Wool: Science and Technology Edited by W S Simpson and G H Crawshaw

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Wool: Science and Technology
Edited by W S Simpson and G H Crawshaw
Wool: Science and Technology

Preface xi
List of contributors xiii
1 Wool production and fibre marketing 1
w s simpson
1.1 General introduction 1
1.2 World wool production 3
1.3 Wool harvesting 5
1.4 Clip preparation 5
1.5 Participants in the wool trade 5
1.6 Wool sampling 11
1.7 Fibre diameter 13
1.8 Fibre length 14
1.9 Wool colour 15
1.10 Bulk testing 16
1.11 Dark fibre contamination 16
1.12 Specification of woolscour deliveries 17
1.13 Computer blend selection 18
1.14 Wool promotion 18
1.15 The Fernmark brand 19
1.16 Marketing of distinctive wool types 19
References 20
2 Woolscouring, carbonising and effluent treatment 21
l a halliday
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Nature of contaminants 21
2.3 Historical overview of scouring methods 22
2.4 Unit operations 23
2.5 Scouring chemistry 33
2.6 Development of scouring systems 35
2.7 Chemical treatments in woolscours 39
2.8 Drying 42
2.9 Solvent scouring 45
2.10 Woolgrease and its recovery 46
2.11 Effluent 49
2.12 Process control and quality assurance 55
2.13 Energy conservation 56
References 57
3 Fibre morphology 60
h höcker
3.1 Introduction 60
3.2 General chemical composition 61
3.3 Composition and structure of morphological
components of wool 67
3.4 Outlook 76
References 78
4 Physical properties of wool 80
j w s hearle
4.1 The wool fibre 80
4.2 Effects of water 80
4.3 Observed mechanical properties 84
4.4 Structural mechanics 106
4.5 Electrical properties 118
4.6 Yarns and fabrics 122
References 126
5 Wool chemistry 130
w s simpson
5.1 General introduction 130
5.2 Chemical composition 131
5.3 Degradation by radiation and heat 131
5.4 Photobleaching and photoyellowing 132
5.5 Absorption of acids 135
5.6 Absorption of alkalis 137
5.7 Dyeing with acid dyestuffs 139
5.8 Acid, alkali and enzymic hydrolysis 141
5.9 Oxidation with peracids 143
5.10 Chlorine-based oxidation 145
5.11 Reduction 145
5.12 Sulphitolysis 146
5.13 Metal salts 147
5.14 Miscellaneous reactions 150
5.15 Crosslinking 151
References 156
6 Mechanical processing for yarn production 160
l hunter
6.1 Introduction 160
6.2 Worsted processing system 161
6.3 Preparation for spinning (drawing) 177
6.4 Semi-worsted processing system 180
6.5 Woollen processing system 181
6.6 Spinning 192
6.7 Twisting 206
6.8 Winding, clearing and lubrication 207
6.9 Yarn steaming (setting) 208
6.10 Top dyeing 208
References 209
Bibliography 213
7 Chemical processes for enhanced appearance
and performance 215
w s simpson
7.1 Introduction 215
7.2 Bleaching 215
7.3 Prevention of dyebath yellowing 216
7.4 Insect-resist treatments 217
7.5 Shrinkproofing 219
7.6 Antistatic properties 224
7.7 Flame-retardant wool 225
7.8 Photostabilisers 226
7.9 Stainblocking 228
7.10 Multi-purpose finishes 229
7.11 Polymer grafting 230
7.12 Removal of vegetable matter by carbonising 232
7.13 Setting 232
References 234
8 Practical wool dyeing 237
k parton
8.1 Introduction 237
8.2 Dyestuff chemistry 238
8.3 Dyeing of different substrate forms 240
8.4 Classification of wool dyestuffs 242
8.5 Commercial forms of dyestuffs 247
8.6 Levelness 248
8.7 Dyeing fibre blends 251
8.8 Treatments to improve colour fastness 252
8.9 Environmental issues 252
8.10 Fibre protection 256
8.11 Summary 256
References 257
9 Manufacture of wool products 258
k russell, d mcdowell, i ryder and c smith
9.1 Introduction 258
9.2 Twisting 258
9.3 Winding 264
9.4 Warp preparation for weaving 266
9.5 Weaving yarns 269
9.6 Fabric design 270
9.7 Weaving machinery 273
9.8 Knitting and knitwear 275
Bibliography 289
10 Carpets, felts and nonwoven fabrics 290
10.1 Carpets 290
10.2 Felts and nonwoven fabrics 304
References 312
11 Finishing 314
11.1 Finishing of woven fabrics 314
11.2 Finishing of knitted fabrics 328
11.3 Finishing of knitwear 330
Reference 332
12 Overview of global dynamics in the wool textile industry 333
12.1 Introduction 333
12.2 Overview of trends in world textiles 333
12.3 Factors shaping global integration in textiles 335
12.4 Overview of trends in wool textile production and trade 337
12.5 Factors behind the declining importance of wool and wool textiles 342
12.6 Patterns of industry development and adjustment 349
12.7 Outlook for the wool textile industry 355
References 357
Index 360

Werner von Bergen and his collaborators released Volume 1 of their Wool Handbook in 1963, and two further volumes followed soon after.This series was unique in presenting a broad-spectrum description of every pertinent aspect from sheep-raising to wool consumer products.These texts were subsequently enlarged and reprinted in several editions.

