual Empress 320
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: The Emperors of New Rome 323
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Icons and Iconoclasm 326
THE BIG PICTURE 339
CHAPTER 13
THE ISLAMIC WORLD 341
Early Islamic Art 342
Later Islamic Art 352
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Muhammad and Islam 343
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Mosque 345
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Sinan the Great and the Mosque of
Selim II 354
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Islamic Tilework 357
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Christian Patronage of Islamic Art 362
THE BIG PICTURE 363
CHAPTER 14
NATIVE ARTS OF THE AMERICAS
BEFORE 1300 365
Mesoamerica 366
Intermediate Area 379
South America 380
North America 387
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Mesoamerican Ball Game 372
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Andean Weaving 382
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Serpent Mound 389
THE BIG PICTURE 391
CHAPTER 15
AFRICA BEFORE 1800 393
Prehistory and Early Cultures 394
11th to 18th Centuries 399
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Dating African Art and Identifying African
Artists 395
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Art and Leadership in Africa 397
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Idealized Naturalism at Ile-Ife 398
THE BIG PICTURE 405
CHAPTER 16
EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE 407
Art of the Warrior Lords 407
Christian Art: Scandinavia, British Isles, Spain 410
Carolingian Art 415
Ottonian Art 422
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Medieval Books 411
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Four Evangelists 412
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Charlemagne’s Renovatio Imperii
Romani 416
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Medieval Monasteries
and Benedictine Rule 420
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Theophanu, a Byzantine Princess
in Ottonian Germany 428
THE BIG PICTURE 429
CHAPTER 17
ROMANESQUE EUROPE 431
France and Northern Spain 433
Holy Roman Empire 445
Italy 450
Normandy and England 453
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Pilgrimages and the Cult of Relics 432
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Timber Roofs and Stone Vaults 435
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Bernard of Clairvaux on Cloister
Sculpture 438
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Romanesque Church Portal 439
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Crusades 442
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Romanesque Countesses, Queens,
and Nuns 448
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Embroidery
and Tapestry 456
THE BIG PICTURE 459
CHAPTER 18
GOTHIC EUROPE 461
French Gothic 462
Gothic outside of France 486
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Abbot Suger and the Rebuilding
of Saint-Denis 463
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Gothic Rib Vault 464
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Scholasticism and Gothic Art
and Architecture 466
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Gothic Cathedral 469
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Stained-Glass Windows 472
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Louis IX, the Saintly King 482
THE BIG PICTURE 495
CHAPTER 19
ITALY, 1200 TO 1400 497
The 13th Century 497
The 14th Century 502
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Italian Artists’ Names 498
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Great Schism, Mendicant
Orders, and Confraternities 501
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Fresco Painting 504
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Artists’ Guilds, Commissions,
and Contracts 506
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Artistic Training in Renaissance Italy 510
THE BIG PICTURE 517
CHAPTER 20
NORTHERN EUROPE,
1400 TO 1500 519
Burgundy and Flanders 519
France 532
Holy Roman Empire 534
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Tempera and Oil
Painting 523
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Framed Paintings 526
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Artist’s Profession in Flanders 528
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Woodcuts, Engravings,
and Etchings 537
THE BIG PICTURE 539
CHAPTER 21
ITALY, 1400 TO 1500 541
Florence 542
The Princely Courts 568
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Renaissance Perspectival
Systems 547
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Cennino Cennini on Imitation and
Emulation in Renaissance Art 553
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Renaissance Family Chapel
Endowments 564
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Italian Princely Courts and Artistic
Patronage 569
THE BIG PICTURE 577
CHAPTER 22
ITALY, 1500 TO 1600 579
High and Late Renaissance 579
Mannerism 612
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Renaissance Drawings 581
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Leonardo and Michelangelo
on Painting versus Sculpture 588
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Restoring Renaissance
Paintings 595
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Religious Art in Counter-Reformation
Italy 596
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Palma il Giovane on Titian 609
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Women in the Renaissance Art World 611
THE BIG PICTURE 623
CHAPTER 23
NORTHERN EUROPE AND SPAIN,
1500 TO 1600 625
Holy Roman Empire 626
France 634
The Netherlands 637
Spain 643
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Catholic and Protestant Views
of Salvation 631
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Protestantism and Iconoclasm 632
THE BIG PICTURE 647
CHAPTER 24
ITALY AND SPAIN,
1600 TO 1700 649
Italy 649
Spain 665
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Giovanni Pietro Bellori on Annibale
Carracci and Caravaggio 660
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: The Letters of Artemisia Gentileschi 662
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Velázquez and Philip IV 668
THE BIG PICTURE 671
CHAPTER 25
NORTHERN EUROPE,
1600 TO 1700 673
Flanders 674
Dutch Republic 679
France 691
England 701
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Rubens on Consequences of War 677
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Middle-Class Patronage and the Art Market
in the Dutch Republic 680
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Poussin’s Notes for a Treatise
