The Great Fashion Designers PDF by Brenda Polan and Roger Tredre

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The Great Fashion Designers
by Brenda Polan and Roger Tredre
The Great Fashion Designers

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements ix
Foreword xi
Introduction 1
PART 1 EARLY DAYS
Introduction 7
Charles Frederick Worth 9
Callot Soeurs 13
Jeanne Paquin 17
Paul Poiret 21
Mariano Fortuny 25
PART 2 1910s–1930s
Introduction 31
Jeanne Lanvin 35
Gabrielle Chanel 39
Jean Patou 43
Madeleine Vionnet 47
Elsa Schiaparelli 51
Mainbocher 55
Adrian 59
Salvatore Ferragamo 63
Madame Alix Grès 67
PART 3 1940–1950s
Introduction 73
Cristobal Balenciaga 77
Christian Dior 83
Charles James 87
Claire McCardell 91
Hubert de Givenchy 95
Pierre Cardin 99
Mary Quant 103
Rudi Gernreich 107
PART 4 1960s–1970s
Introduction 113
Norman Norell 115
Yves Saint Laurent 119
André Courrèges 123
Valentino 129
Karl Lagerfeld 133
Halston 137
Kenzo 141
Ralph Lauren 145
Issey Miyake 151
Geoffrey Beene 155
Calvin Klein 161
Giorgio Armani 167
PART 5 1980s
Introduction 173
Rei Kawakubo 175
Yohji Yamamoto 179
Vivienne Westwood 183
Paul Smith 187
Azzedine Alaia 191
Gianni Versace 195
Jean Paul Gaultier 201
Dolce & Gabbana 205
John Galliano 211
Donna Karan 215
PART 6 1990s–
Introduction 221
Miuccia Prada 225
Martin Margiela 229
Marc Jacobs 235
Tom Ford 239
Alexander McQueen 243
Nicolas Ghesquière 247
List of Illustrations 251
Bibliography 253

INTRODUCTION
In 2001 American fashion trade newspaper Women’s Wear Daily ( WWD ) marked its ninetieth anniversary by asking fi fty-three leading designers who were the three most important designers of the past ninety years. The results were fascinating, not perhaps for the runaway ‘winners’ (Coco Chanel with thirty-four votes and Yves Saint Laurent with twenty-nine), but for the other names cited and the explanations offered. Giorgio Armani cited Jean Paul Gaultier among his top three (‘for his ability to make fashion ironic’). Nicolas Ghesquière included Issey Miyake (‘he gave the Japanese concept of deconstruction a European femininity and sensibility’). More unpredictable names who are featured in this book included Adrian and Rudi Gernreich. The ever-prolifi c Karl Lagerfeld, who received three citations himself, sent a fi ve-page fax dividing the twentieth century into three distinct periods: 1905–1939 (Poiret, Vionnet and Chanel); 1945–1960 (Dior, Balenciaga and Chanel); and 1960–1970 (Courrèges, Saint Laurent, Vionnet, Chanel and Balenciaga).

The very earliest couturiers received barely a look-in, perhaps refl ecting the short-term memory of fashion (although Alexander McQueen voted for Charles Frederick Worth). The constant interaction between craft and commerce was highlighted, and designers were quick to applaud fellow designers who were skilled at business and marketing as much as creativity. Infl uence was paramount. ‘Who has the biggest infl uence?’ declared Karl Lagerfeld. ‘It’s unimportant who is the most gifted.’

One means of determining infl uence is to ask the question: who is the most copied? Designers have had an equivocal attitude towards this issue from the very early days of couture, on the one hand threatening legal action against copyists, and on the other hand happy to sell models to upmarket stores for copying. Few have been as relaxed about the issue as Coco Chanel—or American designer Norman Norell, who provided working sketches of his 1960 culotte suit to the trade free of charge to ensure that his design would be copied properly. These days, many designers work directly with their biggest copyists, the fast fashion chain stores, in effect copying themselves by creating low-priced collections in short- or long-term retail linkups. For the WWD survey, the designers were also asked to decide who were the three most important designers since 1980: Karl Lagerfeld won the most votes, followed closely by Giorgio Armani, Rei Kawakubo, Jean Paul Gaultier and Tom Ford. Lagerfeld noted Chanel, Gucci and Prada but put fashion designers fi rmly in their place by referencing Nike, Levi’s and Adidas. ‘They are fashion for today, too, and worn by more people than the fashion of the fashion world we talk about.’ Marc Jacobs brought the designers down to earth by recalling the celebrated comment from fellow American designer Bill Blass that the words ‘dress’ and ‘important’ should never be mentioned in the same sentence. ‘I’m going to paraphrase,’ said Jacobs. ‘The words ‘designer’ and ‘important’ should never be mentioned in the same sentence.’

Over the past two decades, the meaning of the term ‘designer’ in relation to fashion has become a freefor- all, inviting a wide variety of interpretations. From business moguls to celebrities to genuine creative geniuses, everyone and anyone can claim designer status. The industry was dominated by couturiers until the 1960s when the ready-to-wear styliste and créateur came to the fore. In more recent years, the broader interpretation of designer has made it challenging to defi ne true greatness—many designers are only as good as the team behind them. Is the product manager a designer? Can the famous personality behind a celebrity brand be considered a designer? For the purposes of this book, we have accepted an all-embracing interpretation of the word, covering skill sets ranging from pure design to brand management and marketing to pure business. In the fi nal analysis, though, it is the infl uence of each individual designer that has driven our selection. Echoing Karl Lagerfeld’s point to WWD , talent is not enough.

We have acknowledged the signifi cance of commercial achievements in compiling our list. British designer Paul Smith may strike some readers as a surprise choice, but his success as an Englishman in creating an international fashion brand without the backing of a major luxury group gives him a unique status. Success is founded, he says, on being ‘90 per cent businessman and 10 per cent designer’.