Another notable previous publication was Wool. Its Chemistry and Physics by Alexander and Hudson, first published in 1954. More recently, two more narrowly focused texts have appeared, both highly valued in industry and academia.They are Maclaren and Milligan’s Wool Science.The Chemical Reactivity of the Wool Fibre (NSW Science Press 1981) and Lewis’ Wool Dyeing (Soc. Dyers and Colourists, Bradford, 1992). The present text is therefore the first attempt in almost 40 years to present a comprehensive view of the wool industry from fibre marketing through to manufacture of consumer products.

In Chapter 1, I briefly describe a major overhaul that has occurred of the methods of trading wool, basically moving the entire system from one of individual intuitive skill to one based on laboratory measurements of sale lots.

Wool-scouring also has improved enormously in efficiency with a host of small and a few large innovations. Chapter 2 describes this modern technology, which reflects a strong emphasis on environmental concerns such as treating effluent discharges and energy conservation, coupled with far better quality control and capabilities for new add-on processes.

Chapters 3, 4 and 5 describe the principal sectors of current wool science. Understanding of wool fibre morphology, and of physical and chemical properties continues to progress and, in doing so, highlights just how intricate and complex is the wool fibre. Instrumentation, now available for isolating and sequencing wool proteins and for determining their structural arrangement, is beginning to offer a better-informed basis for technologists to devise improved wool products and processes.

Chapters 6 onwards deal in turn with each major aspect of wool pro cessing technology. I have to say the contributing authors have been, and in most cases still are, working in the heartlands of these industries. Spinning, weaving and knitting are the three really major physical processes. The Chapter on wool carpets exemplifies how one particular consumer product may be woven, tufted, knotted, or needled to create a great variety of pattern and texture.

Chemical processes that improve appearance or performance of wool products have been brought together in Chapter 7 to better highlight the technical options available to meet special specifications.The development of synthetic fibres with specialised performance features, allied with higher expectations of consumers, has been a strong motivation for creative new processes for wool. Flameproof protective clothing and antistatic carpets are just two fairly recent examples where wool products meet the most demanding requirements.

Wool dyeing innovation is similar to wool-scouring in some respects in that it has been driven by a greater emphasis on energy conservation, shorter treatment times, and better management of effluents, in addition to the publicly more visible competitive demands for high standards of stylish and stable colouration of wool products. The final chapter is intended to put these modern developments in the wool industry into a global context amongst other fibres and textile technologies.

I wish to sincerely thank my co-authors for their efforts to make available an up-to-date text for wool technologists, textile students and so many others interested in this old, yet modern, industry.

W S Simpson

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Fancy Yarns: Their Manufacture and Application | R H Gong and R M Wright

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Fancy Yarns: Their Manufacture and Application
By R H Gong and R M Wright
Fancy Yarns: Their Manufacture and Application

Foreword vii
Preface ix
Acknowledgements xiii
Comments and credits for the colour plates xv
1 Introduction and background 1
1.1 Definition 2
1.2 Purpose and scope 3
1.3 Methodology 3
2 Historical development 5
3 The size of the market for fancy yarns 9
3.1 Introduction 9
3.2 Starting the successive scenario technique 12
3.3 The method of the successive scenario technique 15
4 Manufacturing attitudes and the applications of fancy yarns 22
4.1 Manufacturing attitudes and equipment 22
4.2 Applications for fancy yarns 23
5 Introduction to fancy yarn structures, and analysis of fancy yarns 29
5.1 Introduction 29
5.2 Analysing yarns 30
6 Structures and formation of fancy yarns 33
6.1 Marl yarn 33
6.2 Spiral or corkscrew yarn 34
6.3 Gimp yarn 35
6.4 Diamond yarn 36
6.5 Eccentric yarn 37
6.6 Bouclé yarn 38
6.7 Loop yarn 40
6.8 Snarl yarn 43
6.9 Mock chenille yarn 44
6.10 Knop yarn 45
6.11 Stripe yarn 46
6.12 Cloud or grandrelle yarn 47
6.13 Slub yarn 47
6.14 Nepp yarn and fleck yarn 50
6.15 Button yarn 51
6.16 Fasciated yarn 53
6.17 Tape yarn 53
6.18 Chainette yarn 55
6.19 Chenille yarn 55
6.20 Cover yarn 59
6.21 Metallic yarn 59
7 Manufacturing techniques 60
7.1 Overview of production processes 60
7.2 Yarn production systems 62
7.3 Yarn and fabric trials 87
7.4 Future developments 90
8 The design and application of fancy yarns 92
8.1 Introduction 92
8.2 The design implications of fancy yarns 92
8.3 The use – or not – of luxury fibres 94
8.4 Intellectual property in design 95
8.5 Uses for fancy yarns 97
8.6 New yarns, new fibres, new ideas 99
8.7 The retail potential of fancy yarns 100
8.8 Retailing 100
8.9 Apparel fabrics 102
8.10 Furnishing fabrics 108
8.11 Designing the yarns 110
8.12 The design of fancy yarns using computers 113
8.13 Designing fabrics using fancy yarns and fancy doubled yarns 116
9 The marketing of fancy yarns 126
9.1 The market size and form 126
9.2 The markets available and marketing techniques employed 127
9.3 Historical evidence for the status of fancy yarns 130
9.4 The challenge of marketing 131
9.5 Management and marketing issues as they affect the fashion and fabrics industries 133
10 Conclusion 144
References 145
Bibliography 146
Index 149

In recent years, there has been a very marked increase in the interest in and applications of fancy yarns and fancy doubled yarns, and these yarns now have considerable commercial significance. This is the case even though they form a relatively small volume of the overall textile fibre output of the world. This volume is estimated to be about 1% by weight of the mill consumption statistics, and in 1998 the value of the European market was estimated to be around £500M. The motto of the Textile Institute ‘All human life hangs by a thread’ (Omnia sunt pendentia filo hominum tenui) demonstrates that organisation’s appreciation of the universal and interdisciplinary nature of the textile world. But Shakespeare’s remark that ‘the web of life is of a mingled yarn’ is of more direct relevance to our concerns, since fancy yarns and fancy doubled yarns are essentially ‘mingled’ as a result of their physical characteristics. This book will discuss the ‘mingling’ of the many varieties, their modes of manufacture, and the design and marketing implications that result from their use.

