The Coloration of Wool and other Keratin Fibres Edited by David M. Lewis and John A. Rippon

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The Coloration of Wool and other Keratin Fibres
Edited by David M. Lewis and John A. Rippon
The Coloration of Wool and other Keratin Fibres

Contents
List of Contributors xiii
Society of Dyers and Colourists xv
Preface xvii
1 The Structure of Wool 1
John A. Rippon
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Composition of Wool 2
1.3 Chemical Structure of Wool 5
1.3.1 General Chemical Structure of Proteins 5
1.3.2 Amino Acid Composition of Wool 6
1.3.3 Arrangement of Amino Acids in Wool 8
1.3.4 The Structure of Wool Proteins 11
1.3.5 Wool Lipids 13
1.4 Morphological Structure of Wool 14
1.4.1 The Cuticle and the Fibre Surface 16
1.4.2 The Cortex 23
1.4.3 The Cell Membrane Complex 27
1.5 Chemical Reactivity of Wool 32
1.6 Damage in Wool Dyeing 32
1.6.1 Nonkeratinous Proteins and Damage in Dyeing 33
1.6.2 Influence of Dyebath pH on Fibre Damage 34
1.7 Conclusion 35
References 35
2 The Chemical and Physical Basis forWool Dyeing 43
John A. Rippon
2.1 Introduction 43
2.2 The Chemical Basis for Wool Dyeing 43
2.2.1 The Wool–Water System 44
2.2.2 The Amphoteric Nature of Wool and Dyeing Behaviour 44
2.2.3 Classical Theories of Wool Dyeing 46
2.2.4 Modern Theories of Wool Dyeing 49
2.3 Standard Affinity and Heat of Dyeing 50
2.4 Classification of Dyes Used for Wool 52
2.5 Dye Aggregation 55
2.6 The Physical Basis for Wool Dyeing: The Role of Fibre Structure 60
2.6.1 Diffusion of Dyes 60
2.6.2 Pathways of Dye Diffusion into Wool 61
2.7 Effect of Chemical Modifications on Dyeing 66
2.7.1 Chlorination 66
2.7.2 Plasma Treatment 67
2.7.3 Differential Dyeing 68
2.8 Conclusion 68
References 69
3 The Role of Auxiliaries in the Dyeing of Wool and other Keratin Fibres 75
Arthur C. Welham
3.1 Introduction 75
3.2 Surface Activity of Wool-Dyeing Auxiliaries 76
3.2.1 Anionic Auxiliaries 76
3.2.2 Cationic Auxiliaries 77
3.2.3 Ethoxylated Nonionic and Cationic Auxiliaries 78
3.2.4 Amphoteric Auxiliaries 80
3.2.5 Other Auxiliaries 81
3.3 Brightening Agents 81
3.4 Levelling Agents 82
3.4.1 Material Faults 83
3.4.2 Dyeing and Processing Faults 83
3.4.3 Testing the Action of Levelling Agents 85
3.4.4 Product Selection 86
3.4.5 Coverage of Skittery or Tippy-Dyeing Wool 86
3.5 Restraining and Reserving Agents in Wool Blend Dyeing 88
3.6 Antiprecipitants 89
3.7 Wool Protective Agents 89
3.8 Low-Temperature Dyeing 90
3.9 Correction of Faulty Dyeings 92
3.10 Aftertreatments to Improve Wet Fastness 93
3.11 Effluent Control in Chrome Dyeing 94
3.12 Antifrosting Agents 95
3.13 Antisetting Agents 95
3.14 Sequestering Agents 96
3.15 Conclusions 96
References 97
4 Ancillary Processes inWool Dyeing 99
David M. Lewis
4.1 Introduction 99
4.2 Wool Scouring 99
4.3 Wool Carbonising 100
4.4 Shrink-Resist Treatments 102
4.4.1 Top Shrink-Resist Processes 102
4.4.2 Garment Shrink-Resist Treatments 105
4.4.3 Fabric Shrink-Resist Treatments 106
4.4.4 Miscellaneous Developments 107
4.4.5 Colour-Fastness Requirements for Machine-Washable Wool 108
4.5 Insect-Resist Treatments 108
4.5.1 Insect Pests 108
4.5.2 Insect-Resist Agents 109
4.5.3 Application Methods for IR Agents 113
4.6 Flame-Retardant Treatments 115
4.7 Antisetting Agents 116
4.7.1 The Role of Oxidants in Preventing Setting in Dyeing 118
4.7.2 The Role of Electrophilic Reagents in Controlling Setting in
Dyeing 119
4.8 Fibre Arylating Agents (FAA) 120
References 126
5 Bleaching and Whitening ofWool: Photostability of Whites 131
Keith R. Millington
5.1 Introduction 131
5.2 Wool Colour 132
5.2.1 Measuring Wool Colour 132
5.2.2 Improving Wool Colour by Selection 134
5.2.3 Improving Colour in the Scour 134
5.2.4 Nonscourable Yellowing 135
5.2.5 Wool Colour Compared with Cotton and Synthetics 135
5.3 Wool Bleaching 138
5.3.1 Oxidative Bleaching 138
5.3.2 Reductive Bleaching 139
5.3.3 Double (or Full) Bleaching 140
5.3.4 Bleaching of Pigmented Wools 140
5.3.5 Bleaching in the Dyebath 140
5.3.6 Biobleaching of Wool Using Enzymes 142
5.3.7 Activated Peroxide Bleaching 143
5.3.8 Catalytic Peroxide Bleaching 144
5.3.9 Novel Bleaching Methods for Wool 144
5.4 Fluorescent Whitening of Wool 144
5.5 Photostability of Wool 145
5.5.1 Mechanism of Wool Photoyellowing 148
5.5.2 Mechanism of Photoyellowing of Fluorescent Whitened Wool 149
5.5.3 Methods for Improving Photostability 151
References 153
6 Wool-dyeing Machinery 157
Jamie A. Hawkes and Paul Hamilton
6.1 Introduction 157
6.2 Top Dyeing 158
6.2.1 Longclose (UK) Large Bump Tops 160
6.2.2 Obem Big Form 161
6.2.3 Vigoreux Printing 161
6.3 Loose Stock Dyeing 162
6.3.1 Continuous Dyeing of Loose Stock 165
6.4 Hank-Dyeing Yarn 166
6.4.1 Carpet Yarn 166
6.4.2 Hand-Knitting and Machine-Knitting Yarn 167