Many great designers have also been great business people, and others have succeeded through long-lasting linkups with business-minded partners, such as Yves Saint Laurent with Pierre Bergé. We were inspired by the ground-breaking research of Nancy J. Troy, the American fashion historian, in Couture Culture: A Study in Modern Art and Fashion (2003). She explored the links between fashion and commerce, particularly through the work of early twentieth-century couturier Paul Poiret. Designers have always understood the importance of a creative image for driving forward their businesses. An observant reporter for The New York Times, writing back in 1913, said of Jeanne Paquin: ‘She maintains the attitude of an artist, but we know she is the most commercial artist alive.’ Early fashion was dominated by men such as Charles Frederick Worth and Paul Poiret, who often overshadowed the achievements of women such as Jeanne Paquin and Marie Callot Gerber. This book tries to nudge back the balance a little more in these women’s favour, although we acknowledge that the fl amboyance of personalities such as Poiret was an integral part of the makeup that made him so infl uential.

Another important point to make is that the development of fashion—just as the development of history itself—is not a story of constant progress. Fashion (perhaps like history too) has an intrinsic cyclical nature. It looks backwards as much as forwards. Jeanne Lanvin, for example, made full-skirted evening dresses at a time when Chanel was championing short hemlines. The modernist wins out over the nostalgist every time. But Lanvin’s very signifi cant success, as noted by historian Nancy Troy, raises important questions about the conventional narrative of fashion history. Perhaps we should highlight more the retrospective and nostalgic characteristics of some of the greatest fashion.

It may become harder still in the future to identify the skill sets of a designer. New technology makes design by computer a doddle. In future, all of us can play the role of designer. Even the once timeconsuming process of research can be shrunk in an instant to a few hours on the Internet. Not all designers have been profi cient in all as pects of design, as Dean L. Merceron points out in his biography of Jeanne Lanvin. For years, Paul Smith referred to himself as a ‘getter-togetherer of fashion’ rather than as a designer. Jean Patou once famously said: ‘I wouldn’t know how to design. I couldn’t even if I wanted to, for I can’t draw, and a pair of scissors in my hands becomes a dangerous weapon.’

The skills needed to be a fashion designer are certainly changing; there is less emphasis on technical prowess and more on an instinct for trends. In future, more consumers are likely to design their own clothing and order items directly from the manufacturer. In turn, the role of shops will change to become places where customers pick up prepurchased clothing.

Fashion: The Key Concepts PDF by Jennifer Craik

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Fashion: The Key Concepts
by Jennifer Craik
Fashion: The Key Concepts

Contents
acknowledgements ix
illustrations xi
introduction: why study fashion? 1
i. the purpose of this book 1
ii. defi ning key terms 2
iii. key approaches to studying fashion 5
iv. how is this book organized? 14
1 the fashion impulse 19
i. investigating the fashion impulse 19
ii. color and fashion through time 34
iii. the color black in fashion 42
iv. conclusion 47
case study 1 : the regulation of fashion 49
case study 2 : black mourning dress 51
case study 3 : fashions in new guinea headdresses 54
case study 4 : the sailor suit: from function to fashion 59
2 the eurocentric fashion system 63
i. consumer culture and fashion 63
ii. paris fashion 68
iii. the paris legacy 75
iv. new fashion capitals 82
v. conclusion 91
case study 5: beau brummell 93
case study 6: the infl uence of coco chanel 96
case study 7: yves saint laurent as style muse 99
case study 8: daslu luxury retailing 102
3 fashion cycles, symbols, and fl ows 105
i. fashion cycles and structures 105
ii. fashion symbols and codes 109
iii. interdisciplinary fashion theory 115
iv. fashion fl ows 117
v. conclusion 120
case study 9: the meaning of men’s ties 122
case study 10: jeans as über fashion 124
case study 11: sexuality and stilettos 127
case study 12: the magic of cosmetics 130
4 fashion, body techniques, and identity 135
i. fashion as a body technique 136
ii. fashioning gender: femininity and masculinity 139
iii. fashioning consumers 147
iv. uniforms of identity 148
v. conclusion 156
case study 13: fashion and identity in harajuku 159
case study 14: acquiring the techniques of royalty 162
case study 15: the metrosexual man 166
case study 16: the cult of thinness 168
5 fashion, aesthetics, and art 171
i. aesthetics and fashion 171
ii. spatial aesthetics and fashion 174
iii. fashion as aesthetic regime 177
iv. artistic fashion and cultural shifts 180
v. from aesthetic innovation to museum curation 183
vi. conclusion 189
case study 17: fashion photography and heroin chic 191
case study 18: exhibiting vivienne westwood 194
case study 19: wearable art 196
case study 20: fashion and the wristwatch 198
6 fashion as a business and cultural industry 205
i. the structure of the fashion industry 206
ii. fashion forecasting, marketing, and the fashion
consumer 212
iii. the changing role of the fashion designer 220
iv. luxury brands and global marketing 225
v. conclusion 231
case study 21: celebrity models 233
case study 22: louis vuitton as luxury accessory 237
case study 23: the gap as global fashion 240
case study 24: secondhand clothing 242
7 popular culture and fashion 245
i. fashion and the rise of popular culture 246
ii. representing fashion 248
iii. fashion subcultures and popular music 254
iv. fashion journalism, public relations, and stylists 264
v. conclusion 270
case study 25: sports clothing for everyman 272
case study 26: australian bush wear as urban chic 275
case study 27: retailing erotic lingerie 278
case study 28: oliviero toscani’s advertisements
for benetton 281
8 the politics of fashion 283
i. what are the politics of fashion? 284
ii. endogenous and exogenous factors 285
iii. fashion and colonialism 296
iv. fashion and postcolonialism 301
v. conclusion: global fashion futures? 302
case study 29: the politics of veiling 306
case study 30: renegotiating chinese fashion 310
case study 31: indian fashion: from diasporas
to designers 314
case study 32: burberry’s brand of britishness 316
glossary 319
fashion milestones 341
questions for essays and class discussion 349
annotated guide for further reading 353
bibliography 357

Why study fashion?

i. the purpose of this book
This book explores the phenomenon of fashion and how we can study it in accessible yet comprehensive ways. The topic of fashion raises ambivalent responses. People tend to be for it or against it.

Those who like it and are followers of fashion see the way we style ourselves as a key aspect of our identity and how we appear to others. Those who decry fashion regard it as ephemeral, trivial, and a sign of an emphasis on style over substance.