An increase in the general appreciation of the design and marketing opportunities opening to the fancy yarns sector has also become apparent recently. This increase has been driven mainly by the prominent design houses. The trend has had a variable application in place, time, and market sector, and there are a number of reasons for this variability.There is a prejudice frequently expressed by some spinners that fancy yarns of any description are troublesome and difficult to manufacture, and that they divert time and attention from other matters. There is also the point that the combination of budgetary and time pressures on the many university and college departments offering courses for textile students, together make it difficult to give any considerable allotment of study or workshop periods. In addition, lecturers and instructors in universities and technical colleges have, until now, been commonly of the age to be most strongly influenced by the prejudices that see fancy yarns as time-consuming and irrelevant.We feel that this is resulting in an undesirable restriction in the range of information available to students and spinners.Therefore, this book attempts to address these prejudices, and to mitigate the restriction of information.We are aware that these pressures on time and money make it more difficult to assemble a library, or a hand-selected dictionary of fancy and fancy doubled yarns for every student.The production of this basic textbook covering the topic should reduce considerably the burden on lecturers and students alike.The many illustrations – of machines, yarns, fashion and fabrics – are intended to offer an elementary introduction to the manufacturing techniques now in common use and to the varying application of fancy and fancy doubled yarns. Our objective in developing this book is to create a work of reference that will offer support to both the student and the worker in the textile industry. Although this offers a broad topic in itself, it seemed that the discussion of the manufacturing techniques without some discussion also of the applications of the product would tell only half of the story, in particular when we consider that fancy yarns and fancy doubled yarns make their greatest contribution in the essentially ephemeral matters of fashion and style.We therefore seek to offer as well, a general overview of the market for fancy doubled yarns and novelty yarns as it is seen today.

This book falls naturally into four sections: the first, comprising Chapters 1 to 4, deals with the background and historical development of fancy yarns, together with an introduction to their applications. In this section we discuss the basic matters relating to our definition of a ‘fancy yarn’, give a brief overview of the historical progress of fancy yarns from the earliest archaeological records to the present day, and conclude with a discussion of their place in the present textile industry and markets.

The second section, Chapters 5 and 6, concerns fancy yarn structures.The variety of structural effects that are to be found in fancy yarns available today is described. It is illustrated with yarn diagrams and pictures of yarns in order to aid the student in identifying the basic yarn structures and types.

The third section comprises a single chapter, Chapter 7, dealing with the manufacturing techniques employed in the creation of the structural effects covered in the previous section. Again, diagrams are included to demonstrate the particular methods outlined in the text.

In the final section, Chapters 8 and 9, we attempt to offer an insight into the many issues to be confronted in the industrial creation of fancy yarns for commercial customers. These include the effect of external developments on management and marketing techniques and concerns, the effect of the particular market level targeted and the influence of the catwalk on High Street fashion.

Throughout this work, it should be recalled that we are discussing a product that, far from being a ‘commodity’, instead offers the designer an opportunity to create some truly unique fabrics and garments. It seems clear to us that the marketing dimension – especially in terms of the future – merits as much attention as that granted to the discussions of the mechanisms that already have been, or that may be, devised to produce those yarns. However, the yarn structures, and the machine parameters and their characteristics, and the properties of the yarns they produce, will be described before we consider these matters, which are less closely related to the technical reality of creating a useable yarn.

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Coated and Laminated Textiles By Walter Fung

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Coated and Laminated Textiles
By Walter Fung
Coated and Laminated Textiles