on Painting 692
THE BIG PICTURE 703
CHAPTER 26
SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
AFTER 1200 705
India 705
Southeast Asia 713
Contemporary Art 716
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Indian Miniature
Painting 708
THE BIG PICTURE 717
CHAPTER 27
CHINA AND KOREA
AFTER 1279 719
China 719
Korea 730
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Chinese Porcelain 722
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Lacquered Wood 724
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Calligraphy and Inscriptions
on Chinese Paintings 726
THE BIG PICTURE 733
CHAPTER 28
JAPAN AFTER 1336 735
Japan, 1336 to 1868 735
Modern Japan 746
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Zen Buddhism 736
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Japanese Tea Ceremony 740
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Japanese Woodblock
Prints 744
THE BIG PICTURE 749
CHAPTER 29
EUROPE AND AMERICA,
1700 TO 1800 751
Rococo 751
The Enlightenment 757
Neoclassicism 766
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Femmes Savantes and
Salon Culture 753
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Diderot on Chardin 760
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Grand Tour and Veduta Painting 765
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Excavations of Herculaneum
and Pompeii 766
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: David on Greek Style and Public Art 768
THE BIG PICTURE 775
CHAPTER 30
EUROPE AND AMERICA,
1800 TO 1870 777
Art under Napoleon 777
Romanticism 784
Realism 798
Architecture 810
Photography 815
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Romantic Spirit in Art, Music,
and Literature 790
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Delacroix in Morocco 792
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Courbet on Realism 799
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Lithography 801
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Daguerreotype, Calotype,
and Wet-Plate Photography 814
THE BIG PICTURE 819
CHAPTER 31
EUROPE AND AMERICA,
1870 TO 1900 821
Impressionism 822
Post-Impressionism 831
Symbolism 838
Sculpture 843
Architecture and Decorative Arts 846
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Academic Salons and Independent
Art Exhibitions 823
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Renoir on the Art of Painting 827
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Japonisme 829
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: 19th-Century Color
Theory 832
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: The Letters of Vincent van Gogh 834
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Rodin on Movement in Art
and Photography 845
THE BIG PICTURE 851
CHAPTER 32
NATIVE ARTS OF THE AMERICAS
AFTER 1300 853
Mesoamerica 853
South America 858
North America 860
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Aztec Religion 856
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Gender Roles in Native American Art 863
THE BIG PICTURE 869
CHAPTER 33
OCEANIA 871
Australia and Melanesia 872
Micronesia 878
Polynesia 880
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Women’s Roles in Oceania 879
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Tongan Barkcloth 881
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Tattoo in Polynesia 883
THE BIG PICTURE 887
CHAPTER 34
AFRICA AFTER 1800 889
19th Century 889
20th Century 895
Contemporary Art 904
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Gender Roles in African Art Production 896
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: African Artists and Apprentices 897
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: African Masquerades 899
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Mende Women as Maskers 901
THE BIG PICTURE 907
CHAPTER 35
EUROPE AND AMERICA,
1900 TO 1945 909
Europe, 1900 to 1920 910
America, 1900 to 1930 932
Europe, 1920 to 1945 940
America, 1930 to 1945 953
Architecture 960
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Matisse on Color 912
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Science and Art in the Early
20th Century 915
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Gertrude and Leo Stein
and the Avant-Garde 918
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Primitivism and Colonialism 920
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Picasso on Cubism 924
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Futurist Manifestos 927
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Art “Matronage” in America 933
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Armory Show 934
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Degenerate Art 945
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Brancusi, Hepworth, and Moore
on Abstract Sculpture 951
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Museum of Modern Art
and the Avant-Garde 954
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Rivera on Art for the People 959
THE BIG PICTURE 967
CHAPTER 36
EUROPE AND AMERICA
AFTER 1945 969
Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1970 970
Painting and Sculpture since 1970 987
Architecture and Site-Specific Art 1002
Performance and Conceptual Art and New Media 1017
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Jackson Pollock on Easel
and Mural Painting 973
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Helen Frankenthaler on Color-Field
Painting 977
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: David Smith on Outdoor Sculpture 978
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Donald Judd on Sculpture and Industrial Materials 979
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Roy Lichtenstein on Pop Art 983
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Chuck Close on Portrait Painting and Photography 986
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Judy Chicago on The Dinner Party 990
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Public Funding of Controversial Art 996
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial 1007
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Philip Johnson on Postmodern
Architecture 1009
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Frank Gehry on Architectural Design
and Materials 1012
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc 1016
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Carolee Schneemann on Painting,
Performance Art, and Art History 1018
THE BIG PICTURE 1025
NOTES 1026
GLOSSARY 1030
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1046
CREDITS 1059
INDEX 1066