Fashionistas (slang for fashion devotees or patrons) are often regarded as airheads, as frivolous and easily infl uenced by fads and media hype. Even so, fashion and how it works are becoming an increasingly signifi cant part of the study of culture. While we might be ambivalent about it, we are still fascinated with it—hooked perhaps on the polarizing effect of fashion itself.

Fashion: The Key Concepts introduces students to the key terms, issues, debates, and milestones in fashion theory and research. Because it is introductory, topics will be dealt with schematically, with suggestions for further reading listed at the end of the book. Fashion concepts appear in bold typeface when fi rst used in the text and are defi ned in the glossary . Readers are also directed to fashion dictionaries such as Guido Vergani’s Fashion Dictionary (2006) and Gavin Ambrose and Paul Harris’s The Visual Dictionary of Fashion Design (2007). Throughout each chapter are boxes that illustrate points in the text, while longer case studies conclude each chapter. A list of fashion milestones is appended to give readers a quick overview of major moments in fashion history. Where fashion designers are mentioned in the text, brief biographical details are provided; however, no appendix of designer biographies is included because numerous other sources provide this information (Buxbaum 2005). For readers who are studying fashion, an indicative list of questions for essays and class discussion plus an annotated guide to further reading are included.

The bibliography includes many sources of academic fashion scholarship as well as material from fashion magazines, advertisements, diverse Web sites, and other popular sources. Most fashion theory and research emanates from Europe and North America, so it is high time that fashion be recognized as a phenomenon that occurs everywhere and touches the lives of everyone. This book is intended in part to redress this imbalance.

The literature, illustrations, and case studies draw on many different sites of fashion, fashion cultures, and examples of fashion-in-action. Readers of this book and students of fashion should consider these refl ections in relation to their own fashion context. Accordingly, I encourage students of fashion to draw on the popular resources on fashion that surround them, for fashion is not just confi ned to the catwalks, collections, and curators but exists everywhere, in multiple forms and experiences. Immerse yourself in your fashion universe as you read this book!

Victorian Fashion Accessories PDF by Ariel Beaujot

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Victorian Fashion Accessories
By Ariel Beaujot
Victorian Fashion Accessories

Contents
List of Figures ix
Acknowledgments xiii
Introduction 1
1 “The Beauty of her Hands”: The Glove and the Making
of Middle-Class Womanhood 31
2 “The Language of the Fan”: Pushing the Boundaries
of Middle-Class Womanhood 63
3 “Underneath the Parasol”: Umbrellas as Symbols
of Imperialism, Race, Youth, Flirtation, and Masculinity 105
4 “The Real Thing”: The Celluloid Vanity Set and the Search
for Authenticity 139
Conclusion 179
Bibliography 183

List of Figures
INTRODUCTION
0.1 Ephemera showing a fl irtatious Victorian lady with her
fan/calendar open. 1897. 2
0.2 The fan/calendar is closed revealing the lady’s bosom. 1897. 15
CHAPTER 1
1.1 A woman signs the register after her wedding with gloveless
hands. Circa 1880. 35
1.2 Afternoon tea was a time when women revealed their hands
to an intimate circle of friends. 1892. 36
1.3 The “awful effects of too much lawn-tennis by the sea” is
experienced by women once they return to Society events
in the city. 1883. 37
1.4 Bridal Bouquet Bloom was advertised as a hygienic liquid;
however, many of these mail-order beauty products
contained dangerous ingredients like lead or arsenic. 1892. 39
1.5 Actress Sarah Bernhardt brought opera gloves back into
fashion because she was embarrassed to show her
thin arms. 1887. 41
1.6 Fashion plates throughout the nineteenth century demonstrate
passive hand gestures meant to be emulated by middle-class
women. 1880. 42
1.7 In this 1897 family photo, lax hands imitate the fashion
plates of the day. 43
1.8 The glove stretcher’s pointed tips (center object) helped
keep the fi ngers of gloves tapered. Circa 1900. 44
1.9 Working-class women, possibly actresses, solicit wealthy
gentlemen at the Victoria Theatre, a popular music hall of
the 1870s.
1.10 Male glovemakers at work in Grenoble, France. Late
nineteenth century. 47
1.11 Hanna Cullwick, maid-of-all-work and wife of Arthur Munby,
showing off her large working hands and bicep. 1867. 50
1.12 Victorians believed that a person’s temperament could
be read by observing certain aspects of their skulls and
hands as demonstrated on this phrenological drawing
of a head. 1854. 53
CHAPTER 2
2.1 A young woman paints a fan. 1891. 68
2.2 A pretty young woman surrounded by six male admirers uses
her fan to communicate her chosen companion for the
last waltz. Circa 1875. 79
2.3 The vast majority of the fashion plates picture women with
their fans closed and their gazes passive. 1881. 80
2.4 The open fan of fashion plates is never the fan of a
coquette. 1880. 81
2.5 Three images of women fl irting their way into men’s hearts.
1857, 1882, 1858. 82
2.6 Lovers communicate behind a fan. 1894. 84
2.7 Sada Yacco was a Japanese actress who toured Europe and
America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 89
2.8 The three little maids from The Mikado pose coyly with
their fans. 1885. 90
2.9 Carte de visite for Berlin production of The Mikado . Actress
from the fi rst production of The Mikado in Germany poses in
what purports to be the Japanese style. 1886. 91
CHAPTER 3
3.1 The King of Ashanti under his offi cial umbrella surrounded
by his retinue. 1873. 108
3.2 Procession of state umbrellas at the emperor’s marriage
in Peking. 1888. 110
3.3 King Prempeh’s royal umbrella from when he ruled
Ashanti. 1873. 111
3.4 Image of fi rst primitive parasol (that looks like a fan)
to protect royalty from the sun in India. Late
nineteenth century. 112
3.5 The umbrella worship of the Santal Hill peoples. 1898. 113
3.6 A royal parasol as used by the Assyrians, compared with
Jonas Hanway’s umbrella of 1786. 114
3.7 A lady in court dress with her fashionable parasol. 1715. 115
3.8 Jonas Hanway pioneers the fi rst umbrella in London. 1756. 117
3.9 As umbrellas became more common they were sold on the
street by hawkers. 1823. 118
3.10 A woman uses her white parasol to maintain a pale
complexion. 1906. 121
3.11 A gentleman gallantly offers a woman shelter from the
rain. 1913. 123
3.12 The Earl of Hardwicke leans on his slim umbrella. 1843. 126
3.13 How to properly fold an umbrella. 1900. 127
3.14 An umbrella-mender at work. Circa 1890. 128
3.15 Music-hall entertainer George Robey poses as a working-class
upstart with his misshapen umbrella. Circa 1905. 130
3.16 Knife grinder working at a street market under an umbrella.
1950. 131
CHAPTER 4
4.1 An advertisement for a range of hairbrushes in ivory and
erinoid from Harrods’s toilet-brush department. 1929. 142
4.2 Three men stand in front of a store of ivory in Congo. 1889. 143
4.3 Edward VII, when Prince of Wales, shooting a tiger from the
safety of his howdah on the back of an elephant in India. 1877. 144
4.4 A group of Bengalis carving ivory in a live exhibit at the
Great Exhibition of 1851. 145
4.5 Male accessories made out of ivory. May 1937. 146
4.6 Women’s accessories made out of ivory. May 1937. 147
4.7 Trademark image of the British Xylonite Company. 1936. 149
4.8 Women threading bristles into ebony brushes. 1930s. 153
4.9 This cartoon entitled “Cause and Effect” shows that a
maid’s crinoline is too large and misshapen to wear while she works. 1864. 161
4.10 Advertisement for Ivory Pyralin. 1920. 162
4.11 Advertisement for Ming pattern vanity set showing a white
woman’s hand and a refl ection of imagined China.
Late 1920s. 165