Preface ix
Acknowledgements xii
1 General survey 1
1.1 Definitions 1
1.2 Historical background 1
1.3 Fabric coating 4
1.4 Fabric finishing 5
1.5 Fabric lamination 5
1.6 Composite materials 7
1.7 The commercial scope of coated and laminated textiles 7
1.8 The technical scope of coated and laminated textiles 16
1.9 References 22
1.10 Further reading 23
2 Materials and their properties 24
2.1 Introduction 24
2.2 Fabrics 24
2.3 Preparation of fabrics 29
2.4 Materials for coating 32
2.5 Materials for lamination 41
2.6 Compounding of polymers (resins) 46
2.7 Adhesives 63
2.8 Flame retardancy 71
2.9 References 77
2.10 Further reading 81
3 Production methods 83
3.1 Introduction 83
3.2 General principles of fabric coating 84
3.3 Laboratory and pilot coating and laminating 85
3.4 Direct coating 87
3.5 Foam finishing 96
3.6 Foamed and crushed foam coating 98
3.7 Transfer coating 102
3.8 Coagulated polyurethane coatings 105
3.9 Back licking roller techniques 106
3.10 Hot melt extrusion coating 107
3.11 Calender coating 108
3.12 Rotary screen coating 110
3.13 Other coating methods 111
3.14 Fabric impregnation 112
3.15 Lamination 114
3.16 Flame lamination 119
3.17 Hot melt lamination 122
3.18 Discussion of the various methods 136
3.19 Other related coating and joining processes 140
3.20 References 145
3.21 Further reading 148
4 Products from coated and laminated fabrics 149
4.1 Protective clothing – sports and industrial 149
4.2 Industrial and functional products 171
4.3 Automotive applications 194
4.4 Marine applications 216
4.5 Buildings and architecture 222
4.6 Household products 226
4.7 Medical uses 234
4.8 Military uses 235
4.9 Other materials involving coating and laminating 237
4.10 References 239
4.11 Further reading 247
5 Testing, product evaluation and quality 250
5.1 Introduction 250
5.2 Quality assurance 252
5.3 General test considerations 254
5.4 Testing of coated fabrics 257
5.5 Thermal comfort of apparel 270
5.6 Testing of automotive products 279
5.7 Flammability (FR) testing 297
5.8 Specialist testing for chemical and biological hazards 301
5.9 Recording of results – statistical process control 304
5.10 Investigation of faulty material and customer complaints 306
5.11 References 310
5.12 Further reading 314
6 Coating and laminating effects on the environment 316
6.1 Introduction 316
6.2 The effects of pollution 318
6.3 Environmental legislation 321
6.4 Manufacturing concerns 327
6.5 Sustainable development 335
6.6 References 353
6.7 Further reading 358
7 Future developments and outlook 361
7.1 General survey 361
7.2 Processing 363
7.3 New and novel materials 364
7.4 Environmental aspects 366
7.5 New opportunities 369
7.6 References 371
7.7 Further reading 371
8 Sources of further information 373
8.1 General comments and suggestions 373
8.2 Conferences and exhibitions 375
8.3 Journals 378
8.4 Technical and professional organisations and institutions 383
8.5 Market information on technical textiles industry 388
8.6 General further reading 388
8.7 Glossary of unfamiliar terms and abbreviations 389
Index 395

In writing this textbook it has been the author’s intention to produce a work of reference for everyone involved in the business of coated and laminated textile products. Products generally begin with the technologist or marketing specialist who initiates the development, progressing to laboratory staff who carry out pre-production preparatory work and the machine operatives who actually produce the goods, through to the technical service specialist and the salesman who meet the customer. Some focus is on why particular starting materials are used and what specialist properties they possess, because from this comes an understanding of how the materials will behave during production and use.This knowledge is important if problems are to be solved as they arise in the plant so that quality coated or laminated fabric can be produced consistently. This understanding is also essential to the investigation of customer complaints or concerns, and finally – but at least equal in importance to all the other considerations – it enables innovation and the design of new or improved products. Existing products are described in some detail, including background information, so that opportunities for improvements and new product innovation may be identified quickly, especially through making use of the new materials and technology which seem to be becoming available almost on a weekly basis.

The book is written in a clear, concise manner – generally free of intimidating (for the layman) chemical formulae and mathematical equations. Little previous knowledge of the industry or subject is assumed, but it is hoped that the underlying scientific principles are explained adequately for readers to understand why compounds contain different ingredients and why it is important to set processing conditions carefully and adhere to them. Included in the book are properties of materials, details of material preparation and actual processing conditions – some from a ‘hands on perspective.’ Production management and sales and marketing aspects are also discussed.Test methods are presented along with comments, and the scope for research and new product development is reviewed, together with a section devoted to sources of further information for more detailed research and for keeping up-to-date. Suggestions for improvements in existing products and for exploratory developments are made.

Coating and laminating offer methods of improving and modifying the physical properties and appearance of fabrics, and also scope for the development of entirely new products by combining the advantages of fabrics, polymers, foams and films.There are development opportunities in the area of industrial and medical protective clothing, with a view to making it more comfortable and washable without affecting performance. Disposability is likely to be less attractive in the face of ecological waste disposal concerns. There are interesting, novel ‘smart’ materials such as phase change materials, temperature memory shape polymers and surface modification processes which result in improved adhesion; these are still to be fully exploited by the textile industry. Coating and laminating poses challenges, not only for the technologist, physicist and chemist but also for the mechanical, chemical and production engineer whose expertise is frequently called upon to solve a particular problem as well as to develop more efficient machinery. It is hoped that this book will also be of use in explaining to these specialists the overall picture and the need for accurate control of the production variables, the factors involved and how they all interrelate with each other. Coated or laminated fabrics are handled differently from noncoated fabric, and manufacturing processes also involve materials such as solvent and water-based resins, films, foams and hot melt adhesives in powder, web and film form.

Control and handling of potentially toxic liquids and fumes in an increasingly environmentally conscious world are also important tasks in coating or laminating plant management. The influence of issues such as the environment and global warming on the industry and how they are likely to influence future products and processes is discussed. Coated and laminated fabrics are, by definition, composed of different materials, although the disposal of these materials at the end of their useful life is apparently not an issue at the time of writing – apart from carpets and PVC-based products. Careful thought, however, should be given to the choice of materials for future products in order to facilitate recycling and disposal and to protect the environment. Research work on these aspects and the impact of plastics and textiles in general on the environment has been underway for some time, and these items are also reviewed and discussed.

Coating and lamination cut across virtually all of the groups into which the products of the textile industry can be classified, and thus the scope for development is extremely wide.The processes of coating and laminating are important steps in the production of composites, another important area of technical textiles. The technologist responsible for research and development is working in an exciting area with tremendous potential and opportunities for innovation.Textile analysts draw attention to the fact that in the developed world, technical textiles offer the most potential for innovation and growth and, some say, the main hope for survival of the textile industry in the developed countries. Coating and lamination are two of the processes by which these aims can be realised, but information, imagination, persistence and determination are needed to make the most of these opportunities in an ever-changing world.