6.4.3 Robotic Handling 169
6.4.4 Space Dyeing of Yarn 169
6.5 Yarn Package Dyeing 171
6.5.1 Package Preparation 172
6.5.2 Machinery 175
6.6 Piece Dyeing 178
6.6.1 Jet and Overflow Dyeing 178
6.6.2 Beam Dyeing 179
6.7 Garment Dyeing 179
6.8 Carpet Piece Dyeing 182
6.9 Drying 183
6.9.1 Mechanical Moisture Removal 183
6.9.2 Thermal Moisture Removal 184
6.10 Dyehouse Automation 186
6.10.1 Dyehouse Control Systems 186
6.10.2 Factory Management Systems 188
6.10.3 Process Control 188
6.10.4 Effluent Control Systems 190
6.10.5 Colour Measurement 191
6.11 Laboratory Dyeing 192
6.11.1 Tops, Loose Stock, Hanks and Package Yarn 193
6.11.2 Piece Dyeing 198
6.11.3 Garment Dyeing 201
6.11.4 Laboratory Machine Control Systems 202
References 203
7 Dyeing Wool with Acid and Mordant Dyes 205
Peter A. Duffield
7.1 Introduction 205
7.2 Acid Dyes 208
7.2.1 Acid Dye Subclassification 208
7.2.2 Optimised Dye Ranges 213
7.3 Natural Dyes 213
7.4 Mordant Dyes 214
7.4.1 Chrome Dyeing Processes 216
7.4.2 Theoretical Aspects 219
7.4.3 Low-Chrome Dyeing 223
7.5 Specific Dyeing Methods 226
References 227
8 Dyeing Wool with Metal-complex Dyes 229
Stephen M. Burkinshaw
8.1 Introduction 229
8.2 Dye Structure 230
8.2.1 Electronic Structure 232
8.2.2 Colour and Light Fastness 235
8.2.3 Stereochemistry and Isomerism 236
8.2.4 1 : 1 Metal-Complex Dyes 237
8.2.5 1 : 2 Metal-Complex Dyes 239
8.3 Dye Application 242
8.3.1 1 : 1 Metal-Complex Dyes 242
8.3.2 1 : 2 Metal-Complex Dyes 246
8.4 Environmental Aspects 248
References 248
9 Dyeing Wool with Reactive Dyes 251
David M. Lewis
9.1 Introduction 251
9.2 Commercial Reactive Dyes for Wool 252
9.3 The Chemistry of Reactive Dyes 253
9.3.1 Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions 253
9.3.2 Michael Addition Reaction 253
9.3.3 Specific Reactive Dyes for Wool 254
9.4 Application Procedures 260
9.4.1 Auxiliary Agents 260
9.4.2 Dyeing Processes Used with Reactive Dyes 261
9.4.3 Effect of Reactive Dyes on Fibre Properties 276
9.5 Novel Reactive Dye Systems for Wool 281
9.5.1 Maleinimides 281
9.5.2 Isocyanate and Isothiocyanate Bisulphite Adducts 281
9.5.3 Carboxymethyl Carbodithioate Dyes 282
9.5.4 Trifunctional Reactive Dyes Prepared from
Bis-(chloroethyl-sulphonylethyl)amine [P-3] Reaction with a
DCT Dye 282
9.5.5 Crosslinking Agents to Covalently Fix Acid Dyes to Wool 283
9.6 Identification of the Reaction Sites in the Fibre 285
9.7 Conclusions 287
References 287
10 Dyeing Wool Blends 291
David M. Lewis
10.1 Introduction 291
10.2 Wool/Cotton 293
10.2.1 Dyeing of Cotton 293
10.2.2 Exhaustion Dyeing of Wool/Cotton Blends 296
10.2.3 Pad Dyeing of Wool/Cotton Blends 300
10.2.4 Wool Damage during Dyeing 301
10.3 Amination of Cellulosic Fibres 303
10.4 Wool/Silk 305
10.4.1 Dyeing of Silk 306
10.4.2 Dyeing of Wool/Silk Blends 308
10.5 Wool/Nylon 310
10.5.1 Dyeing of Nylon 310
10.5.2 Dyeing of Wool/Nylon Blends 319
10.6 Wool/Polyester 323
10.6.1 Dyeing of Polyester 323
10.6.2 Dyeing of Wool/Polyester Blends 333
10.7 Wool/Acrylic 341
10.7.1 Dyeing of Acrylic Fibres 342
10.7.2 Dyeing of Wool/Acrylic Blends 348
10.8 Conclusions 351
References 352
11 The Coloration of Human Hair 357
Robert M. Christie and Olivier J.X. Morel
11.1 Introduction 357
11.2 Structure and Morphology of Human Hair 359
11.3 Natural Colour of Hair 360
11.4 Physical Chemistry of Hair Dyeing 364
11.5 Toxicology of Hair Dyes 365
11.6 Oxidative Hair Coloration 366
11.7 Alternative Approaches to Permanent Hair Dyeing 369
11.8 Nonoxidative Hair Dyeing 375
11.9 Conclusion 386
References 387
12 Wool Printing 393
Peter J. Broadbent and Muriel L.A. Rigout
12.1 Introduction 393
12.2 Preparation for Printing 394
12.2.1 Oxidative Processes 394
12.2.2 Polymer Treatments 396
12.2.3 Plasma Treatments 397
12.2.4 Other Methods of Preparation for Printing 398
12.3 Direct Printing 399
12.3.1 Machinery 399
12.3.2 Dye Selection and Print Recipes 399
12.3.3 Steaming 402
12.3.4 Washing and Aftertreatment 404
12.4 Discharge Printing 405
12.4.1 Ground Shades 405
12.4.2 Discharge Agents 405
12.4.3 Illuminating Dyes 407
12.4.4 Printing and Fixation 407
12.5 Resist Printing 408
12.5.1 Chemical Resist Processes 409
12.5.2 Mechanical/Chemical Resist Processes 411
12.5.3 Reactive-Under-Reactive Resist 412
12.6 Digital Printing 412
12.6.1 Machinery 413
12.6.2 Ink Formulation 413
12.6.3 Fabric Pretreatment 415
12.6.4 Fixation 417
12.6.5 Wash-Off 417
12.7 Wool Blends 418
12.7.1 Wool/Polyester 419
12.7.2 Wool/Cotton 419
12.7.3 Wool/Acrylic 420
12.8 Cold Print Batch 420
12.9 Transfer Printing 421
12.9.1 Wet or ‘Migration’ Transfer Printing 421
12.9.2 Sublimation Transfer Printing 422
12.9.3 Benzoylated Wool 424
12.10 Novel Effects 425
12.10.1 Burn-Out (devor´ee) Printing 425
12.10.2 Sculptured Effects 425
References 426
Index 431

