Reference Book of Finishing | Pietro Bellini, Ferruccio Bonetti, Ester Franzetti, giuseppe Rosace, Sergio Vago

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Reference Book of Finishing
By Pietro Bellini, Ferruccio Bonetti, Ester Franzetti, giuseppe Rosace, Sergio Vago
Reference Book of Finishing

Foreword
I am pleased to present the second in a series of four textile machinery technology handbooks that the ACIMIT Foundation is publishing for use in Italy.s institutes of textile technology.

This handbook looks at machinery, accessories, auxiliary equipment and technologies relating to finishing, another segment in which Italy boasts companies of international prominence and advanced know-how. Naturally, the volume also contains references (as plentiful as they are essential) to textile chemistry.

This handbook on finishing follows the one on weaving, published in October 2000 (2,000 copies of this latter volume, which has also been translated into English for overseas readers, have already been distributed) and the knitwear one, published in October 2001.

The fourth handbook in the series, on spinning, is due to be come out in Spring 2002. The need to publish these books emerged in the course of a series of meetings that ACIMIT had with principals and teachers in the context of various initiatives designed to promote relations between the industry and schools.

We were told that the textbooks currently in use do not reflect the continued and rapid technological evolution the sector has seen in recent years.

With the precise aim of publishing handbooks that respond, as far as possible, to students. learning needs, the ACIMIT Foundation decided, in agreement with the schools. principals, to entrust a group of teachers from the schools themselves with the task of realising the series of books. The teachers involved accepted this challenge enthusiastically.

Thanks therefore go, on behalf of Italy.s textile machinery manufacturers, to the principals and teachers whose schools are source of valuable human resources, essential for the development of their industrial concerns.

Since no job is ever done to perfection the first time round, we will be grateful to anyone (students, teachers, company engineers and technicians, etc.) who sends us suggestions and corrections that might enable us to improve this publication and increase the value of the whole enterprise.

Alberto M. Sacchi, President of the ACIMIT Foundation

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION................................................................................ pag. 1
The Textile Finishing Stage ....................................................................................... . 2
Wool Finishing Processes .......................................................................................... . 3
Cotton Finishing Processes......................................................................................... . 5
Silk Finishing Processes ............................................................................................. . 6
Synthetic Fibres Finishing Processes.......................................................................... . 7
PRE-DYEING TREATMENTS..............................................................“ 8
Singeing...................................................................................................................... . 8
Desizing ..................................................................................................................... . 9
Scouring...................................................................................................................... . 10
Bleaching.................................................................................................................... . 10
Mercerising................................................................................................................. . 12
Chlorination ................................................................................................................ . 13
Carbonising................................................................................................................. . 14
Oiling.......................................................................................................................... . 16
Fulling and Washing-milling Treatments ................................................................... . 16
Silk Weighting............................................................................................................ . 20
Heat Setting ................................................................................................................ . 22
Decortication .............................................................................................................. . 23
Elastic Fabrics............................................................................................................. . 23
Washing...................................................................................................................... . 24
Drying.......................................................................................................................... 29
PRE-DYEING TREATMENTS.......................................................“ 40
Exhaust Dyeing .......................................................................................................... . 41
Preparation and Dyeing Machines............................................................................... 49
Autoclaves ................................................................................................................... 51
Hanks........................................................................................................................... 55
Arm Dyeing Machines ................................................................................................ 56
Winch Dyeing Machines ............................................................................................. 57
Jet Dyeing Machines.................................................................................................... 59
Overflow Dyeing Machines......................................................................................... 62
Air-flow (Air Jet) Dyeing Machines............................................................................ 66
Jiggers.......................................................................................................................... 69
Beam Dyeing Machines............................................................................................... 70
Garment-dyeing Machines .......................................................................................... 71
Colour Kitchens........................................................................................................... 73
Pad Dyeing ................................................................................................................. 75
PRINTING .........................................................................................“ 81
Printing Methods.......................................................................................................... 82
Printing Machines ........................................................................................................ 85
Steaming Machines ...................................................................................................... 93
Washing Machines for Printed Fabrics ....................................................................... 96
Developments in Screen and Cylinder Engraving Techniques and
in Textile Printing......................................................................................................... 102
Ink-jet Printing ............................................................................................................ 104
FUNCTIONAL FINISHING ..............................................................................“ 107
Mechanical Finishing Treatments ................................................................................ 108
Calendering ................................................................................................................. 109
Embossing.................................................................................................................... 112
Sueding......................................................................................................................... 112
Raising (Napping) ....................................................................................................... 114
Wool Glazing Machine ................................................................................................ 119
Shearin.......................................................................................................................... 120
Stabilisation ................................................................................................................. 121
Decating ....................................................................................................................... 123
Steaming....................................................................................................................... 125
Chemical Finishing Treatments.................................................................................... 129
Softening ...................................................................................................................... 136
Crease-proof Treatments .............................................................................................. 139
Flame-retardant Treatments.......................................................................................... 144
Hydrophobic, Oil-proof and Water-proof Treatments ................................................. 147
Anti-soil Treatments..................................................................................................... 152
Anti-static Treatments .................................................................................................. 155
Anti-mildew Treatments............................................................................................... 155
Antimicrobial Treatments............................................................................................. 156
Plasma Treatments........................................................................................................ 159
Enzyme Treatments...................................................................................................... 160
The Influence of Finishing Treatments on Dyed Goods............................................... 168
ACCESSORIES .................................................................................................“ 173
AUTOMATION IN TEXTILE...........................................................................“ 179
Foreword ...................................................................................................................... 179
Colour analysis and control .......................................................................................... 180
Process controllers........................................................................................................ 183
Production management systems.................................................................................. 184
Automated colour kitchens........................................................................................... 186
Automated storage........................................................................................................ 192
Handling and robotisation systems............................................................................... 193
Machine monitoring systems........................................................................................ 197

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