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Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing | Hans-Karl Rouette

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Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing
By Hans-Karl Rouette
Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing

The international economy, accompanied by a marked shift in the political landscape in many areas of the world, is currently undergoing profound change. Not only are a great number of industrialised, recently-industrialised and developing countries affected by these developments but also many manufacturing companies and public utilities. Changes are likewise taking place from the sociological standpoint: due to a constantly increasing world population, resources and jobs are becoming scarcer, the threat to the environment is increasing, more and more people are being excluded from active employment and the number of old people is on the rise.

The consequences – especially in the political sphere – are far-reaching. Within the realms of corporate strategy the process of industrial concentration continues; associations and institutions also follow this trend by combining to form more efficient units. The struggle for market shares, skilled labour and young talent, for greater competitiveness and business survival is becoming harder and harder. The textile industry, in particular, is seriously affected by these developments. Despite increasing productivity in certain sectors, factories and jobs are both victims to these events. The market for textiles now demands an ever quicker supply of merchandise and the more development a company pursues, the greater its need for information on research in the industrial field. As a common objective of theory and practice, the translation of scientific knowledge into new products and production techniques is a necessary prerequisite for the promotion of structural change in small textile companies. Various avenues present themselves for an effective transfer of knowledge, e. g.:

– technology centres,
– trade conferences,
– specialised seminars,
– expert consultancy,
– trade exhibitions with accompanying symposia and, of course,
– publications in technical journals and books.

The rapid progress of technology has meant that complete works on the subject of textile finishing, including its peripheral fields, are either no longer available or out of date, and have become less comprehensible due to continual amendments. Communication problems between theorists and practitioners are an additional factor. Process technology, as the link between theory and practice, represents the optimum means for bringing together theoretical knowledge and practical procedure in order that reproducible and profitable products can be manufactured.

Against this background an encyclopedia has been compiled which provides a comprehensive treatment of textile finishing technology and all its peripheral fields. The underlying concept has been to structure the data and consider different user perspectives, since the Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing is intended to serve the needs of several user groups. Thus, responsibility for locating desired information should not lie with the reader – rather he/she should be guided by the system itself. An information system of this nature offers the textile finisher a wide range of directly usable information on textile technology which, with regard to the amount of dedicated effort and extent of compilation involved, has simply not been available hitherto. The Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing describes common and new terms methodically by means of concise definitions. Keywords of special significance are dealt with in their entirety and treated more extensively in their ecological, process technological and application- oriented contexts, e. g.:

– manufacturing technology,
– products,
– by-product areas,
– energy, mass and information flows,
– human environments,
– complete production lines for textile and clothing manufacture up to waste disposal,
– eco-balances.

The Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing thereby serves to describe the wealth of information involved in the dyeing, printing, finishing and coating of textiles such as clothing, home textiles, industrial textiles, medical textiles and geotextiles. At the same time, particular attention has been paid to the environmental problems peculiar to textile finishing. The German laws and regulations mentioned in this work are exemplary for the worldwide environmental protection. Chemical concepts are explained with the aid of formulae.

Knowledge of textile chemistry is regarded as funda- mental for a clear understanding of textile finishing and, for this reason, knowledge relating to:

– macromolecular chemistry,
– dye chemistry,
– water and tenside chemistry,
– colloid chemistry,
– and physical chemistry has received prominent coverage.

Polymer physics is responsible for shaping the morphological structure of natural and synthetic fibres, and the properties of the fibres themselves are related to their structure. These interrelationships are important to the textile finisher and have received comprehensive treatment.

The processes of diffusion, adsorption and immobilisation are kinetic aspects of all chemical and coloristic modifications to fibres which only seldom proceed to thermodynamic equilibrium. From such considerations, a modern concept of the processing technology involved in textile finishing results which aims to satisfy the quality standards demanded in the application of fibres. Extensive information on the machinery, equipment and installations used in these applications, with typical modern examples, forms the basis of detailed descriptions. Problems of such vital importance as environmental pollution are treated in encyclopedic scope by the Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing.

Since the range of knowledge covered by the encyclopedia extends far beyond the realm of textile finishing per se, and necessarily includes the preceding and succeeding production stages of textile technology, an integral view predominates in many of the definitions. The Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing has been so named because comprehensive knowledge from every specialised area having a bearing on textile finishing has been amassed for the benefit of the textile finisher. The Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing has its origin in the Department of Textile and Clothing Technology of the University of Applied Science, Fachhochschule Niederrhein where teaching is practised by “specialists in the field”. This English version is a translation and update of the German edition published in 1995 by Laumann-Verlag. It is nevertheless not surprising that the Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing represents the culmination of seven years painstaking effort and that it draws on numerous outside publications. Because of the great number of publications involved, it has not been possible to quote this borrowed intellectual property which forms such a substantial part of the encyclopedia. Literature references have been dispensed with entirely, for which we kindly request the understanding of the various authors concerned. Their published work is considered to reflect the latest state of knowledge and, in a few cases, has been acknowledged at the end of a keyword with the postscript “according to XY”. Manufacturer’s and trade names have also been omitted from the text as far as possible. Where, occasionally, it has been necessary to describe individual products (e. g., machines, dyes, etc.), details of the respective manufacturers have been given. Diagrams borrowed from outside publications have likewise been acknowledged according to manufacturer or source.