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The Fight for Ethical Fashion: The Origins and Interactions of the Clean Clothes Campaign PDF by Philip Balsiger

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The Fight for Ethical Fashion: The Origins and Interactions of the Clean Clothes Campaign Pdf
By Philip Balsiger
The Fight for Ethical Fashion: The Origins and Interactions of the Clean Clothes Campaign Pdf

Contents
List of Figures, Tables and Documents ix
Preface xi
1 Introduction: Contentious Markets 1
2 The Rise of Consumer Campaigns 21
3 Launching a Campaign 49
4 Building a Campaign 71
5 Campaign Styles and Protest in the Marketplace 97
6 Campaigning Over Time 115
7 Strategic Interactions and Campaign Outcomes 145
Conclusion: Contention, Consumers, and Corporations 161
References 165
Index 181

List of Figures, Tables and Documents

Figures
1.1 Sales volume / inhabitant of Max Havelaar labeled products in Switzerland and France (Source: Max Havelaar Switzerland and France) 14
4.1 Circle of tactical action repertoire 83

Documents
4.1 Campaign fabrication, internal document campaign
coalition France, November 16 1999 77
4.2 Strategic deployment of the 2005 campaign round
“Jouez le jeu II”, from campaign manual, p. 7 78

Tables
1.1 Major factors shaping reactiveness of firms to movement demands 8
1.2 Two ideal types of campaigns 12
1.3 Type of observations in Switzerland and France 17
4.1 Campaign rounds in Switzerland, 1997–2008 75
4.2 Campaign rounds in France, 1995–2005 75
4.3 Action forms employed by the Swiss and French campaigns 81
4.4 Composition of local coalitions: organizations present
in 5 or more local coalitions 95
5.1 Frames addressed at potential campaign participants in
France and Switzerland 98

Preface
This book is the result of a long research journey and it would not be the same without the many people I encountered along the way. Its chapters were written and re-written in Lausanne, Zurich, State College, Pittsburgh, Cologne and Florence, and the fieldwork that it is based on was done in libraries, offices, cafes, shops and squares in Zurich, Paris, and a few other cities in Switzerland and France. It is impossible to mention everyone who has contributed, in one way or another, to this project, which goes back to the year 2006 when I first heard of a thing called ‘political consumption’ and decided to study the collective actors behind it: how social movements mobilize consumers and target corporations.

My gratitude goes firstly to the activists working or volunteering for the Swiss and French Clean Clothes Campaigns (CCC) and some of the organizations contributing to it. Without their generosity, their willingness to share their stories and to respond to my questions, the research on which this book builds would not have been possible. My recognition especially goes to Nayla from the French Collectif Ethique sur l’étiquette, who helped me greatly in getting in touch with former campaign officials in France and granted me access to the campaigns’ internal archives. I am also especially grateful to the people at the Zurich office of the Bern Declaration and the volunteers from one of its regional groups, who welcomed me to participate in their activities. Attending their meetings and contributing to their actions was very rewarding and it opened my eyes to many aspects of mobilization that I would have otherwise overlooked. I also want to thank all the other people who agreed to be interviewed for this study—those working for clothing firms, government programs, and organizations pursuing the goal of making fashion more ethical.