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Social Innovation for Business Success: Shared Value in the Apparel Industry by Julia Schmitt

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Social Innovation for Business Success: Shared Value in the Apparel Industry
By Julia Schmitt
Social Innovation for Business Success: Shared Value in the Apparel Industry

Table of Contents
Preface (Geleitwort) ........................................................................................................V
Table of Contents ......................................................................................................... VII
Index of Figures ............................................................................................................ IX
Index of Tables ............................................................................................................. IX
List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................... XI
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Relevance of Topic .......................................................................................... 2
1.2 Objective and Course of Research .................................................................. 3
2 Understanding Social Innovation ............................................................................ 5
2.1 The Conceptualization of Social Innovation ................................................... 5
2.1.1 Social Innovation in the Literature ......................................................... 5
2.1.2 A Definition of Social Innovation .......................................................... 8
2.1.3 Differentiation of Social Innovation from
other Innovation Concepts ...................................................................... 9
2.2 Diffusion of Social Innovation ...................................................................... 11
2.2.1 Diffusion in Social Innovation Literature ............................................. 12
2.2.2 Diffusion in Systemic Innovation Literature ........................................ 13
2.3 Critical Review of Social Innovation ............................................................ 16
3 Understanding Shared Value ................................................................................. 19
3.1 Historic Antecedents of the Shared Value Concept ...................................... 19
3.2 Definition and Building Blocks of the Shared Value Concept ..................... 22
3.3 Critical Review of the Shared Value Concept ............................................... 25
3.4 Shared Value as Basic Social Invention ........................................................ 28
4 Development of Research Design and Methodology ............................................ 31
4.1 Development of the Research Design ........................................................... 31
4.2 Methodology .................................................................................................. 33
4.2.1 The Expert Interview as Research Methodology .................................. 33
4.2.2 Development of the Interview Guideline ............................................. 38
4.2.3 Procedure of Interview Analysis ........................................................... 40
5 Findings of the Empirical Study ............................................................................ 43
5.1 Findings on Social Innovation ....................................................................... 44
5.1.1 The Understanding of Social Innovation .............................................. 44
5.1.2 The Diffusion of the Basic Social Invention Shared Value .................. 45
5.2 Findings on Shared Value.............................................................................. 48
5.2.1 Reconceiving Products and Markets .................................................... 51
5.2.2 Redefining productivity in the value chain ........................................... 54
5.2.3 Enabling Local Cluster Development ................................................... 59
5.2.4 Success Factors and Obstacles .............................................................. 63
5.3 Discussion of Findings .................................................................................. 66
5.3.1 Discussion of the Findings on Social Innovation ................................. 67
5.3.2 Discussion of Findings on Shared Value .............................................. 69
6 Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 77
Bibliography ................................................................................................................. 79
Annex ............................................................................................................................ 91

Index of Figures
Figure 1: The multi-level perspective on transitions .................................................... 15
Figure 2: Shared value as an extension to stakeholder and shareholder value ............. 27
Figure 3: The quality criteria for qualitative content analysis ...................................... 41
Figure 4: Ways of influencing the value creation practices within the fashion market ..... 46
Figure 5: Overview on the three dimensions of value created by
the sample companies ................................................................................... 49
Figure 6: The value creation tree. ................................................................................. 75

Index of Tables
Table 1: Overview of the research sample. ................................................................... 36
Table 2: Overview of main findings ............................................................................ 43
Table 3: Interpretation key to the quantity of statements ............................................. 44
Table 4: Success factors for creating shared value ....................................................... 64
Table 5: Obstacles to creating shared value. ................................................................. 66

List of Abbreviations
CEO Chief Executive Officer
CFP Corporate Financial Performance
COO Chief Operations Officer
CSP Corporate Social Performance
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility
GIZ Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit
ILO International Labour Organisation
IVN International Association of Natural Textile Industry
NGO Non-governmental organization
PPP Public Private Partnership
SME Small and medium sized enterprises

1 Introduction
Globalization changes the basic framework conditions of corporate value creation activities. Technological developments not only allow for the internationalization of production, but also lead to better informed customers about the production standards of the goods they purchase. In this context, the apparel industry increasingly comes into public focus. This industry has been frequently criticized for its labour rights violations with regard to overtime hours, safety, and health issues (Tagesthemen, 05.09.2011: minute: 00:20:14). Similarly, it has been attacked for its external effects on the environment. Chemical effluents from textile factories pollute rivers and drinking water reservoirs (Greenpeace, 2011: 6). Also, the chemical sprays in cotton agriculture not only affect ground water quality, but also cause the death of several thousand cotton peasants a year (Environmental Justice Foundation, 2007: 10). On the other hand, the chemicals affect the customers that wear the garments. Customers are affected by some textile colours that may cause diseases as serious as cancer (Kneer, 2008: 3). However, inconsiderate value creation activities are not limited to the garment industry – they are rather the standard of all business activities today. This did not only give rise to the current debate on corporate sustainability, and changing customer preferences, but also to a shift in strategic management theory – namely, the creation of the shared value concept. Michael Porter and Paul Kramer (2011) argue that companies miss business opportunities by pressuring workers and the natural environment. This thesis seeks to provide a profound understanding of the socially integrative value creation approach, shared value, and underlines its effectiveness for corporate value creation. Meeting fundamental societal needs, the concept of shared value may thus be considered a basic innovation in management.


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Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, and the Global Apparel Industry by Jill Esbenshade

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Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, and the Global Apparel Industry
By Jill Esbenshade
Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, and the Global Apparel Industry

Contents
Preface IX
Acknowledgments Xlii
Introduction: Monitoring, Sweatshops, and Labor Relations 1
1 The Rise and Fall of the Social Contract in the Apparel Industry 13
2 The Social-Accountability Contract 33
3 Private Monitoring in Practice 60
4 Weaknesses and Conflicts in Private Monitoring 89
5 The Development of International Monitoring 119
6 Examining International Codes of Conduct and Monitoring Efforts 145
7 The Struggle for Independent Monitoring 165
Conclusion: Workers, Consumers, and
Independent Monitoring 198
Appendix 1: Confessions of a Sweatshop Monitor by Joshua Samuel Brown 209
Appendix 2: Research Methods 214
Appendix 3: List of Interviews 219
Appendix 4: Acronyms and Abbreviations 226
Notes 229
References 249
Index 261

Preface
How DID I come to study monitoring in the apparel industry? As the great-granddaughter, granddaughter, and niece of Jewish garment retailers, one could say that I was born to the subject. As the sister-in-law of two Salvadoran garment workers, one could say that I married into it. As a former staff member at the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU), I seemed to come to it through my own professional and political development. And as someone who has been schooled in ethnic studies and focused her graduate career on the plight of immigrants, especially in regard to labor, I was educated into it. But perhaps, as they say, all roads lead to Rome.

In any case, I came upon the subject of monitoring in the garment industry in 1996, as the Gap campaign took off and the press began to link maquilas in El Salvador to garment makers in the United States. I was searching for a dissertation topic at the time. As I embarked on my research, I discovered that there was a ripe case study much closer to home. In my native Los Angeles, garment manufacturers were engaging in a new and innovative experiment of monitoring contractors, and it appeared to be having some positive effects. The monitoring program was winning awards, receiving praise, and apparently making a difference. Yet it had detractors. My imagination was captured. Were these improvements real? And most interesting for me, how did workers themselves feel about this apparent solution?

I was intrigued by the problem and, to boot, it appeared that there was a ready-made collection of data waiting to be explored. The ILGWU (now part of a merged union, UNITE) and numerous workers had filed lawsuits against jeans-maker GUESS?, Inc., and obtained boxes of documentation on the company's monitoring practices, including workers' testimony, monitoring reports, and depositions of company officials and monitors. What graduate student could walk away from an interesting question accompanied by thousands of pages of primary data? Unfortunately, a judge's confidentiality order indefinitely delayed my access to the legal files. But by the time I discovered this, I was already hooked.