It is anticipated that the Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing will appeal particularly to:
– plant owners, directors, management,
– factory managers, qualified engineers, technologists, practitioners, foremen, environmental officers,
– chemist-colourists, clothing manufacturers, textile designers, fashion designers, quality inspectors, dry-cleaners,
– students, professors, teachers, lecturers, trainees, research workers,
– buyers, sales personnel, wholesalers,
– personnel in various authorities and ministries,
– machine makers, personnel in supply industries catering to the needs of textile manufacture, representatives of the chemical industry,
– organizers of trade fairs, journalists,
– lawyers, judges and experts in the judiciary,
– consumers, who either enjoy close contact with the end-products of textile finishing, ore use them in a variety of ways as technical or medical textiles.

To facilitate searching for specific terms and to make cross-references easier to find, an electronic version of the Encyclopedia of Textile Finishing is available on a CD-ROM.
Prof. Dr. Hans-Karl Rouette

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Yarn Texturing Technology | J W S Hearle, L Hollick and D K Wilson

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Yarn Texturing Technology
By J W S Hearle, L Hollick and D K Wilson
Yarn Texturing Technology

Preface ix
About the authors xii
1 The origins of texturing 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Twist-texturing 4
1.3 Jet-screen texturing: BCF yarns 13
1.4 Air-jet texturing 14
1.5 The future 15
2 Scientific and engineering principles in twist-texturing 16
2.1 Introduction 16
2.2 Fibre science: Heat-setting 16
2.3 Mechanics of twisting 41
2.4 Structural mechanics of twisted yarns 57
2.5 False-twist texturing process 62
2.6 Twisting, bending and buckling 70
2.7 Variability 80
3 Scientific and engineering principles in other texturing processes 83
3.1 Introduction 83
3.2 Bending, buckling and setting 83
3.3 Air-jet texturing 86
4 False-twist process 97
4.1 Introduction 97
4.2 Draw-texturing machine 98
4.3 Process variables 116
4.4 Package dye yarns 141
4.5 Machine types and variations 145
4.6 Plant environment and operating procedures 147
4.7 Safety 149
4.8 Product integrity 150
5 False-twist textured yarns 151
5.1 Introduction 151
5.2 Definition of yarn type 151
5.3 Modification of yarn properties 153
5.4 Spun-dyed yarns 175
5.5 Common modified polymers 176
5.6 Composite or combination yarns 176
5.7 Oops! What went wrong? 178
6 BCF processes and yarns 185
6.1 Introduction 185
6.2 BCF draw-texturing machine 186
6.3 Process variables 194
6.4 BCF yarns 203
6.5 Modification of yarn properties during draw-texturing 206
7 Air-jet texturing and yarns 211
7.1 Introduction 211
7.2 Air-jet texturing machine 212
7.3 Process variables 222
7.4 Air-jet textured yarns 233
8 Quality assurance 244
8.1 Introduction 244
8.2 Raw materials 244
8.3 Quality assurance of textured yarn 251
8.4 Visual inspection prior to despatch 265
9 Textile yarn logistics 267
9.1 Introduction 267
9.2 Handling 268
9.3 Internal transport systems 272
9.4 Packing line 273
9.5 Yarn packaging 274
9.6 Warehousing 275
9.7 Product logging 276
9.8 Load planning 277
10 Retrospect and prospect 278
10.1 Introduction 278
10.2 Past technologies 278
10.3 Current technology 281
10.4 Related technology 283
10.5 New research and development 284
Appendix 1 Textured condition reference chart 289
Appendix 2 Machine speed and general calculations 290
Bibliography 293
Index 297


In 1946, when I started my career in textiles, nylon, which had come to the market less than ten years before, was virtually synonymous with parachute fabrics and ‘nylons’, the ladies’ stockings first brought to Europe by American servicemen. Polyester was being explored in laboratories for competitive uses. Both were flat, continuous yarns, densely packed in fabrics. Over the next few years, nylon and polyester appeared in other markets.Washand- wear was an attraction and so, when I went on a Fellowship to South Carolina in 1953, I bought nylon and polyester shirts, socks and underwear – all made of fabrics that would be unacceptable today, because of their poor comfort and appearance.

It was in South Carolina that I first came across texturing. Hugh Brown, a highly inventive physicist, who had become Dean of Textiles at Clemson, was exploring texturing by running nylon yarn over a hot wire.A few miles away Deering-Milliken researchers were developing edge-crimping, and from Switzerland we heard of the long process for twist texturing.When I returned to Manchester, I introduced textured yarns into my lectures, and, with Malcolm Burnip and Gordon Wray started research into the relation between process conditions and yarn structure and performance in falsetwist texturing.This research continued in various ways until I retired from UMIST in 1985.

Like many of the major advances in textile manufacturing, starting with Arkwright and cotton spinning 200 years ago, texturing has led to fierce patent litigation. I learnt a great deal from tests and studies in my role as an expert witness. I wrote thousands of pages of affidavits, but never went on the witness stand in person. Apart from opposition proceedings on a variety of patents, I was active in three phases of law-suits. First, on a Stoddart and Seem patent, which applied to single-heater false texturing for stretch yarns.This started with a threats action against Fluflon Ltd and continued with infringement actions until it petered out. Second, on another Stoddart and Seem patent, which covered double-heater, false-twist texturing for set polyester yarns.This led to a re-examination of the patent by the US Patent office, almost 20 years after its priority date, and eventually to two trials in Florida.Third on the DuPont Petrille patent for POY yarns, the feed-stock for draw-texturing: a case in India died for want of prosecution after running for a few months, first with oral evidence and then with affidavits, and DuPont versus ICI was settled just before it was due to open in the High Court in London.There were other cases, with which I was not involved, notably a trial in Canada in the1950s on stretch yarns and one in USA in the 1970s on set yarns with Milliken and Burlington as the main opposing protagonists.