Intellectually, the book owes much—if not everything!—to Olivier Fillieule, who is and has been a great mentor and friend, ever questioning existing theories of social movements and pushing me on the track towards a more interactionist and dynamic perspective on mobilization processes. The Centre de recherche sur l’action politique of the University of Lausanne (CRAPUL) was an immensely inspiring place to develop this research and exchange ideas with fellow political sociologists and friends. With her poignant remarks and suggestions, Nonna Mayer from the Centre d’études européennes at Sciences Po Paris also played a not insignificant role in improving this manuscript over the years.

When I left the University of Lausanne, I enjoyed the great privilege of being welcomed into two of the most outstanding European institutions to do social research, where I was granted generous fellowships which enabled me to rethink the structure of this book and complete its writing. First, the Max-Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in Cologne, Germany, provided me with a postdoctoral fellowship; I am especially grateful to the Institute’s co-director, Jens Beckert, who invited me to join the ‘sociology of markets’ group and whose interest in the role social movements play in the rise of ‘moral markets’ has opened up new perspectives in my work. I then had the pleasure of becoming a ‘Max Weber Fellow’ for a year, joining the Max Weber Programme of the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence. The inspiring intellectual encounters on the hills overlooking Florence, and the new friends found at the EUI made this time productive and unforgettable. I was also warmly integrated into the vibrant community of social movement scholars at the EUI led by Donatella della Porta, to whom I am particularly indebted. Following this time at the EUI, I also want to thank the Swiss National Science Foundation for awarding me a postdoctoral mobility grant, allowing me to continue my stay at the EUI and finish the last revisions for this book. In this last stage, the comments and suggestions by Hank Johnston, editor of the Mobilization series, were extremely helpful in improving and tightening this manuscript. I also want to thank Susan Garvin for her very careful language editing, and Claire Jarvis from Ashgate for her efficient work.

Finally, I want to dedicate this book to the people who mean the most to me and whose presence has helped me through all the ups and downs such a long research endeavor inevitably gives rise to. To Danny, who makes me smile every day and has fed me through many difficult moments with his marvelous Tuscan meals. To my brother, who is always high on my list. And, most of all, to my parents who have instilled me with intellectual curiosity and have always been there for me, supportive of my choice of pursuing academic research. At last their patient yet persistent questions about the progress of this book get a final answer.


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Fashion Brand Internationalization: Opportunities and Challenges PDF Edited by Byoungho Jin, Elena Cedrola

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Fashion Brand Internationalization: Opportunities and Challenges Pdf
Edited by Byoungho Jin, Elena Cedrola
Fashion Brand Internationalization: Opportunities and Challenges Pdf

CONTENTS
1 Overview of Fashion Brand Internationalization: Theories and Trends 1
Byoungho Jin and Elena Cedrola
2 Ermenegildo Zegna: When Family Values Guide Global Expansion in the Luxury Industry 31
Elena Cedrola and Ksenia Silchenko
3 Diesel: An Unconventional, Innovative, International- Lifestyle, Italian Company 65
Donata Vianelli , Giovanna Pegan , and Manuela Valta
4 The Internationalization Trajectory of Bossini: A Fashion Retailing Enterprise from Hong Kong 89
Hau-Ling Chan , Tsan-Ming Choi , and Ka-Yan Man
5 Beaucre Merchandising Co. Ltd: A Successfully Internationalizing Korean Apparel Company 115
Byoungho Jin and Jae-Eun Chung
Index 139

PREFACE
Internationalization is critical for any business, and especially so for globalby- nature fashion brands. Of the many industry sectors, fashion is probably one of the most active in terms of internationalization. Compared with other industry sectors, it is generally easier for fashion brands to enter international markets because little fi nancial investment is required, smallscale retail space is possible, and economies of scale can be maximized. Moreover, the dynamic global market, widespread supplier networks and supply chains strengthen the fashion industry’s advantage in internationalization. As a result, there are more successful internationalization cases in the fashion industry than in any other sector.

A majority of global fashion brands operate beyond their home countries and a significant number of these brands make more than half of their revenues from international operations. For example, revenues from international operation are as high as 95 % for H&M, 80 % for Inditex, S.A., and 68 % for Nike. Leading luxury fashion group LVMH earns 88 % of its retail sales from 76 different countries.