So I turned to the live sources themselves rather than their paper counterparts, which turned out to be a wholly positive turn of events. Nothing could have substituted for actually observing during monitoring visits. The people I talked with were more forthcoming than I had imagined, thanks in no little measure to my sympathetic female ear, I am sure. Moreover, walking into a hot, dim tenth-floor factory in a downtown Los Angeles tenement and then drinking cold soda on a plush leather couch in a manufacturer's air-conditioned lobby was a contrast that only the lived experience could really capture.

During my fieldwork in Los Angeles, monitoring was for the most part still an intellectual curiosity for me. It was a concrete phenomenon that existed in the real world of workers, and I felt that it had some potentially important theoretical implications. On returning to Berkeley and becoming active in the student movement and with a group of anti-sweatshop activists in the San Francisco Bay area, it became a passion.

However, I would contend that my analysis led me to my passion, not vice versa. I became involved with the student movement and with constructing an alternative to private monitoring after conducting fieldwork in Los Angeles. It was my research, not my a priori political sense, that led me to a thorough understanding of the flaws in the current system. I wanted to use the information I gathered, and my analysis of it, to change that system. This, of course, is not novel. There is a strong tradition of applied research in many fields, including sociology and ethnic studies. From my research I wrote a policy paper that was distributed widely in the anti-sweatshop movement and probably influenced the debate. I also testified before a California State Senate committee on new garment legislation, which was passed and is discussed in this book. In addition, I participated, as I said, in the student movement in the University of California system to force the administrators to adopt a strong code of conduct and to convince them to join the Worker Rights Consortium (WRC), an alternative monitoring organization. I was the graduate-student representative on the system-wide advisory committee on these issues. I believe that my in-depth knowledge of the subject significantly contributed to the committee's work. I also helped coordinate a local group of antisweatshop activists, lawyers, and students to develop a model monitoring plan (known as the UCAS, or University Coalition Against Sweatshops, proposal). I then represented UCAS in discussions of our proposal with activists and unionists in New York. From these meetings we developed a working group. After making drastic revisions, we submitted the plan to the United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS), and I continued to participate in the development of what is now the WRC, serving on its advisory council and then the governing board.

Did I influence the developments that are described in this book? I believe I did. Is that bad? I would argue that it is not. I am committed to good scholarship; I am also committed to social justice. I hope that the former can contribute to the latter. I believe it can. But it cannot in a time lapse, and it cannot by dividing our world into "academic interests" and "political interests." My greatest contribution to the movement for social justice may be the information and analysis that I, as an academic, can provide. To withhold such contributions would, for me, be ethically inappropriate; to delay such contributions would cripple them. I am proud that at the very least I contributed to improvements within the area I was studying. These improvements have helped some workers achieve concrete changes in their workplaces and their lives. I hope workers will continue to be able to capitalize on alternative forms of monitoring. I also hope that my scholarship can inform the academic community and move forward theoretical debates. In that hope, I offer this book.


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Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry by Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

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Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry
by Jung E. Ha-Brookshire
Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry

Contents
Preface | vii
1 Introduction to Global Sourcing | 3
Global Sourcing 4
Historical Background
Current Status of Global Sourcing
Pros and Cons of Global Sourcing
Definition of Global Sourcing 6
Sourcing, Global Sourcing, and Outsourcing
Sourcing and Supply Chain
Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Supply Chain 9
Goals of Global Sourcing and Sustainability 12
The Goal of Businesses’ Economic Improvement
The Goal of Social Responsibility
The Goal of Environmental Responsibility
Job Requirements and Responsibilities for Sourcing Personnel in
Today’s Marketplace 17
2 Theroretical Perspective of Global Sourcing 23
International Trade Theories for Global Sourcing | 24
Law of Supply and Demand
Comparative Advantage Theory
Porter’s Competitive Advantage of Nations
Fragmentation Theory
Industry Life Cycle Theory
Strategic Sourcing Theories 37
Resource-based View of the Firm
Resource Dependence Theory
Strategic Choice Theory
Sociocognitive Theory
Critical Theory
3 Global Trends, Business Types, and Global Sourcing | 45
Global Sourcing and the Changed Market Environment 46
Business Types 48
Textile Complex Versus Softgoods Industry
North American Industry Classification System
Global Sourcing by Different Business Types
4 Global Sourcing Options | 61
Make or Buy? 62
Cost Minimization Criterion
Profit Maximization Criterion
Capabilities Criterion
Risk Reduction Criterion
Sourcing Options 65
Direct Sourcing
CMT Contracting
Full-package Sourcing
Joint Venture Sourcing
Factors for Evaluating Sourcing Options 72
Cost
Quality
Lead Time
Social and Environmental Compliance Issues
The Place
Consistency
5 Global Sourcing Step 1: New Product Development | 79
Seven Core Steps of Global Sourcing 80
Step 1: New Product Development 80
Global Sourcing and New Product Development
Global Sourcing and Line Reviews
Global Sourcing and Product Classifications
6 Global Sourcing Step 2: Macro Environmental Analysis for Supplier
Selection | 97
Step 2: Macro Environmental Analysis for Supplier Selection 98
Macro Environmental Factors 98
PEST Analysis
Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights
Trade Barriers and Trade Agreements
Trade Barriers
Trade Agreements
Trade Preference Programs
7 Global Sourcing Step 3: Micro-Level Analysis for Supplier Selection | 117
Step 3: Micro-Level Analysis for Supplier Selection 118
Analyses of Suppliers at a Micro Level 118
Right Conditions
Right Products
Right Quality
Right Time
Right Price
8 Global Sourcing Step 4: Purchase Order and Methods of Payment | 135
Step 4: Purchase Order and Methods of Payment 136
Purchase Order Issuance 136
Product Identification Number
Product Descriptions
Contract Quantity
Price per Unit, Total Contractual Amount, and Terms of the Price
Delivery Date and Method
Other Terms and Conditions
Payment Method Negotiation 143
Consignment Sales
Open Account
Documentary Collection (documentary draft)
Letter of Credit
Cash in Advance
Evaluation of Payment Terms
9 Global Sourcing Step 5: Preproduction, Production, and Quality
Assurance | 155
Step 5: Preproduction, Production, and Quality Assurance 156
Preproduction, Production, and Quality Monitoring 156
Preproduction Approval
Label Preparation and Approvals
Production Monitoring through a Time & Action Calendar
Quality Assurance 166
Apparel Quality Regulations
Final Goods Inspection
Application of Quality Assurance Policies
10 Global Sourcing Step 6: Logistics and Importing Processes |185
Step 6: Logistics and Importing Processes 186
Logistics 186
Materials Management and Physical Distribution
Approaches to Logistics Decisions
Logistics Functions
Transportation Modes
Freight Forwarders
Importing Procedures 196
Entry Documents
Entry Process
Special Duties
Special Notes for Textile and Apparel Importers
11 Global Sourcing Step 7: Sourcing Performance Evaluation | 211
Step 7: Sourcing Performance Evaluation 212
Sourcing Performance Evaluation 212
Metrics of Economic Performance of Global Sourcing
Social and Environmental Performance of Global Sourcing
Wise Balance Between Economic, Social, and Environmental
Performance
12 Current and Future Global Sourcing | 223
Major Changes in Global Sourcing from 2007 to 2011 224
Key Trends in Current Global Sourcing 225
Unstable Commodity Prices
Significant Risks to Global Sourcing Strategy
Key Factors for Choosing Suppliers
Technology Utilization
The Future of Global Sourcing 230
INDEX 235