My co-author, Keith Wilson, as a student in the Faculty of Technology of the University of Manchester, was introduced to textured yarn technology by my lectures. He then went on to a career in the fibre and textile machinery industries, which progressively took him closer first to false-twist texturing and then to air-jet texturing. Our other co-author, Les Hollick, has a great depth of experience in the manufacture of textured yarns.

For physicists, like myself, working in an academic environment, there is a great temptation to concentrate research on problems that are interesting – and amenable to mathematical theorising or neat experiments – but in industrially related departments, it is important that even basic research should add useful insights to commercial operations, either current or with future potential. Les Hollick makes a similar comment about the place of technologists in business in the following words:

The aim of any manufacturing organisation, no matter what business they are engaged in, is to secure a positive return on investment. A healthy balance sheet benefits the owners, the shareholders or, in the case of a co-operative, the workers themselves. If any organisation is to have sufficient funds to secure full employment and to provide for future investment in plant and equipment, concentration on running a viable business is required. It is very tempting for the technologist to pursue work purely because it is exciting or interesting. If time permits this is fine, but first and foremost continual concentration on product and process improvement is required. This does not mean that such work cannot be fun; far from it, if the work itself becomes mundane and tedious then it is time to find alternative employment.

It is the function of the technologist to examine every detail of the process, the design of the machine itself, the quality and suitability of machine components and ancillaries that are employed, as well as obviously, the quality of the feedstock and the process conditions employed. These must be carefully evaluated to ensure that they are the best available at economic cost. The elimination of sub-standard product and the maximisation of yield of first quality product, which can be sold at a competitive price and still be viable, is of paramount importance. Communication between the technologist and those directly involved with the manufacture of the product, at all levels, must be simple and clear. The temptation to escape into jargon must be avoided. It used to be sufficient to ‘speed up the traverse system to cure some overthrows’; now unfortunately it’s all to easy to ‘realise an increase in the angle of wind in order to secure optimum packaging conditions’.These statements may be impressive, but no one else in the room will have any idea what you are talking about. Clear and concise communication and the ability to motivate others to strive towards a common goal is a skill every bit as important as technical prowess.

Finally, it must never be forgotten that the contribution by well trained and well motivated operatives, who understand the importance of correct yarn handling and operating procedures, is one of the greatest assets that any company involved in the manufacture of yarn can have. Constantly keeping the workforce up to date with the current situation and what improvements are to be implemented is one aspect of the technologist’s work that cannot be ignored.

In this book, we hope that the combination of authors, who range from the detached academic to the involved technologist, has enabled us to provide for students, teachers and the yarn texturing industry, both an explanation of relevant scientific and engineering principles and a wealth of information on industrial practice.

John Hearle

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Technical Textile Yarns: Industrial and Medical Applications Edited by R. Alagirusamy and A. Das

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Technical Textile Yarns: Industrial and Medical Applications
Edited by R. Alagirusamy and A. Das
Technical Textile Yarns

Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing series in Textiles xv

Part I Advances in textile yarn production
1 Introduction: types of technical textile yarn 3
R. Chattopadhyay, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Types of technical yarn 4
1.3 Yarn characteristics: continuous filament, staple, core spun, plied/folded, cabled and braided yarns 4
1.4 Yarn production: mono- and multifilament, tape, staple, core spun, folded and other yarns 9
1.5 Characterization of yarn: dimensional parameters, packing of fibres and twist 26
1.6 Structure of twisted yarn 32
1.7 Properties and performance of technical yarns 37
1.8 Properties of yarns: mono- and multifilament, tape, spun, wrap spun, core spun and plied/cord yarns 43
1.9 Applications of mono- and multifilament, tape, core spun, plied and cabled yarns 48
1.10 Market 53
1.11 References 54
2 Advances in yarn spinning and texturising 56
R. V. M. Gowda, V.S.B. Engineering College, India
2.1 Introduction to various yarn spinning technologies 56
2.2 Compact spinning 57
2.3 Rotor spinning 61
2.4 Friction spinning 67
2.5 Air-jet spinning 70
2.6 Vortex spinning 72
2.7 Core yarn spinning 74
2.8 Wrap spinning 80
2.9 Developing particular yarn properties 82
2.10 Yarn texturising: technologies, developments and applications 85
2.11 Future trends 89
2.12 References 89
3 Modification of textile yarn structures for functional applications 91
A. Das, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
3.1 Introduction 91
3.2 Modifying textile yarn structures by bulking 92
3.3 Modification of textile yarn structures by incorporating micro-pores 100
3.4 Twistless and hollow yarns 102
3.5 Future trends 110
3.6 References 110
4 Yarn hairiness and its reduction 112
A. Majumdar, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
4.1 Introduction 112
4.2 Factors influencing yarn hairiness 113
4.3 Yarn hairiness measurement 117
4.4 Importance of yarn hairiness 122
4.5 Modelling of yarn hairiness 125
4.6 Yarn hairiness reduction 128
4.7 Conclusions 137
4.8 Acknowledgement 137
4.9 References 137
5 Coatings for technical textile yarns 140
A. Jalal Uddin, Ahsanullah University of Science and
Technology, Bangladesh
5.1 Introduction 140
5.2 Textile coating and laminating 141
5.3 Coating formulations for technical textile yarns 144
5.4 Coating polymers for technical textile yarns 144
5.5 Choice of substrates for yarn coating 162
5.6 Principles of yarn coating 163
5.7 Methods and machinery for yarn coating 170
5.8 Applications and properties of some coated yarns 176
5.9 Future trends 182
5.10 References 183
6 Engineering finer and softer textile yarns 185
J. Srinivasan, Kumaraguru College of Technology, India
6.1 Introduction: importance of finer and softer yarns 185
6.2 Methods of engineering finer and softer yarns 186
6.3 Structure of fine yarns 201
6.4 Properties of fine yarns 203
6.5 Applications 204
6.6 Future trends 205
6.7 Sources of further information and advice 209
6.8 References 209
7 Assessing the weavability of technical yarns 215
B. K. Behera, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
7.1 Weavability of yarns 215
7.2 Importance of weavability in industrial fabrics 216
7.3 Factors influencing yarn weavability 216
7.4 Warp breakage mechanism 221
7.5 Analysis of warp breakage mechanism 223
7.6 Evaluation of weavability 223
7.7 Weavability of synthetic filament yarn 226
7.8 Sizing of micro-denier yarns for achieving desired weavability 229
7.9 Bibliography 230
8 Yarn imaging and advances in measuring yarn characteristics 232
R. Fangueiro and F. Soutinho, University of Minho, Portugal
8.1 Introduction 232
8.2 Image processing techniques in fibrous material structures 235
8.3 Yarn characterization 236
8.4 Special advances in measuring yarn characteristics 245
8.5 Online systems for measuring yarn quality 247
8.6 Future trends 254
8.7 Sources of further information and advice 254
8.8 References 255