Despite the unprecedented scale of fashion brands’ internationalization in recent decades, not much is known about its specifi c features. The global fashion industry is intrinsically complex and cooperative, so analysis of its multiple layers provides profound insights into the industry and its management. Case study analysis also helps answer questions about what is happening, why and how. Nonetheless, case studies are a rarity within the literature. This book presents a collection of case studies of fashion companies of various sizes and cultural backgrounds. Each case is written by author(s) from the brand’s country of origin and based on original documents and interviews with key informants, some of which have previously been unavailable in English. These case studies therefore provide a higher level of detailed and accurate information and practical insights into the industry’s competitive landscape and its future.

The book is a useful read for undergraduate as well as graduate students with an interest in the fashion industry, retailing, branding and international business. It will be an excellent resource for scholars researching fashion brand internationalization thanks to its review of the literature and its insights into fashion brands’ internationalization strategies. Professionals in the fashion and apparel industry will also fi nd it worth reading because globalization issues are critical to their business survival.

This volume consists of fi ve chapters combining theory with practice. The first chapter reviews the characteristics of the fashion industry and its products, traditional internationalization models and entry mode choices, and the main differences between manufacturing internationalization and retailing internationalization. Major emerging trends in fashion brand internationalization are then examined, including the increase in Asian apparel brand internationalization, the rise of international out-shopping both online and offl ine, the acquisition of leading global fashion brands by companies from developing countries, and China’s infl uence on the expansion of fashion brands. An understanding of these trends will provide global fashion brand companies with insights as to the challenges and opportunities presented by these new shifts.

The book discusses four global fashion brand cases that are carefully selected to refl ect the diverse aspects and trends of their internationalization endeavors. The fi rst case (Chap. 2 ) demonstrates how Zegna, a fourthgeneration family-owned Italian business, evolved from a producer of high-quality fabrics into a global luxury fashion brand. It emphasizes the importance of local community and family values in brands’ international outlook. Despite the delocalization of some production plants from Italy to Switzerland, Spain, Turkey and Mexico, the company demonstrates how strong brand reputation and company values together with cohesive vertical integration choices can sustain business growth both locally and globally. Case two (Chap. 3 ), Diesel, is a relatively small and more recently established Italian company targeting younger consumers. The founder succeeded in reinventing denim fabric in a mature market characterized by fi erce competition and the leading presence of American multinationals. Innovation, creativity and non-conformist choices are the fundamentals of the company. The Diesel case also demonstrates how the company achieved sustained growth in both national and international markets by repositioning a mature product from medium to high quality and from medium to high price.

Cases three and four illustrate two Asian brands: Bossini from Hong Kong (Chap. 4 ) and Beaucre Merchandising from South Korea (Chap. 5 ). These two cases, unlike Italian Zegna and Diesel, are rather small and target mid-to-high-priced markets, providing unique knowledge and insights into the contemporary fashion business. Internationalization is a relatively new phenomenon for Asian brands, and there were fewer examples for Bossini and Beaucre Merchandising to rely on. Moreover, without a strong brand or country image the two brands encountered more challenges despite expanding into psychically close neighboring Asian countries fi rst. For instance, Korean Beaucre Merchandising entered the Chinese market at a very early stage, enjoyed fi rst-mover advantage, but had to fi nd creative solutions to a number of challenges. The two Asian cases prove that fashion brands with less powerful brand and country images can still fi nd ways to compete in the global marketplace. Rome was not built in a day, nor is a global fashion brand. The four global fashion brand cases in this volume are thus put together in the hope that their examples and internationalization stories will inspire more fashion brands to success in global marketplaces. Our fi rst and deepest gratitude goes to two chairmen, Paolo Zegna at Zegna group and Man Joong Lee at Beaucre Merchandising, who took time from their busy schedules to share their stories and unique experiences with us and to review earlier drafts. Their insights and vision will inspire business executives to come. Special thanks go to authors of each chapter for providing insightful cases incorporating information and sources not readily available to many readers. The information is of particular value since their observation of the history of each brand in their home country and their own experiences as consumers are embedded in their analyses. We were fortunate to be supported by many former and current research assistants. Particular thanks are due to Hee Soon Yang, Junghwa Son, Hongjoo Woo, Hisu-Chun (Wendy) Chou and Naeun (Lauren) Kim for fi nding information for the books and designing and revising many fi gures and tables. We also thank Lavinia Caini and Letizia Trabaldo Togna for fi nding information and supporting bibliometric analysis.