Preface
U.S. textile and apparel businesses have engaged in global sourcing for more than six decades. I have been fortunate to be involved in global sourcing both directly and indirectly. I was born and raised in Daegu, South Korea. During my early childhood in the 1970s, the town of Daegu experienced rapid growth through its thriving textile mills and apparel manufacturing plants. DuPont, a U.S. textile manufacturing company, set up one of the largest textile and apparel manufacturing plants in my town. It was the first company where one of my aunts was able to get her very first job. Back then, women were less likely to have education or a career in my country. The fact that she woke up every morning, wore a uniform, went to work, and studied at DuPont’s after-work school programs was so novel that the whole town was concerned about my brave aunt’s future. She was too modern! I loved watching her going to work and school, and every year on Children’s Day, May 5 (to most of us Korean children this national holiday celebrating children was more exciting than Christmas), she took me to the DuPont campus where I saw green grass for the first time. I thought DuPont was the best thing ever to happen to us and our town.

Since then I have wanted to be involved in global sourcing. At that time I had no concept of global sourcing. However, I knew what I wanted to do when I grew up. I wanted to travel all over the world, establish a factory (or find one), then throw annual Children’s Day parties in lots of different countries. Twenty years later, after earning a bachelor’s degree in clothing and textiles from Seoul National University, I flew to New York City looking for an opportunity to start accomplishing my childhood dream. Within a few months, I found my very first job as a production assistant at Popsicle Playwear, a division of Adjmi Apparel Group, on 33rd Street near Macy’s. I was quickly promoted and became fully engaged in global sourcing. All of my company’s product portfolios were sourced from foreign countries such as China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, and even South Korea. By 2000, my team was sourcing and importing over $100 million worth of goods from all over the world.

The success of my career at Adjmi Apparel Group helped me land a job at Richard Leeds International, Inc., whose specialty was sleepwear. From 2001 to 2004, I was responsible for Central American production, sourcing and importing up to $10 million at wholesale value. Sourcing from the Central American region had whole new sets of challenges and questions. I had to learn everything from the ground up by doing the job. While working at these jobs, I somehow managed to throw several birthday parties for factory workers, played with their children, and participated in their night school activities. Indeed, my childhood dream came true. People whom I worked with all over the world were extremely motivated, eager to learn and wanting to be an active part of the global economy.

Although my colleagues in these developing countries were eager to learn, at home in New York City I had become more and more frustrated with the lack of basic knowledge and skill sets from college graduates whom I interviewed for one of my staff positions. I found it extremely difficult to find college graduates with a decent level of understanding of international business, global trades, and global sourcing. Both then and today I question why college graduates do not have an adequate understanding of global sourcing when the majority of U.S. businesses are engaged in global sourcing. When I returned to academics, I found that there were no comprehensive, viable, upto- date instructional materials available for global sourcing. Rather, global sourcing was deemed to be mysterious and too difficult to learn about in a classroom.

The ideas for this book were conceived in 2007, when I took an assistant professor position at the University of Missouri. I wanted to produce a textbook that had real-life implications while maintaining theoretical perspectives. I searched and gathered all the reference materials and information through personal contacts, library search, and literature from governments, laws, trades, and businesses. For the first class that I taught on global sourcing in 2008, I compiled all these materials into a reference book. Then I personalized the lectures with many of my business experiences so that students could better understand the concepts in the textile and apparel industry. My students loved the class. By 2009 my lectures were translated into PowerPoint slides and by 2010 they were audio-recorded. In 2011 and 2012 I began writing this textbook—the result of eight years of experience working in global sourcing and researching the subject, and six years of teaching experience related to global sourcing.

Throughout this book I have tried to cite sources as much as possible. However, some examples, such as the rubrics on financial sourcing performance in Chapter 11 , stem from my experiences while working as a global sourcer. They worked for me and my team. The hypothetical company Amazing Jeans, used throughout this textbook, is very similar to the companies for which I worked. Many of the questions asked and issues dealt with in the learning activities at the end of each chapter relate to questions and issues that I encountered in my work. Some of the learning activities are actual activities I asked my staff members to complete to train them in the basic concepts of global sourcing.

Since this book is written from the U.S. sourcer’s perspective and is somewhat biased toward U.S. businesses that target mass and midtier consumer segments, some might see this as negative. However, I believe this U.S. perspective could help many foreign suppliers better understand U.S. buyers and sourcers: By knowing the other, one could better prepare himself or herself. Similarly, by understanding mass and midtier business practices, students could apply these concepts to other consumer segment businesses. Therefore, this book will be useful for careers in many different industries. First and foremost, textile and apparel educators will find this book useful to help better prepare today’s college students with clothing- and textile-related careers. Many of the terms and concepts will be extremely useful when they are trying to seek sourcing-related jobs. Students who seek jobs as product developers, designers, salespeople, and merchandisers in the United States will find this book beneficial because they will gain a more comprehensive view of the global textile and apparel industry through global sourcing. Students in other countries could also apply these concepts to better prepare their career either as sourcers or suppliers.

Throughout this process, I have received much help from many different people. I would like to thank staff members at Pearson for all the help they have provided me in completing this project, as well as the following reviewers: Elena Karpova, Iowa State University; Kathleen Colussy, The Art Institute; Leslie Simpson, Morgan State University; and Crystal Green, The Art Institute. I also would like to extend my gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Barbara Dyer, who was the first person to tell me that I, too, could write a textbook. I thank my graduate research assistants and my fellow colleagues at the University of Missouri for their extremely positive support and encouragement. Without all of their help and input, this book would not have been possible. Finally, I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my husband, Richard Brookshire, for his unselfish support throughout this process.