Introduction
The glove, the fan, the parasol, and the vanity set have been largely overlooked by previous scholars. 1 These objects helped women create a sense of who they were, with important consequences for how they experienced gender, class, and race in the Victorian period. By accentuating the hands, face, and head, accessories marked the signifi cance of the female body. In this book I will show that womanhood changed from the eighteenth century, in which women were characterized by their actions and attitude, to the nineteenth century when middle-class women began to express themselves through consumerism. 2 In a world that could increasingly purchase the trappings of class, a woman’s performance of gender moved away from what she did toward what she could buy ( fi gure 0.1 ).

Victorians continued to believe, along with their early modern forebearers, that the moral character of a woman was communicated through her body and therefore could be read by those around her. According to this model, to change her appearance for the better a woman had to go through a moral reeducation. The anonymous author of The Ladies’ Hand-Book of the Toilet , written in England in 1843, reassured women that they could improve their external beauty by cultivating a good character: “From this mode of reasoning, it results that the fair one, who would become really beautiful, must make the cultivation of her mind—of those intellectual and moral powers with which her Creator has endowed her—her fi rst and principal care. Pure affections must be cherished”; the author explains “amiable dispositions encouraged; useful knowledge acquired, and a mild, even, and obliging temper assiduously cultivated; or all her endeavours, to obtain real beauty,” the author warns “will prove nugatory and vain. If, however, a due regard be paid to this ‘inward adorning’, her external appearance will be by no means neglected.” 3 This attitude was surprisingly persistent. Again an example appeared in an 1877 guide authored by the American Elisa Bisbee Duffery. Writing about beautiful eyes she says “those who would have their eyes bear a pleasing expression must cultivate pleasing traits of character and beautify the soul, and then this beautiful soul will look through its natural windows.” 4 Over thirty years later this attitude, though expressed more plainly, continues to grace the pages of etiquette manuals suggesting that one must “be nice and you will look nice.” 5

The Dress Detective: A Practical Guide to Object‑Based Research in Fashion PDF by Alexandra Kim and Ingrid E. Mida

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The Dress Detective: A Practical Guide to Object‑Based Research in Fashion
by Alexandra Kim and Ingrid E. Mida
The Dress Detective: A Practical Guide to Object‑Based Research in Fashion

Contents
6 Foreword
Jean Druesedow
9 Acknowledgments
10 Introduction
14 Chapter 1
A Brief History of Object-based
Research with Dress Artifacts
24 Chapter 2
How to Read a Dress Artifact
38 Chapter 3
Observation
60 Chapter 4
Reflection
74 Chapter 5
Interpretation
82 Chapter 6
Case Study of a Yellow Woolen Pelisse
102 Chapter 7
Case Study of a Gray-blue
Sateen Corset
118 Chapter 8
Case Study of a Brown Velveteen
and Wool Bodice
138 Chapter 9
Case study of a Man’s Evening Suit
Tailcoat and Trousers
158 Chapter 10
Case Study of a Lanvin Wedding
Dress and Headpiece
180 Chapter 11
Case Study of a Ruby Red
Velvet Jacket by Christian Dior
196 Chapter 12
Case study of a Kimono-style
Jacket by Kenzo
216 Appendix 1
Checklist for Observation
220 Appendix 2
Checklist for Reflection
222 Index

Acknowledgments
It takes a cadre of people to produce a book. The authors would like to acknowledge all the staff at Bloomsbury involved in the production, especially editor Emily Ardizzone, who initially suggested that we take on this project. There are many people that facilitated the research and photography of garments used in the case studies: Katherine Cleaver, Charlotte Fenton, Lexy Fogel, Lu Ann Lafrenz, Jazmin Welch, and especially Robert Ott, Chair of the School of Fashion at Ryerson University. We wish to express our appreciation to those that assisted with our research, including Neil Brochu, Hilary Davidson, Sophie Grossiord, Laure Harivel, Patience Nauta, and Catherine Orman. We also give sincere thanks to our friends and colleagues, who supported the need for this book, including Jean Druesedow, Edwina Ehrman, Amy de la Haye, Alison Matthews David, and Lou Taylor.

We are very grateful to the Society of Antiquaries of London for choosing us as recipients of the 2014 grant from the Janet Arnold Fund, to facilitate the purchase of images for this book. We would also like to express our thanks to the Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Literary Estate for permission to include the extract from The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle.

Finally, we would like to extend our deepest thanks to our families who cheered us on through the most difficult moments, including Dan Mida, and the late Magdalene Masak, as well as Henry Kim, Sheena and Patrick MacCulloch, and Laura MacCulloch.