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Fashion Branding and Communication: Core Strategies of European Luxury Brands PDF Edited by Byoungho Jin and Elena Cedrola

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Fashion Branding and Communication: Core Strategies of European Luxury Brands
Edited by Byoungho Jin and Elena Cedrola
Fashion Branding and Communication: Core Strategies of European Luxury Brands

CONTENTS
1 Brands as Core Assets: Trends and Challenges of Branding in Fashion Business 1
Byoungho Jin and Elena Cedrola
2 Harmont & Blaine: A Successful Dachshund to Build the Values and Brand Identity 41
Maria Colurcio and Monia Melia
3 Salvatore Ferragamo: Brand Heritage as Main Vector of Brand Extension and Internationalization 73
Maria Carmela Ostillio and Sarah Ghaddar
4 Tod’s: A Global Multi-Brand Company with a Taste of Tradition 101
Maria Carmela Ostillio and Sarah Ghaddar
5 The Prada Trend: Brand Building at the Intersection
of Design, Art, Technology, and Retail Experience 125
Stefania Masè and Ksenia Silchenko
6 Louis Vuitton’s Art-Based Strategy to Communicate Exclusivity and Prestige 155
Stefania Masè and Elena Cedrola
Index 185

PREFACE
Every firm dreams of creating a well-established brand. Especially for fashion companies, brand name is a paramount concern, often serving as a deciding factor for consumer purchase decisions. Consumers do not necessarily seek functionality in fashion. Instead, they purchase styles, dreams, and symbolic images—aspects of their identity that brands can help them project. Therefore, in the fashion industry, brand is a critical asset many firms strive to establish, maintain, and grow. The study of branding is complex because no single factor plays a decisive role in its development. To elucidate this intricate subject, we chose to structure this book around case studies, building on previous works on branding. In particular, we focus on European luxury and premium brands because of its massive influence on branding and communication. Luxury strategies have their roots in Europe, primarily pioneered by French and Italian companies. This book specifically focuses on four Italian companies (Harmont & Blaine, Salvatore Ferragamo, Tod’s, and Prada) and one French company (Louis Vuitton). Each case was written by author(s) who have either come from the region, provided marketing consultation for the brands, or conducted in-depth studies of the brands. Their connections provided us with invaluable access to interviews with executives and reviews of archives would have been otherwise limited. These experiences have allowed us to write this text, compiled from information not easily obtainable elsewhere.

This book begins with an overview chapter, creating a backdrop to help facilitate a holistic understanding of the five cases. The chapter introduces major brands and communication-related concepts with a particular focus on prominent fashion brands in Europe and America. The objective of the first chapter is not to summarize the concepts of branding and communication. On the contrary, the chapter has two specific aims. First, it addresses aspects of branding and communication that have often been overlooked in previous studies. In particular, we highlight fashion industries in Western continents, discussing specific examples and practices from companies in this region. Second, this chapter describes major challenges and changes in the industry. This will create a foundation for readers to understand the five subsequent chapters, as these challenges and trends will reappear throughout the cases in this text.

The five cases in this book are diverse in their brand portfolio management and their focus on brand communication. Though they were not chosen for their similarities, they nonetheless strikingly resemble each other. First, all five cases hold a tight control over the quality of their products through various measures and continuous innovation within the company. Ferragamo’s patent on shoes is an example of this. To control their quality, Harmont & Blaine and Ferragamo manufacture mainly in Italy, employing small workshops and in-house facilities. In fact, a majority of these companies started in workshops in small towns. These experiences have cultivated in the companies a spirit of craftsmanship that will remain for generations to come. Second, all five cases were forerunners in the fashion industry in their decision to expand internationally and extend their brands.Only a littlemore than two decades after its establishment, Harmont & Blaine (Chapter 2) currently exports to 50 countries with approximately 20% of their sales revenue coming from exports. Ferragamo (Chapter 3) and Tod’s (Chapter 4) earn 80% and 70% of their sales revenue, respectively, from exports. In the case of Prada (Chapter 5) and of Louis Vuitton (Chapter 6), about 90% and 86% of their sales revenue, respectively, stem from exports. Ferragamo has expanded to 99 countries, and Tod’s has extended to 37. Third, all five brands have their roots in a family, and their descendants still operate the brands, passing down the company from generation to generation. This form of ownership has been instrumental in keeping family philosophy and brand heritage alive. Fourth, these companies value longtermpartnerships with subcontractors, leadership in corporate social responsibilities, and dedication to the community. Collectively, these morals have helped shape their corporate image and commitment to product quality. Fifth, these companies have developed innovative de-commodization strategies though each brand’s strategy is unique—Ferragamo through corporate museums and exhibitions (Chapter 3), Tod’s storytelling via Princess Diana and Jacqueline Kennedy (Chapter 4), Prada’s cutting-edge Epicenters through a collaboration with renowned architect (Chapter 5), and Louis Vuitton’s artification strategies via collaborations with leading Japanese artists (Chapter 6).