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire


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The Chemistry of Printing Inks and Their Electronics and Medical Applications by Johannes Karl Fink

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The Chemistry of Printing Inks and Their Electronics and Medical Applications
By Johannes Karl Fink
The Chemistry of Printing Inks and Their Electronics and Medical Applications

Contents
Preface xiii
1 Inkjet Inks 1
1.1 History of Inkjet Printing 1
1.2 Image Forming Methods 3
1.3 Commercial Printing 3
1.4 Nozzle Design 4
1.5 Classification of Inks 4
1.6 Thermal Inkjet 4
1.7 Photographic Printing 5
1.8 Desirable Ink Properties 7
References 9
2 Characterization of Printer Inks 11
2.1 Quantization of Droplets 11
2.2 Solubility Parameters 13
2.3 HLB Value 15
2.4 Evaluation of Water Resistance 15
2.5 Evaluation of Rubbing Resistance 16
2.6 Evaluation of Lightfastness 16
2.7 Evaluation of Waterfastness 17
2.8 Detection of the Th ermal History 18
2.9 Security Aspects 19
2.10 Characterization of Pigment 19
2.10.1 Acid Content of Pigment 19
2.10.2 Oil Absorption of Pigment 19
References 20
3 Additives for Inks 23
3.1 Print Density 23
3.2 Solvent Systems 23
3.2.1 Water-Soluble Organic Solvents 23
3.3 Wetting Agents 25
3.4 Adhesion Improvers 26
3.5 Surfactants 26
3.6 Penetration Control 28
3.6.1 Quasisurfactants 30
3.6.2 Penetration Promoters 32
3.7 Controlled Encapsulation of Liquids 35
3.8 Fixing Additives 35
3.9 Humectants 36
3.10 Colorants 36
3.10.1 Natural Colorants 40
3.11 Primers 43
3.12 Antioxidants and UV Absorbers 43
3.13 Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers 45
3.14 Ozone Resistance 47
3.15 Chelating Agents 48
3.16 Corrosion Inhibitors 49
3.17 pH Control 49
3.18 Waterfastness 54
3.18.1 Ethoxylated Polyethyleneimine 56
3.18.2 Star Polymers 56
3.18.3 Sulfones 57
3.18.4 Triester Compounds 57
3.19 Monomers and Polymers 58
3.19.1 Oxetane 58
3.19.2 Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Polymer 60
3.19.3 Dendritic Polymers 61
3.19.4 Fluorescent Monomers for Food Packaging
Applications 64
3.20 Initiators 64
3.20.1 Photopolymerization Initiators 64
3.20.2 Photosensitizers 72
3.20.3 Sensitizing Dye 77
3.21 Gloss Unevenness 77
3.22 Lightfastness 82
3.23 Prevention of Curling 82
3.24 Smearing 85
3.24.1 Hydrosols 85
3.24.2 Zwitterionic Compounds 89
3.25 Smudge Resistance 89
3.26 Slipping Agents for Cured Inks 90
3.27 Scratch Resistance 91
3.28 Bronzing 91
3.29 Biocides 94
3.29.1 Fungicides 94
3.30 Dispersants 95
3.30.1 Polymer Dispersants 97
3.30.2 Flocculation 101
3.31 Aggregation and Color Bleeding 102
3.32 Other Additives 107
References 115
4 Dyes and Pigments 121
4.1 Dyes 121
4.1.1 Hyperbranched Polymeric Dyes 122
4.1.2 Monodisperse PMMA 123
4.2 Pigment Particles 125
4.2.1 Organic Pigments 126
4.2.2 Polymer-Encapsulated Pigments 129
4.2.3 Polymer Pigment Dispersant 130
4.2.4 Self-Dispersing Pigments 130
4.2.5 Polymeric Dispersants 134
4.3 Metallic Pigments 135
References 140
5 Ink Types 143
5.1 Oil-Based White Ink 143
5.2 Nonaqueous Ink Composition 144
5.3 Lightfast Inkjet Inks 147
5.4 Flame-Retardant Inkjet Inks 149
5.5 Fragrant Inkjet Ink 149
5.6 Radiation Curable Ink 158
5.7 Printing of Functional and Structural Materials 161
5.8 Coating Compositions for Paper 161
5.9 Photograph-like Gloss 162
5.10 Printing on Plastic Films 163
5.10.1 Oil-Based Ink Composition for PVC Printing 167
5.11 Printing on Glass and Metal 169
5.11.1 Anticorrosive Inkjet Inks 169
5.12 Printing on Ceramic Surfaces 170
5.12.1 Apparent Etching of Ceramic Surfaces 170
5.13 Phase Change Inks 177
5.14 Compositions for Textile Use 188
5.14.1 Poly(urethane) Resin 188
5.14.2 White Ink Composition 189
5.15 Color Filter 189
5.16 Ingestible or Nutritional Liquid Ink Compositions 190
5.17 Etched Metal Plates 191
5.18 High Electrical Resistivity Inkjet Ink Composition 194
5.19 Curable Ink with Wax 195
5.20 Outdoor Applications 196
References 204
6 Electronic Applications 209
6.1 Radio-Frequency Identifi cation 209
6.2 Inkjet Printing of Conductive Materials 210
6.3 Selective Surface Modifi cation 210
6.4 Printing on Integrated Circuits 211
6.5 Special Inks 211
6.5.1 Metal Ink 211
6.5.2 LED Phosphor Ink 212
6.5.3 Carbon Nanotubes 215
6.5.4 Exfoliated Graphene 215
6.5.5 Exfoliated Graphite Oxide 216
6.5.6 Conducting Polymer Inks 217
6.5.7 Electrochromic Inks 218
6.6 Special Applications 219
6.6.1 Liquid Crystal Displays 219
6.6.2 Inkjet-Printed Piezoelectric Polymer Actuators 221
6.6.3 Patterned Conductive PEDOT for Electronic
Applications 222
6.6.4 Optoelectronic Nose Applications 222
6.6.5 Printed Transistors 222
6.6.6 Flexible Electronics 225
6.6.7 Low Temperature Sintering 225
6.6.8 Solar Cells 226
References 229
7 Medical Applications 233
7.1 Bioprinting 233
7.2 Tissue Engineering 234
7.2.1 Scaff olds in Tissue Engineering 236
7.2.2 Coating of an Implantable Device 236
7.3 Drug Delivery Systems 237
7.3.1 Pharmaceutical Cocrystals 238
7.3.2 Drug-Eluting Stents 238
7.3.3 Microchamber for Bacteria-Based Drug Delivery 239
7.3.4 Polymer Microspheres 240
7.3.5 Inhalable Particles 241
7.3.6 Microfabricated Drug Delivery Systems 245
7.3.7 Oral Drug Delivery 245
7.3.8 Nasal Delivery and Diagnostics 247
7.3.9 Transdermal Drug Delivery Devices 249
7.3.10 Drop-on-Demand System 251
7.3.11 Pulmonary Drug Delivery 251
7.3.12 Microchip Drug Delivery 253
7.3.13 Microchannels Drug Delivery 253
7.3.14 Printing Poorly Soluble Drugs 254
7.3.15 Fabrication of Personalized Doses 254
7.3.16 Pharmaceutical Bilayer Tablets 255
7.3.17 Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing 256
7.3.18 Th ree-Dimensional Printing 256
7.3.19 Bioabsorbable Stent with Prohealing Layer 257
7.3.20 Electrolytic Deposition 259
7.4 Polymeric Materials for Surface Modifi cation 261
7.4.1 Porous Polymer Particles 262
7.5 Nanomaterials 264
7.5.1 Photosensitive Nanoparticles 265
7.5.2 Crosslinked Polymeric Nanoparticles 268
7.6 Other Fabrication Methods 271
7.6.1 Controlled Spreading 271
7.6.2 Th ermal Inkjet Spray Freeze-Drying 272
7.6.3 Drug-Loaded Polymer Microparticles with
Arbitrary Geometries 273
7.6.4 Microarray technology 273
7.6.5 Biphasic Inks 274
7.6.6 Contact Lenses 278
7.6.7 Dip-Pen Nanolithography 282
7.6.8 Direct-Write Lithographic Printing of Peptides
and Proteins 282
References 285
8 3D Printing 293
8.1 Basic Principles 293
8.2 Uses and Applications 294
8.2.1 Microbattery Architectures 294
8.2.2 Th ree-Dimensional Plastic Model 294
8.2.3 Photoformable Composition 295
8.2.4 Comb Polymers 295
8.2.5 Post-Processing Infi ltration 296
8.3 Rapid Prototyping 297
8.3.1 Variants of Rapid Prototyping 298
8.3.2 3D Microfl uidic Channel Systems 301
8.3.3 Aluminum and Magnesium Cores 302
8.3.4 Cellular Composites 302
8.3.5 Powder Compositions 303
8.3.6 Th ermoplastic Powder Material 303
8.3.7 Plasticizer-Assisted Sintering 304
8.3.8 Radiation Curable Resin Composition 308
8.4 Medical Applications 308
8.4.1 Th ree-Dimensional Biological Structures 308
8.4.2 Scaff olds 309
8.4.3 Hydrogel Bioinks 310
8.4.4 Bionic Ears 310
8.4.5 Presurgical Simulation 311
8.4.6 Fluidic Devices 311
References 313
9 Special Aspects 317
9.1 Photographic Printing 317
9.1.1 Fading Stability 317
9.1.2 Coatings 318
9.1.3 Additives 319
9.2 Interaction between Ink and Printed Surface 319
9.3 Jetting-Out Performance 320
9.4 Microlens Arrays 322
9.5 Micro-Optical Devices 322
9.6 Nanostructured Surfaces 323
9.7 Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing 324
9.8 Planographic Printing Plate 326
9.9 Environmental Aspects and Recycling 326
9.9.1 Coagulation Combined with Fenton Process 326
References 327
Index 331
Tradenames 331
Acronyms 343
Chemicals 344
General Index 358