Introduction
In this scene between Sherlock Holmes and Watson from The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Watson struggles to read the clues in an ordinary black hat (Figure 0.1). For Sherlock Holmes, its appearance— discolored red silk lining, the initials, the dust, the spots—tell a story of a man who was an intellectual, was once well-off, but who had fallen upon hard times, recently had his hair cut, and whose wife had ceased to love him. Unlocking the personal and cultural narratives hidden in the folds of a garment is a little bit like being Sherlock Holmes. A dress detective looks for and interprets the clues, including the details of cut, construction and embellishment, evidence of how the garment was worn, used or altered over time, as well as the relationship of the garment and its materials relative to the body and the period from which it came (Figure 0.2). The close analysis of dress artifacts can enhance and enrich research, providing primary evidence for studies that consider fashion and clothing from perspectives such as history, sociology, psychology, and economics.

Material culture analysis is a research methodology that considers the relationship between objects and the “ways in which we view the past and produce our narratives of what happened in the past” (Pearce 1992: 192). Clothing and accessories, including hats, footwear, jewelry, hairstyles, tattoos, and other forms of body adornment (hereafter referred to as “dress”), are objects created by man and thus reflect the cultural milieu in which they were designed, created and worn. Unlike the textual accounts of history, ordinary objects such as clothing can be seen as “less self-conscious and potentially more truthful” about a culture (Prown 1982: 4).

The study of material culture has a long history as a discipline, especially in the fields of anthropology and art history. In fashion studies, some scholars do not appreciate the value of examining actual garments, dismissing such work as no more than a cataloguing exercise. In 1998, curator Valerie Steele wrote: “Because intellectuals live by the word, many scholars tend to ignore the important role that objects can play in the creation of knowledge. Even many fashion historians spend little or no time examining actual garments, preferring to rely exclusively on written sources and visual representations” (1998: 327). In 2013, curator Alexandra Palmer echoed this sentiment when she wrote: “The seemingly old-fashioned museum-based approach of fashion studies, which begins with a description of the object, is a complex and underutilized approach for new scholars” (2013: 268).

This book aims to serve the scholar who is unfamiliar or new to objectbased research in fashion, and includes checklists and case studies to articulate a skillset that has, until now, largely been passed on informally, typically from curator to assistant. Written in plain language, this book can also be used by anyone with a family heirloom or dress artifact to help discover the biography of the object. The book begins with a brief history of object-based research in fashion studies, highlighting the work of some key players who have advocated for this type of research over the last century; for example, Doris Langley Moore, Jules David Prown, and Alexandra Palmer. Chapter 2, “How to Read a Dress Artifact,” introduces a Slow Approach to Seeing as the praxis to yield optimal results from an examination of dress artifacts. Subsequent chapters reveal and explain the steps of Observation, Reflection, and Interpretation. The selected case studies in the latter half of the book illustrate how this approach can be used with a variety of different types of Western dress artifacts, dating from the early nineteenth century to the present day, and are ones that might typically be encountered when using a museum or study collection. These case studies articulate the methodological framework for the process, illustrate the use of the checklists, and show how evidence from the garment itself can be used to corroborate theories of dress or fashion. The “Checklist for Observation” and the “Checklist for Reflection” are included as appendices.

Fashioning Memory: Vintage Style and Youth Culture PDF by Heike Jenss

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Fashioning Memory: Vintage Style and Youth Culture
By Heike Jenss
Fashioning Memory: Vintage Style and Youth Culture

CONTENTS
Figures viii
Preface x
Acknowledgments xii
1 Introduction: Fashion and Cultural Memory 1
2 Vintage: Fashioning Time 15
3 Icons of Modernity: Sixties Fashion and Youth Culture 37
4 Style Narratives: Sixties in the Twenty-First Century 65
5 Investing (in) Time: Collecting and Consuming the Past 89
6 Vintage Style and Mediated Memories: Sixties DIY 113
7 Un/timely Fashion 139
References 147
Index 167

FIGURES
1 “Flying High” (Jill Kennington) 1966. Photo: John Cowan 38
2 Shoppers outside the Lord John shop in Carnaby Street, London 1965.
Photo: Peter King/Fox Photos/Getty Images 40
3 A “Mod” girl is measured for a suit in a Carnaby Street tailors, London
1964. Photo: Keystone Features/Getty Images 45
4 A young couple coming out of Mates boutique in Carnaby Street, London
1966. Photo: Ray Roberts/Getty Images 48
5 Models Jackie Moodie (left) and Faith Ibrahim wearing striped minidresses
by Charlotte Warren-Davis at Avantgarde, at the Seekers showrooms in
Sloane Street, London 1966. The dresses are from the Autumn and Winter
collection 1966. Photo: Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images 51
6 The Who live on stage with Pete Townshend wearing Union Jack jacket
and doing “windmill” arm, 1966. Photo: Chris Morphet/Redferns 55
7 Mods on scooters wearing parka coats in the entrance to the Scene Club
in London c.1964. Photo: David Redfern/Redferns 57
8 Outside of the boutique I was Lord Kitchener’s Valet in London’s Portobello
Road 1967. Photo: Hulton Archive/Getty Images 60
9 Record cover of The Manchesters, Diplomat Records c.1965. © 2015,
Inspired Studios, Inc. All rights reserved 66
10 “Late sixties” styles worn at a sixties event in Koblenz, Germany.
Photo: author 74
11 Two of the mods featured in Dean Chalkley’s film The New Faces at the
Book Club, Shoreditch, London 2010. Photo: PYMCA/UIG via Getty
Images 75
12 “Early to mid-sixties” style worn at a sixties event in Koblenz, Germany.
Photo: author 83
13 Clothing tag of a 1960s coat by the company Hecoma, sold at Budin store. Photo: author 95
14 Detail of matching accessories, green dress worn with red handbag, gloves and boots. Photo: author 101
15 Sixties styler’s shoe collection. Photo: author 103
16 Sixties styler in Columbus chair, wearing 1960s dress and boots.
Photo: author 106
17 Custom-made sixties dress in pop art style. Photo: author 120
18 Object and image collage in the bedroom of a sixties styler. Photo: author 121
19 Sixties styler wearing self-made fringe dress modeled on film. Photo: author 124
20 Sixties styler at the Book Club, Shoreditch, London 2010. Photo: PYMCA/
UIG via Getty Images 126
21 Apartment of sixties styler, Berlin, Germany. Photo: author 132
22 Sixties styler, Cologne, Germany. Photo: author 134
23 Twiggy 1966. © Roger-Viollet/Image Works 135

