Woven Textiles: Principles, Developments and Applications Edited by K. L. Gandhi

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Woven Textiles: Principles, Developments and Applications
Edited by K. L. Gandhi
Woven Textiles: Principles, Developments and Applications

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiii

Part I Yarns and weaving technology 1
1 Types and properties of fibres and yarns used in
weaving 3
P. K. Hari, Consultant, India
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Types of natural and regenerated fibres 4
1.3 Types of synthetic fibres 5
1.4 Key fibre properties and how they are measured 8
1.5 Comparing fibre properties 11
1.6 New types of fibre 12
1.7 Yarns and their properties 15
1.8 Types of yarn for spinning 19
1.9 Short staple spinning yarns 21
1.10 Long staple spinning yarns 22
1.11 Physical properties of woven fabrics 24
1.12 Mechanical properties of woven fabrics 26
1.13 Effects of fibre and yarn properties on the use and application of woven fabrics 27
1.14 Effects of fibre and yarn properties on woven textiles: apparel and sports textiles 31
1.15 Future trends 32
1.16 Sources of further information and advice 33
1.17 References 33
2 Yarn preparation for weaving: winding 35
K. L. Gandhi, Chartered Consultant, UK
2.1 Introduction to yarn preparation 35
2.2 The winding process 36
2.3 Types of winding machines 42
2.4 Terminology commonly used in the winding process 49
2.5 Cone types and build 52
2.6 Manual, semi-automatic and fully automatic winding machines 52
2.7 Hazards from knots during weaving and knitting processes 56
2.8 Yarn splicing for knot-free yarns 58
2.9 Applications of splicing techniques 61
2.10 References 61
3 Yarn preparation for weaving: warping 62
K. L. Gandhi, Chartered Consultant, UK
3.1 Introduction 62
3.2 Direct warping 62
3.3 Indirect/sectional warping 67
3.4 Warping creels 68
3.5 Tensioning units of creels 75
3.6 Thread stop motion 79
3.7 Single-end warping machines 82
3.8 References 84
4 Yarn preparation for weaving: sizing 85
K. L. Gandhi, Chartered Consultant, UK
4.1 Introduction 85
4.2 Characteristics of a good sized yarn 97
4.3 Size mixtures: composition and quality 98
4.4 Effect of size on adhesion between fibres in the yarn structure 100
4.5 Size paste preparation: cooking 102
4.6 Sizing machines 103
4.7 Yarn stretch during sizing 114
4.8 Automation controls of sizing machines 115
4.9 References 115
5 The fundamentals of weaving technology 117
K. L. Gandhi, Chartered Consultant, UK
5.1 Introduction 117
5.2 Primary loom mechanisms 119
5.3 Secondary loom mechanisms 120
5.4 Auxiliary loom mechanisms 121
5.5 Temples 122
5.6 Shedding mechanisms 124
5.7 Different types of shed 136
5.8 Classifications of plain and automatic shuttle looms 138
5.9 Drop box looms 140
5.10 Weft insertion on shuttle looms 140
5.11 Weft insertion on shuttle-less looms 143
5.12 Multiphase weaving 157
5.13 References 160

Part II Woven structures 161
6 Woven structures and their characteristics 163
J. Wilson, Consultant Designer, UK
6.1 Introduction 163
6.2 Representing woven fabrics 163
6.3 Weaving 166
6.4 Colour and weave effects 169
6.5 Sett 171
6.6 Weaves 173
6.7 Introduction of extra threads 186
6.8 Double and treble cloths 187
6.9 Repeating patterns 188
6.10 Centring 190
6.11 Drafting and lifting 192
6.12 Denting 199
6.13 Combining weaves 200
6.14 Fabric types 202
6.15 Future trends 203
6.16 Sources of further information and advice 203
6.17 Bibliography 204
7 Computer aided design (CAD) systems for woven textile design 205
P. Sinha, University of Huddersfield, UK and University of
Manchester, UK
7.1 Introduction 205
7.2 Computer aided design (CAD) and the global textiles industry 206
7.3 Key issues in the use of computer aided design (CAD) for woven textile design 206
7.4 Necessary expertise and skills training for woven computer aided design (CAD) textile designers 211
7.5 Costs incurred in using computer aided design (CAD) 213
7.6 Computer aided design (CAD) software applications 214
7.7 The impact of computer aided design (CAD) on the supply chain 220
7.8 New products and markets and future trends through the use of computer aided design (CAD) 223
7.9 Sources of further information and advice 226
7.10 References 227
8 Modelling the structure of woven fabrics 229
B. K. Behera, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
8.1 Introduction: fundamentals of woven structure 229
8.2 Fundamentals of design engineering 232
8.3 Designing of textile products 233
8.4 Design engineering using theoretical modelling 235
8.5 Modelling methodologies: deterministic models 237
8.6 Modelling methodologies: non-deterministic models 247
8.7 Authentication and testing of models 256
8.8 Reverse engineering 257
8.9 Future trends in non-conventional methods of design engineering 258
8.10 Conclusions 260
8.11 References 261
9 3D woven structures and methods of manufacture 264
M. Amirul Islam, Bally Ribbon Mills, USA
9.1 Introduction: 3D woven structures, applications and advantages 264
9.2 Weaves: basic and 3D 283
9.3 Manufacturing technologies 294
9.4 3D weaving calculations 308
9.5 Applications and future trends 311
9.6 Acknowledgements 311
9.7 References 312

Part III Applications of woven textiles 315
10 Woven textiles for automotive interiors and other transportation applications 317
J. M. Hardcastle, Consultant, UK
10.1 Introduction 317
10.2 Automotive applications of woven fabrics 318
10.3 Woven fabrics in car interiors 322
10.4 Fabric constructions and finishing processes 330
10.5 Other transport applications 337
10.6 Future trends 342
10.7 Acknowledgements 344
10.8 Sources of further information and advice 344
10.9 Reference 344
11 Woven apparel fabrics 345
N. A. Redmore, University of Huddersfield, UK
11.1 Introduction 345
11.2 Performance requirements of apparel fabric 345
11.3 Types of woven apparel fabrics 348
11.4 Practical design applications 361
11.5 Application examples 363
11.6 Sources of further information and advice 365
11.7 Reference 366
12 Woven fabrics for geotextiles 367
A. Rawal, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
12.1 Introduction 367
12.2 Production and classification of geotextiles 368
12.3 Selection of fibres for woven geotextiles 370
12.4 Production of woven geotextiles 371
12.5 Specifications of woven geotextiles and their essential properties 373
12.6 Applications of woven geotextiles 380
12.7 Future trends 383
12.8 Sources of further information and advice 384
12.9 References 384
13 Hollow woven fabrics 387
X. Chen, University of Manchester, UK
13.1 Introduction: overview and potential applications 387
13.2 Principles of hollow woven fabrics 388
13.3 Properties and performance of structures and materials based on hollow woven fabrics 391
13.4 Modelling of hollow woven fabrics 398
13.5 Possible applications of hollow fabrics and future trends 411
13.6 Sources of further information and advice 412
13.7 References 412
14 Woven textiles for medical applications 414
S. Rajendran and S. C. Anand, University of Bolton, UK
14.1 Introduction 414
14.2 Application of woven textiles in managing acute and chronic wounds 416
14.3 Woven vascular prostheses and meshes 424
14.4 Application of woven structures in hospitals 431
14.5 Other medical applications of woven structures 436
14.6 Conclusions 439
14.7 References 439
Index 442

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