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Chemicals and Methods for Conservation and Restoration: Paintings, Textiles, Fossils, Wood, Stones, Metals, and Glass by Johannes Karl Fink

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Chemicals and Methods for Conservation and Restoration: Paintings, Textiles, Fossils, Wood, Stones, Metals, and Glass
by Johannes Karl Fink
Chemicals and Methods for Conservation and Restoration

Contents
Preface xiii
1 Paintings 1
1.1 Cleaning 1
1.1.1 Special Considerations 3
1.1.2 Oxalate-Rich Surface Layers on Paintings 4
1.1.3 Leaching 5
1.1.4 Removal of Dirt 5
1.1.5 Effects of Organic Solvents 7
1.1.6 Cavitation Energy for Solvent Mixtures 11
1.1.7 Hydrogels Based on Semi-Interpenetrating Networks 13
1.1.8 Organogels 14
1.1.9 Microemulsions and Micellar Solutions 15
1.1.10 Acrylic Paintings 15
1.1.11 Acrylic Emulsion Paintings 17
1.1.12 Complications in the Cleaning of Acrylic Paint Surfaces 18
1.1.13 Poly(vinyl acetate) Paints 19
1.1.14 Surface Cleaning 21
1.1.15 Foxing Stain Removal 24
1.1.16 Vacuum Techniques 26
1.1.17 Laser Cleaning Removal 27
1.1.18 Atomic Oxygen Plasma for Removing Organic Protective Coatings 35
1.1.19 Rigid Gels and Enzyme Cleaning 36
1.1.20 Cleaning Efficacy of Sponges and Cloths 38
1.1.21 Smart Cleaning by Soft Nanoscience 38
1.1.22 Plywood Panels 38
1.1.23 Waterborne Emulsion Polymer Paints 39
1.2 Varnishes 41
1.2.1 Removability of Varnishes 41
1.2.2 Synthetic Resins for Varnishes 42
1.2.3 Ionic Liquids for Varnish Removal 45
1.2.4 Extraction of Soluble Components by a Varnish Solution 45
1.2.5 Mastic and Megilp 46
1.3 Methods and Materials for Conservation 47
1.3.1 Microbial Contamination 47
1.3.2 Oil Paintings 49
1.3.3 Organic Materials 51
1.3.4 Poly(vinyl acetate) Paints 55
1.3.5 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives 56
1.3.6 Microcrystalline Cellulose Composites 57
1.3.7 Nanoscience for Art Conservation 57
1.3.8 Consolidating Wall Paintings Based on
Dispersions of Lime in Alcohol 62
1.3.9 Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers 64
1.3.10 Enzymes 66
1.3.11 y-Radiation and Polymers 67
1.3.12 Partially Hydrolyzed Poly(vinyl acetate)
and Borax Gels 67
1.3.13 Restoring Paper Paintings and
Calligraphic Works 69
1.4 Analysis and Analytical Methods 70
1.4.1 Technical Analysis of Paintings 70
1.4.2 Nondestructive Acoustic Method 73
1.4.3 Surface Characteristics of Paint 74
1.4.4 Binding Media and Protective Coatings 76
1.4.5 Degradation of Films of Dammar Resin 77
1.4.6 Spectroscopic Techniques 78
1.4.7 Organic Mass Spectroscopy 80
1.4.8 Portable NMR 80
1.5 Forgeries 81
1.5.1 Image Analysis Tools 82
1.5.2 Correlation Filters 82
1.5.3 X-Ray Analysis 82
1.5.4 Contourlet Transform 83
References 84
Textiles 95
2.1 Textile Colors 95
2.1.1 Historical Development of Colorants 95
2.1.2 Classification of the Used Colorants 96
2.1.3 Microanalysis of Organic Pigments in
Ancient Textiles 96
2.1.4 Analysis of Dyes 98
2.1.5 Organic Residue Analysis 99
2.1.6 Infrared Analysis 100
2.2 Textiles from Various Locations 101
2.2.1 Early Textiles and Textile Production in Europe 101
2.2.2 Natural Organic Dyes from Ancient Europe 102
2.2.3 Ancient Liturgical Vestment 103
2.2.4 Textiles and Dyes in Pre-Columbian
Northern Chile 104
2.2.5 Painted Andean Textiles 104
2.2.6 Textiles from the Silk Road 105
2.2.7 Historical Chinese Dyestuffs 106
2.2.8 Ancient Indonesian Textiles 108
2.3 Processing Methods 108
2.3.1 Ancient Chemical Processing of Organic
Dyes and Pigments 108
2.3.2 Color Preservation of Ancient Natural Dyes 109
2.3.3 Flavonols for Textile Dyeing 109
References 110
Archaeologica l Wood 113
3.1 Analysis Methods 113
3.1.1 Assessment of Commonly Used
Cleaning Methods 113
3.1.2 Predicting the Wood Preservation Status 114
3.1.3 Analytical Instrumental Techniques to Study
Degradation 116
3.1.4 Near Infrared Spectroscopic Observation of the Aging Process 119
3.1.5 X-ray Computed Tomography for Anatomical and Dendrochronological Analysis 119
3.1.6 Relationship Between Underwater Cultural
Heritage Deterioration and Marine
Environmental Factors 120
3.1.7 Characterizing the State of Preservation of Waterlogged Archaeological Wood 120
3.1.8 Oxygen Consumption by Conserved
Archaeological Wood 121
3.2 Materials for Conservation 122
3.2.1 Dimensional Stabilization 122
3.2.2 Polymers for Archaeological Wood 122
3.2.3 Nanotechnologies for the Restoration of
Archaeological Wood 126
3.2.4 Enzymes for Cleaning 128
3.2.5 Chitosan Treatment 128
3.2.6 Acetone-Carried Consolidants 129
3.2.7 Natural Polymers as Alternative Consolidants 130
3.3 Degradation 131
3.3.1 Chemical Changes of Wood by Conservation and Degradation 131
3.3.2 Microbial Degradation of Waterlogged
Archaeological Wood 132
3.3.3 Fungi 132