PREFACE
In 2012 Showstudio released a short film titled The New Faces, photographed by Dean Chalkley. The film is shot in crisp black and white, capturing in slow motion against a white seamless studio backdrop the dance moves, poses and appearances of eight twenty-first-century modernists—six men and two women—dressed in sharp suits, polished shoes and meticulous hair styles. The viewer hears no music to this scene of dancing bodies, but the voices of three men talking about their passion for modern, timeless clothing and style. The camera zooms in on the details of clothing and appearance: on the covered buttons of suit jackets, the side vents of neatly ironed trousers, the women’s eye make-up, the tassel and woven loafers, the heels that leave dark traces of the dancing bodies on the white vinyl studio backdrop. The immaculate old-fashioned clothes, the bodies dancing to mute music, the slow motion and monochrome photography create a scene that accentuates and aestheticizes a material absence and presence of time. The twenty-minute documentary gives a glimpse into the endurance of mid-twentieth-century fashion and style that is picked up, worn, enacted, remembered and reimagined by a new generation of youth or young adults, whose looks and moves are material testimony of the “affective force” (see Thrift 2010) of former fashions, or how past aesthetics “move” present bodies.

In this book I seek to explore the experience and allure of past fashions to new wearers, bringing together different times and places of research. Empirically the book builds and expands on research I began to pursue in Germany in the early twenty-first century, culminating in my German book Sixties Dress Only: Mode und Konsum in der Retro-Szene der Mods (Jenss 2007). Early stages of this research also appeared in some English publications (Jenss 2004, 2005a). This work is based on an ethnographic study of the sixties scene in Germany, with a particular focus on how clothing of the 1960s is used, refashioned and forms a material part of practices and processes of identification and social relationships in the context of youth culture.

My research evolved as part of a collaborative project located at the universities of Dortmund and Frankfurt am Main (funded by The Volkswagen Foundation 2002–5) that investigated dynamics of uniformization and seriality in diverse clothing contexts, from corporate dress codes to everyday fashion, the rise of fast fashion, and mass-individualization (see Mentges and Richard 2005; Mentges, Neuland-Kitzerow and Richard 2007).

After I had moved to take on a new position in the US, the work on this book, Fashioning Memory: Youth Culture and Vintage Style, initially began to evolve as a project of translation. Yet with the dynamics of time and place, the process of writing and further research, this project started to crystallize its own focus on the intersection of youth, vintage, fashion time and cultural memory—with the latter offering a productive methodological angle to explore how time or the crosstemporal dynamics of fashion and youth cultural style come to be experienced and enacted through dress practices. While such an interest was to an extent inherent in the original field research and interviews, it is the bringing together of fashion and memory as an “operative metaphor,” and the understanding of remembering as a “performative act,” as it is conceptualized in more recent research in the field of memory studies, as I will outline in the introduction to this book, that shed new light on my material. In addition, it is the role of language itself and the thinking about shifting terminologies, for example from retro to vintage, and what these shifts may entail, as well as the impact of time and change itself—including the developments of new technologies and the fostering of vintage aesthetics, as well as experiences of nostalgia through media over the last decade (see Jenss 2013) and the observation of changing preferences, aesthetics and perceptions of “the sixties” and sixties style—that led me to reflect on and expand my research through perspectives on time, memory, fashion and modernity.

This book brings then different phases of research together, with insights—and hindsight—emerging from each that inform the chapters in this book, including historical research on the rise of vintage in fashion, and on the allure of the new and the old in youth culture, empirical explorations of the materialities of secondhand consumption and the performance of vintage style, and their framing through perspectives and theories on the dynamics, mediation and experience of cultural memory, modernity and the temporalities of fashion.

Textile Fibre Composites in Civil Engineering PDF by Thanasis Triantafillou

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Textile Fibre Composites in Civil Engineering
Edited by Thanasis Triantafillou
Textile Fibre Composites in Civil Engineering

Contents
List of contributors xi
Preface xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering xv

Part One Materials, Production Technologies and
Manufacturing of Textile Fibre Composites for Structural and Civil Engineering 1
1 Manufacturing of textiles for civil engineering applications 3
T. Gries, M. Raina, T. Quadflieg and O. Stolyarov
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Yarn structures 4
1.3 Planar textile structures 9
1.4 Three-dimensional textile structures 16
1.5 Coating of textiles 19
1.6 Conclusions and future trends 21
References 22

2 Mineral-based matrices for textile-reinforced concrete 25
V. Mechtcherine, K. Schneider and W. Brameshuber
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 Overview of matrix compositions for TRC 27
2.3 Testing properties of fresh TRC matrices 29
2.4 Basic properties of hardened TRC matrices 31
2.5 Alternative binder systems for TRC 33
2.6 Modification of TRC matrices by short fiber 38
2.7 Summary 40
Acknowledgments 41
References 41

3 Manufacturing methods for textile-reinforced concrete 45
W. Brameshuber
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 Casting 45
3.3 Laminating 48
3.4 Spraying/shotcreting 50
3.5 Spinning 53
3.6 Extruding 55
3.7 Summary 57
References 59