These cases demonstrate how a family workshop from a small town can grow into a global luxury or premium brand within a relatively short amount of time. Their ability to do so was not a consequence of marketing and branding effort alone. Rather, the combination of their brand strategies and their enthusiasm for their products pushed these companies to this level of success. These firms demonstrate that branding is most effective when it is first rooted in a commitment to quality. Many small firms emerge and disappear every day. Branding and communication are key for companies to continue to grow. As such, we hope that the strategies in this book provide inspiration and practical insight for firms striving to reach their potential.

In that sense, this book is a useful read not only to undergraduate and graduate students but also practitioners in the industries of fashion, retailing, branding, and international business. Scholars who conduct research branding and communication in the fashion industry will also benefit fromthis text as we review literature and explore examples across Europe and America. This book would not be possible without the support ofmany people. We extend our deepest gratitude to executives and marketing communication directors of the five companies in this text who took time from their busy schedules to share their stories with us and to review earlier drafts. Their insight and vision will inspire many more business executives to come. We express special thanks to authors of each chapter who conducted multiple interviews with key informants, traveled to headquarters, museums, and associations to collect visual images and archives, and consolidated the insightful information with great dedication. Their contribution was even more meaningful as the information was in multiple languages: French, Italian, and English. We were fortunate to have the support of former and current research assistants. A particular thanks to Naeun (Lauren) Kim for finding information for the book and checking formats and references across the cases. We also thank Anna Chiappelli for obtaining information and assisting with the bibliometric analysis.


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Product Innovation in the Global Fashion Industry Edited by Byoungho Jin, Elena Cedrola

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Product Innovation in the Global Fashion Industry
Edited by Byoungho Jin, Elena Cedrola
Product Innovation in the Global Fashion Industry

Contents
1 Product Innovation: Core to Continued Success 1
Byoungho Jin and Elena Cedrola
2 Stone Island: Product Innovation and Market
Positioning as Drivers of Value Creation 35
Fabrizio Mosca
3 The Geox: The Shoe that Breathes 57
Francesca Checchinato and Tiziano Vescovi
4 Nike: An Innovation Journey 79
Michelle Childs and Byoungho Jin
5 Repetto, a Paris-Based Craft Enterprise Growing into
a Global Brand: Design-Driven Innovation and
Meaning Strategy 113
Stefania Masè and Geneviève Cohen-Cheminet
Index 143

Preface
The history of fashion and its evolution is closely linked to the history of civilization—it has been and still is conditioned not only by customs, traditions and cultures but also by scientific discoveries and international trade. From the skin of wild animals and the bark of trees used for clothing, the subsequent discovery of vegetable fibers, wool and synthetic fibers to smart clothing, technological innovation has a tremendous impact on how we dress. At the same time, symbolic meanings of clothing within a society have evolved continually throughout the years. The underlying reason behind these constant changes was conforming to the social stratum to which one desires to belong and differentiating oneself from strata with which one desires to disassociate. The essence of the fashion evolution has been constant innovation, which is the utilization of new ideas to produce new products, processes, services or business practices.

In mature industries, design or style often serves as the source of innovation. As seen in the success of Apple’s iPhone, it was not a result of inferior technology that Nokia lost its market share but, rather, aesthetics. Combining technologies to create aesthetically and symbolically appealing products—thus creating something drastically different from previous products in the market—is the key to success even in sectors that are traditionally driven by technological standards. In many industries—from automobiles to hotels, not to mention creative industries such as fashion and design—a growing portion of innovation is linked with aesthetic and symbolic elements of products or services (i.e., style) (Cappetta, Cillo, & Ponti, 2006).1 While not systematically addressed, innovations in style or design are a critical agent of change in mature industries.