3.3.4 Degradation by Microorganisms 133
3.3.5 Degradation of Archaeological Wood Under Freezing and Thawing Conditions 134
3.3.6 Abiotic Chemical Degradation 135
3.3.7 Degradation of Lignin in Archaeological Waterlogged Wood 135
3.3.8 Identification of Bacterial Cultures 136
3.4 Special Properties 137
3.4.1 Wooden Shipwrecks 137
3.4.2 State of Preservation of Waterlogged Archaeological Wood 137
3.4.3 Adsorption and Desorption Mechanism of Water 138
3.4.4 PEG-Impregnated Waterlogged Archaeological Wood 140
3.4.5 Patterns in Tree Rings 141
3.4.6 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Archaeological Wood 141
3.4.7 Demethylation of Syringyl Moieties in Archaeological Wood 142
3.4.8 Decay Prevention Using Gamma Irradiation 142
References 143
Fossils 149
4.1 Monograph 149
4.2 Paleontological Skill and the Role of the
Fossil Preparator 149
4.3 Analysis Methods 150
4.3.1 Bone Samples 150
4.3.2 Stable Isotope Analysis 151
4.3.3 Amino Acid Analysis 153
4.3.4 Ancient DNA 153
4.3.5 Dentin Layers 155
4.3.6 Evolution of Diseases 156
4.3.7 Paleodietary Studies 157
4.3.8 Electron Spin Resonance Dating 162
4.4 Conservation Methods 163
4.4.1 Interventive Conservation Treatments of
Pleistocene Bones 163
4.4.2 Large Fossils 163
4.4.3 Micropreparation 164
4.4.4 Reaction Adhesives for Fossil Preparation 166
4.4.5 Histological Core Drilling 168
4.4.6 Manual Centrifuge for Resin Casting 170
4.4.7 Interferences of Conservation Treatments with
Subsequent Studies on Fossil Bones 170
References 172
Stones 177
5.1 Deterioration Processes 178
5.1.1 Biological Deterioration 178
5.1.2 Biological Colonization on Ceramics 181
5.1.3 Biofilm Formation 182
5.1.4 Bacterial Carbonatogenesi s 183
5.1.5 Microflora on Building Stones 183
5.1.6 Patina Formation on Mineralic Rocks 184
5.1.7 Cyanobacteria 185
5.1.8 Microbial Deterioration of Sandstone 185
5.2 Analytical Methods 187
5.2.1 Analysis of Starch 187
5.2.2 Residue Analysis 188
5.2.3 Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating 189
5.2.4 NMR Devices in Stone Conservation 190
5.3 Conservation Methods 193
5.3.1 Changes in Petrophysical Properties of the Stone Surface Due to Past Conservation
Treatments 194
5.3.2 Conservation of Lime 195
5.3.3 Conservation of Gypsum 195
5.3.4 Stone Tools 197
5.3.5 Bioreceptivity of Glazed Tiles 198
5.3.6 Rock Art Protection 198
5.3.7 Polymers 199
5.3.8 Biocalcification Treatment 201
5.3.9 Water Repellent Treatment 202
5.3.10 Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles 202
5.3.11 Nanolime Calcium Hydroxide with Triton 203
5.3.12 Nanocomposites for the Protection of Granitic
Obelisks 204
5.3.13 Superhydrophobi c Films 205
References 206
6 Glass 213
6.1 Analytical Methods 213
6.1.1 Spectrometric Investigation of
Weathering Processes 213
6.1.2 Analysis of Historic Glass 214
6.1.3 Optical Spectroscopy 215
6.1.4 Portable Raman Spectroscopy 215
6.1.5 3D Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry 216
6.2 Cleaning Methods 217
6.2.1 Medieval Stained Glass Corrosion 217
6.2.2 Effect of Soil pH on the Degradation 217
6.2.3 Adhesives and Consolidants 218
6.2.4 Biocorrosion and Biodeterioration 218
6.2.5 Potash-Lime-Silica Glass 220
6.2.6 Chemical Cleaning of Glass 221
6.2.7 Unstable Historic Glass 222
6.2.8 Epoxy-Amine Resins Used for Restoration 222
6.2.9 Potash Glass Corrosion 224
6.2.10 Zinc Treatment on Float Glass 226
6.2.11 Sol-Gel Silica Coating 226
6.2.12 Hybrid Sol-Gel-Based Coatings 227
6.2.13 Cyclododecane as Whitening Spray 228
6.3 Production Practices 229
6.3.1 Production Practices in Medieval Stained
Glass Workshops 229
6.3.2 Coloring Methods of Old Glass 230
6.3.3 Reverse Painting on Glass 230
6.4 Special Uses of Glass Materials 231
6.4.1 Medieval Glass Windows 231
6.4.2 Church Windows 232
6.4.3 Archaeological Glass 232
References 233
7 Archaeologica l Metals 237
7.0.4 Analytical Methods 237
7.0.5 Dating Archaeological Lead Artifacts 237
7.0.6 Lead Isotopic Measurements 239
7.0.7 Archaeometallurgical Analysis 240
7.0.8 Dating of Archaeological Copper Samples 241
7.0.9 Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy 242
7.0.10 Voltammetric Analysis 242
7.0.11 Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis 244
7.0.12 Roughness Estimation of Archaeological Metal Surfaces 246
7.0.13 Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry 247
7.1 Cleaning Methods 247
7.1.1 Tarnished Silver 247
7.1.2 Laser Cleaning 248
7.1.3 Plasma Sputtering 250
7.1.4 Thermochemical Treatment for Iron and Copper Alloys 252
7.2 Special Uses of Metals 253
7.2.1 Archaeological Material from Underwater Sites 253
7.2.2 Bronze Shields 254
7.2.3 Copper and Bronze Axes 255
7.2.4 Coins 256
References 262
Index 267
Acronyms 267
Chemicals 269
General Index 273

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