Part Two Testing, Mechanical Behaviour and Durability
Aspects of Textile Fibre Composites Used in Structural
and Civil Engineering 61
4 Bonds in textile-reinforced concrete composites 63
A. Peled
4.1 Introduction 63
4.2 Characterization and modelling of bonding 66
4.3 Multifilament yarns 75
4.4 Bonding in a fabric 91
4.5 Summary 95
References 95
5 Textile fiber composites: Testing and mechanical behavior 101
B. Mobasher
5.1 Introduction 101
5.2 Tension tests 102
5.3 Role of microstructure 105
5.4 Interface characterization 109
5.5 Correlation of tensile and flexural properties 122
5.6 High-speed tensile tests 130
5.7 Flexural impact 138
References 147
6 Durability of structures made of or strengthened using
textile-reinforced concrete 151
V. Mechtcherine
6.1 Introduction 151
6.2 Characteristic loads and exposures 153
6.3 Basics of durability estimation and design 153
6.4 Characteristic material properties to predict long-term durability
and service life 159
6.5 Summary 165
Acknowledgments 166
References 166
7 Fire resistance of textile fiber composites used in civil engineering 169
L. Bisby
7.1 Introduction 169
7.2 Fire resistance 170
7.3 Fiber response to elevated temperatures 173
7.4 Matrix response to elevated temperatures 174
7.5 Textile-fiber composite response to elevated temperatures 175
7.6 Fire resistance of TRC structures 177
7.7 Fire resistance of textile-reinforced strengthening systems for
concrete and masonry 178
7.8 Summary, knowledge gaps and research recommendations 182
References 183
Part Three Textile Reinforced Concrete: Structural
Behaviour, Design and Case Studies 187
8 Textile-reinforced concrete: Design models 189
J. Hegger and N. Will
8.1 Introduction 189
8.2 Factors to consider in the dimensioning methods 189
8.3 Dimensioning approach considering normal force and bending 195
8.4 Summary 206
References 206
9 Textile-reinforced concrete: Structural behavior 209
R. Chudoba and A. Scholzen
9.1 Introduction 209
9.2 Effect of strain-hardening behavior on structural response 210
9.3 Case study: Hypar-shell 213
9.4 Case study: Barrel-vault shell 218
9.5 Further aspects of structural behavior 223
9.6 Conclusions 224
References 225
10 Applications of textile-reinforced concrete in the precast industry 227
C.G. Papanicolaou
10.1 Introduction 227
10.2 Exterior cladding systems and fac¸ades 227
10.3 Sandwich elements 231
10.4 Other applications 237
10.5 Summary and future trends 238
References 241
11 Optimum design of textile-reinforced concrete as integrated
formwork in slabs 245
C.G. Papanicolaou and I.C. Papantoniou
11.1 Introduction 245
11.2 Conceptual design 246
11.3 Design considerations and assumptions 247
11.4 Design equations 249
11.5 Formulation of optimum (minimum cost) design 261
11.6 Summary and future trends 273
References 273
12 Textile-reinforced concrete: Selected case studies 275
M. Raupach and C. Morales Cruz
12.1 Loadbearing and self-supporting new building structures
with prefabricated textile-reinforced concrete 275
12.2 Strengthening of steel-reinforced concrete structures 282
12.3 Repair and restoration with TRC 286
12.4 Future applications of TRC 293
12.5 Conclusion 298
References 298
Part Four Strengthening and Seismic Retrofitting of Existing
Structures: Structural Behaviour, Design and Case Studies 301
13 Strengthening of existing concrete structures: Concepts and
structural behavior 303
T. Triantafillou
13.1 Introduction 303
13.2 Flexural strengthening 305
13.3 Shear strengthening 309
13.4 Confinement of axially loaded concrete 313
13.5 Seismic retrofitting by improving plastic hinge behavior 315
13.6 Seismic retrofitting of infilled reinforced concrete frames 318
13.7 Summary 320
References 321
14 Strengthening of existing concrete structures: Design models 323
E. Mu¨ller, S. Scheerer and M. Curbach
14.1 Preliminary note 323
14.2 Bending strengthening 324
14.3 Shear strengthening 333
14.4 Torsional strengthening 341
14.5 Column strengthening 353
14.6 Conclusion 357
Acknowledgments 357
References 357
15 Strengthening of existing masonry structures: Concepts and
structural behavior 361
T. Triantafillou
15.1 Introduction 361
15.2 Textile-reinforced mortar system 362
15.3 Mechanical properties 363
15.4 Intervention requirements and strengthening
rationale 364
15.5 Structural modeling 365
15.6 Design of retrofitting for seismic applications 366
15.7 Strengthening of masonry walls for out-of-plane loads 366
15.8 Strengthening of masonry walls for in-plane loads 368
15.9 Strengthening of curved masonry elements 371
15.10 Confinement of masonry columns 372
15.11 Summary 373
References 374
16 Strengthening of existing masonry structures: Design models 375
T. Triantafillou
16.1 Introduction 375
16.2 General safety principles 375
16.3 Safety verifications 376
16.4 Strengthening of masonry walls for out-of-plane loads 378
16.5 Strengthening of masonry walls for in-plane loads 382
16.6 Strengthening of curved masonry elements: Arches, barrel
vaults, domes 385
16.7 Confinement of masonry columns 386
16.8 Summary 388
References 388

17 Strengthening of existing structures: Selected case studies 389
D. Bournas
17.1 Introduction 389
17.2 Concrete strengthening case studies 389
17.3 Masonry strengthening case studies 402
17.4 Future trends 409
17.5 Source of further information and advice: Design codes 409
Acknowledgments 410
References 410

18 Thin TRC products: Status, outlook, and future directions 413
A.E. Naaman
18.1 Introduction: Summary 413
18.2 Status report 413
18.3 Matrix and reinforcement: Compatibility for a successful composite 419
18.4 Cost considerations: Fiber volume fraction versus weight fraction 422
18.5 The case for 3D textiles 426
18.6 Ultra-high performance cement matrices in thin cement composites 430
18.7 Summing up: Mechanical performance 431
18.8 Summing up: Functions and applications 432
18.9 Suggested research needs and directions for successful thin
TRC products 433
Acknowledgments 435
References 435
Index 441

Supply Chain Management and Logistics: Innovative Strategies and Practical Solutions PDF by Zhe Liang, Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, Leyuan Shi

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Supply Chain Management and Logistics: Innovative Strategies and Practical Solutions
By Zhe Liang, Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, Leyuan Shi
Supply Chain Management and Logistics: Innovative Strategies and Practical Solutions