The global fashion industry is a mature industry, characterized with constant change in styles and designs. Indeed, innovations in the global fashion industry are inclusively interpreted as an experimentation and adoption of designs, styles and organizational and management behaviors, as well as materials and technical solutions. Just like other firms, innovation in this industry is increasingly at the center of strategy and is a key factor in entrepreneurial growth and competitive advantage. Innovation is undoubtedly key without which the success of a fashion brand or company cannot be adequately explained. Nonetheless, limited efforts have been directed toward the understanding of innovation in the global fashion industry.

As an initial attempt to understand innovation in the fashion sector, this volume focuses on product innovations, followed by process innovations in the next volume in the global fashion brand management series. This volume seeks to explain product innovation happening in the global fashion industry, realizing that this industry is truly an innovative sector in which diverse technologies, science, art and tradition have been merged, synthesized and utilized to solve the needs and concerns of the end users.

In doing so, this book categorizes product innovation in the industry into three levels—materials, style and product development—and aims to present the broader scope of innovation in the global fashion industry with the hope that other sectors can learn from these developments and be inspired.

This volume consists of five chapters combining theory with practice. The first chapter comprehensively discusses product innovation in the global fashion industry at three levels—materials, style and product development— with examples and specific references to global fashion brands. Emphasizing that innovations in materials driven largely by technological standard may not tell the whole story of the industry, it maintains that innovation in style may serve as core competitive advantages for fashion brands and other mature industries where functionality or technology is less critical.

Subsequently, this book presents four case studies on global fashion brands that are carefully selected to reflect the diverse aspects and trends of product innovation. Each case is written by author(s) from the brand’s country of origin and based on original documents and interviews with key informants, some of which have previously been unavailable in English.

Stone Island (Chap. 2) is an Italian menswear brand in the premium outdoor apparel sector and has been growing in revenue and profitability by leveraging a unique set of capabilities in research and development, manufacturing and product innovation. This case study focuses on the brand’s product innovation strategies and subsequent distinctive market positioning. Chapter 3 is about Geox, an Italian shoe company with net sales of 874 million euros and market presence in 101 countries. Recognized by consumers for its patented innovation, the “shoe that breathes,” Geox has the largest number of patents in the industry. The Geox case shows how new technology and continuous innovation can be implemented in a market in which fashion and design typically dominate. Describing and analyzing the company’s marketing activities in recent years, the case demonstrates that Geox’s success rests in its ability to innovate, define and communicate a strategic position in the footwear industry.

In Chap. 4, a case study on Nike is presented. Since its inception in 1964, Nike has been an innovative leader in product development, marketing and retail sales. Due to its dedication to continuous innovation, Nike has been able to sustain a competitive advantage within the athletic apparel and footwear marketplace. This case highlights key points in Nike’s journey of innovation and examines how Nike has successfully emerged and pioneered the athletic wear industry.

Product innovation is not limited to technology-push and market-pull strategies but includes design-driven innovations as well. With a case study on the French, Paris-based upscale shoe brand Repetto, Chap. 5 explores how a small company focused on dance shoes and equipment production has evolved to a global brand with high-end everyday dance-inspired products. The chapter presents analyses of the brand’s design-driven innovation and meaning strategy that are well incorporated into its business. With these discussions, we hope that this book is accessible and appreciated by larger audiences who seek innovative ideas and inspiration. In particular, this book is relevant for undergraduate as well as graduate students with an interest in the innovation, fashion industry, entrepreneurship, retailing, branding and international business. It will also be an excellent resource for scholars researching innovation and business practitioners who strive on innovation.

There are many individuals whose assistance was invaluable in bringing this book to fruition. Our first and deepest gratitude goes to executives at Stone Island, Geox, Freitag and Sinterama, who were willing to share their passion for innovation with current and future leaders. Designers Amy Winters and Orsola de Castro gladly shared their creative works for the readers of this book. With great respect, we send heartfelt thanks to those who pioneered the industry with creative solutions. Special thanks go to the authors of each chapter for providing insightful case studies, incorporating information and sources not readily available to many readers.

The information is of particular value because of their unique perspective on the history of each brand and their own experiences as consumers, given that the brands are from their home country. We were fortunate to be supported by many former and current research assistants. Particular thanks go to a doctoral student at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Ms. Naeun Lauren Kim, who has been diligent in finding support materials, editing, formatting and checking references. We also thank Annalisa Borgoglio for finding information on product innovations in fashion and supporting bibliometric analysis, useful in writing Chap. 1.


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