Part II Types of technical yarns
9 Novel technical textile yarns 259
A. Jalal Uddin, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh
9.1 Introduction 259
9.2 Reflective yarns 259
9.3 UV protected yarns 266
9.4 Metallic and metalloplastic yarns 273
9.5 Antimicrobial yarns 282
9.6 Yarns for specific purposes 287
9.7 Future trends 292
9.8 References 293
10 Electro-conductive textile yarns 298
M. Latifi, P. Payvandy and M. Yousefzadeh-Chimeh,
Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Iran
10.1 Introduction 298
10.2 Manufacture and structure of electro-conductive yarns 299
10.3 Measurements 309
10.4 Applications 313
10.5 Future trends 316
10.6 References 326
11 High modulus, high tenacity yarns 329
H. Hu and Y. Liu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong
11.1 Introduction 329
11.2 Glass fibers and yarns 330
11.3 Carbon fibers and yarns 345
11.4 Ceramic fibers and yarns 360
11.5 Basalt fibers and yarns 365
11.6 Aramid fibers and yarns 370
11.7 High-performance polyethylene (HPPE) fibers and yarns 378
11.8 Sources of further information and advice 382
11.9 References 384
12 Hybrid yarns for thermoplastic composites 387
R. Alagirusamy, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
12.1 Introduction 387
12.2 Types of hybrid yarns 389
12.3 Characterization of hybrid yarns 400
12.4 Manufacture of thermoplastic composites with hybrid yarns 405
12.5 Compaction and consolidation of hybrid yarns 407
12.6 Hybird yarn structure – composite property relations 413
12.7 Potential application areas of thermoplastic composites 421
12.8 Trends in thermoplastic composite applications 422
12.9 References 426
13 Shape memory polymer yarns 429
T . Wan, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, P. R. China
13.1 Introduction 429
13.2 Thermo-mechanical behaviour of shape memory polymers (SMPs) 431
13.3 Manufacture of shape memory polymer (SMP)-based yarns 434
13.4 Applications 437
13.5 Future trends 444
13.6 Conclusion 448
13.7 References 448
14 Plasma-treated yarns for biomedical applications 452
B. Gupta, S. Saxena, N. Grover and A. R. Ray, Indian
Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
14.1 Introduction 452
14.2 Chemistry of plasma processing 457
14.3 Biomedical applications 468
14.4 Conclusions 487
14.5 References 488
15 Technical sewing threads 495
R. S. Rengasamy and S. Ghosh, Indian Institute of
Technology, Delhi, India
15.1 Introduction 495
15.2 Industrial sewing threads 495
15.3 Surgical threads/sutures for medical applications 513
15.4 References 532
16 Biodegradable textile yarns 534
S. Mukopadhyay, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
16.1 Introduction: principles and importance of sustainable yarns 534
16.2 Fibres from biodegradable polymers of natural origins 536
16.3 Spinning of PLA polymers 537
16.4 Electrospinning 548
16.5 Fibres from biodegradable polymers from mineral origins 551
16.6 Applications of biodegradable fibres/yarns 560
16.7 Conclusion 564
16.8 References 565
17 Yarn and fancy yarn design using three-dimensional
computer graphics and visualisation techniques 568
W. Tang, University of Teesside, UK and T. R. Wan, University of Bradford, UK
17.1 Introduction 568
17.2 3D computer graphics and visualisation technologies for cloths and yarns 570
17.3 Microstructures of yarns and fancy yarns 573
17.4 Mathematical modelling of yarn and fancy yarn structures 573
17.5 Descriptions of a computer aided design (CAD) system for yarn and fancy yarn structures 579
17.6 Conclusion 583
17.7 References 585
Index 586

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