Contents
List of Figures......................................................... vii
List of Tables.................................................................xi
Preface.................................................................................. xiii
Editors............................................................................... xvii
Contributors...................................................................... xix
Section I Supply Chain Strategy and Coordination
1. Supply Chain Frameworks: A Constant in the Midst of Change..........3
Tan Miller
2. Future Research on Multiobjective Coordinated Scheduling
Problems for Discrete Manufacturing Enterprises in Supply
Chain Environments..................................................................................... 19
Jun Pei, Xinbao Liu, Wenjuan Fan, Athanasios Migdalas,
and Panos M. Pardalos
Section II Supply Chain Network Optimization
3. Integrated Production/Distribution/Routing Planning
for Supply Chain Networks: A Review....................................................43
Lei Lei, Rosa Oppenheim, Lian Qi, Hui Dong, Kangbok Lee,
and Shengbin Wang
4. Increasing the Resiliency of Local Supply Chain Distribution
Networks against Multiple Hazards.........................................................87
Sarah G. Nurre, Thomas C. Sharkey, and John E. Mitchell
5. Nested Partitions for Large-Scale Optimization in Supply
Chain Management..................................................................................... 123
Weiwei Chen and Leyuan Shi
Section III Inventory Management in the Supply Chain
6. A Schedule-Based Formulation for the Cyclic Inventory
Routing Problem.......................................................................................... 153
Zhe Liang, Rujing Liu, and Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse
7. An Application of an Inventory Model for Production Planning..... 179
Paveena Chaovalitwongse, Pakpoom Rungchawalnon,
and Kwankeaw Meesuptaweekoon
Section IV Financial Decisions in the Supply Chain
8. A Game of Competitive Investment: Overcapacity
and Underlearning...................................................................................... 197
Jian Yang, Yusen Xia, and Junmin Shi
9. A Multiperiod Multiclass High-Speed Rail Passenger Revenue
Management Problem................................................................................. 231
Ying Qin, Zhe Liang, Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, and Shaozhong Xi
Index................................................................................ 257

Preface
As the world moves toward more competitive and open markets in the twenty-first century, effective supply chain management is of critical importance to the success of an enterprise. Despite a large amount of research conducted in the past decades on the supply chain management topic, many researchers and practitioners are still devoting considerable efforts to the new emerging problems. This is not only due to theoretical and computational challenges, but also the business environments and configurations from various industries, which are continuously changing and becoming more restrictive and demanding. As a result, numerous new problems are arising in the field of supply chain management.

In response to the need for educational and research resources that practically apply to a collaborative and integrative environment in today’s market, this book contains contributions from leading experts in supply chain management throughout the world. It is intended as a collection of innovative strategies and practical solutions that address problems encountered by enterprises in the management of supply chain and logistics. As supply chain management is a far-reaching area, it is not possible to cover all aspects and applications of the field. Rather than concentrating on just methodology or techniques (such as optimization or simulation) or specific application areas (such as inventory or transportation), the book is designed to present readers with a collection of topics that bridge the gap between the academic arena and industrial practice. Yet the book still provides an in-depth discussion of both general techniques and specific approaches to a broad range of important, inspiring, and unsolved questions in the field.

This book is designed to be of value to researchers, practitioners, and professionals in academic institutions and industry who need a wide-spectrum resource for many different aspects involved in supply chain management from technical methodologies to management implications. Graduate (and advanced undergraduate) students and researchers will also find this book a rich resource for the design, analysis, and implementation of supply chain management problems arising in a wide range of industries.

The book is organized based on four major research themes in supply chain management: (1) supply chain strategy and coordination, (2) supply chain network optimization, (3) inventory management in the supply chain, and (4) financial decisions in the supply chain. The sequence of these themes helps in transitions from an enterprise-wide framework to network design to operational management to financial aspects of supply chain. Each individual theme also addresses the answer to a challenging question as to how to go about applying quantitative tools to real-life operations, resulting in practical solutions.

The first section includes two chapters focused on supply chain strategy and coordination. Chapter 1, by Miller, lays down the platform of this book by providing an overview of the concept of hierarchical supply chain planning frameworks at the strategic level down through operations. Although the chapter does not review the details of key operations and decision support tools in the frameworks, it provides a key foundational tool to organizeand manage supply chain planning and operations activities. Chapter 2, by Pei et al., provides an overview of coordination between supply chain partners in discrete manufacturing enterprises. The chapter provides an overview of challenging scheduling problems that often arise in supply chain coordination and briefly discusses research methodologies that are applied to these problems.

The second section includes three chapters with emphasis on optimization methodologies in supply chain networks. Chapter 3, by Lei et al., provides an overview of optimization models and solution methodologies for integrated operations planning problems in supply chain networks. These ideas can be applied to integrated real-life problems that involve production, inventory, distribution, and routing. Chapter 4, by Nurre et al., presents a review of the nested partitions method for solving large-scale optimization problems. The applications of the method are demonstrated on two supply chain network optimization problems. Specifically, the intermodal hub location problem, which is a facility location problem in supply chain networks, and the multilevel capacitated lot-sizing problem with backlogging, which is a complex production planning problem, are the two case problems in the chapter. Chapter 5, by Chen and Shi, considers a novel stochastic optimization model of the location problem to place critical components in a supply chain network to increase the resiliency of the network, that is, to aid in the recovery of the supply chain network after an extreme event. The chapter discusses a case study to determine the placement of permanent generators at the retail locations of shops, which distributes both convenience items and fuel in Upstate New York and Vermont.

The third section includes two chapters that are centered on inventory decisions in the supply chain. Chapter 6, by Liang et al., proposes a novel optimization model based on a schedule-based formulation for the cyclic inventory routing problem. The chapter presents a column generation method as a solution methodology to solve this problem efficiently. Chapter 7, by Chaovalitwongse et al., illustrates a production planning case study in a production process of rolled tissues. In the case study, customer demand could not be fulfilled because of an insufficient inventory level. The chapter addresses the problem by introducing a new inventory policy and a production planning method to determine new production orders.

The fourth section includes two chapters that are focused on financial aspects in the supply chain. Chapter 8, by Yang et al., discusses the importance of competitive learning when firms make decisions on initial investments. For example, when firms neglect the due diligence on conducting demand-forecast studies, overcapacity will be inevitable. The last chapter, by Qin et al., studies a revenue management optimization for a multiperiod multiclass rail passenger revenue management problem. The chapter presents a complex optimization model and proposes a new efficient solution methodology. This work has an impact on logistics network and transportation problems.

During the process of completing this volume, we spent a few years interacting with the authors and anonymous reviewers. We appreciate their time, effort, and dedication toward the successful completion of this volume and cannot thank them enough. The experience of putting together this volume has been rewarding. We truly hope that readers will find the volume to be as stimulating and valuable as we did.