Advances in Carpet Manufacture | Second Edition | Goswami

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Advances in Carpet Manufacture | Second Edition
Edited by K. K. Goswami
Advances in Carpet Manufacture

Contents
List of contributors xi 

1 Carpet types and requirements 1
D. Whitefoot
1.1 The role of textiles in floor coverings 1
1.2 Types of textile used as floor coverings 5
1.3 Methods of carpet construction 10
1.4 Future trends 15
1.5 Sources of further information and advice 16

2 Structure and properties of carpet fibres and yarns 17
S.K. Chaudhuri
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Structure and properties of carpet fibres 17
2.3 Carpet yarn engineering 26
2.4 Spinning 28
2.5 Carpet yarn testing and quality control 32
2.6 Carpet/rugs industry and environment 33
2.7 Future trends 33
Further reading 34

3 Advances in carpet weaving 35
S. Demey
3.1 Introduction 35
3.2 Face-to-face carpet weaving 35
3.3 Axminster weaving 47
3.4 Wire Wilton and loop pile weaving 50
3.5 Automation in carpet-weaving mills 53
3.6 Management of carpet-weaving factory 56
3.7 Conclusions 63

4 Recycling carpet materials 65
M. Miraftab
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 Quantification of carpet waste 65
4.3 Methods of dealing with carpet waste 68
4.4 Carpet recycling and related issues 68
4.5 Highlights of past and current innovations 70
4.6 Public awareness and dissemination 73
4.7 Conclusion 75
References 76

5 Developments in wool carpet manufacture 79
E.J. Wood
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Wool supply and early stage processing 80
5.3 Processing routes for wool 83
5.4 Technologies for wool carpet yarns 84
5.5 Manufacturing techniques for wool carpets 87
5.6 Technologies for tufting wool carpets 89
5.7 Wool carpet performance 93
5.8 Selecting the most appropriate wool carpet 96
5.9 Future trends 96
5.10 Sources of further information and advice 98
References 99 

6 Developments in textile sports surfaces 101
G. Schoukens
6.1 Introduction 101
6.2 Key requirements of sports surfaces 102
6.3 Types of textiles used in relation to the sports surfaces 103
6.4 Role of textiles in meeting performance
requirements 104
6.5 Sliding and temperature, related to the used textiles 116
6.6 Future trends 124
6.7 Applications and examples of artificial turf fields 127
Acknowledgements 131
References 131 

7 Reducing static electricity in carpets 135
J. Smallwood
7.1 Introduction 135
7.2 Principles of static electricity in carpeted environments 136
7.3 Methods of reducing static electricity in carpet materials 146
7.4 Test methods and standards 147
7.5 Applications 154
7.6 Future trends 157
7.7 Sources of further information and advice 159
Acknowledgements 160
References 160
Further reading 161

8 The acoustic and thermal properties of carpeted floors 163
P.G.H. Bakker
8.1 Introduction: Carpet as an acoustic material 163
8.2 Acoustic properties and testing 163
8.3 Thermal insulation 165
8.4 Wool carpets and underfloor heating 169
8.5 Installation of carpets on heated floors 174
Further reading 174

9 Finishing of carpets for value addition 175
M.D. Teli
9.1 Introduction 175
9.2 Fire retardant finishes: Introduction 178
9.3 Soil-release finish: Introduction 183
9.4 Water-, oil-, and stain-repellent finishes: Introduction 186
9.5 Antistatic finishing: Introduction 189
9.6 Antimicrobial finishing: Introduction 191
9.7 Insect-repellent finishes 195
9.8 Carpet finishing with the softeners 196
9.9 Aroma finishes 199
9.10 Type of finishing vis-à-vis procedure applicable for carpets 202
9.11 Future prospects 204
9.12 Conclusions 205
References 206 

10 Developments in handmade carpets: Introduction 213
K.K. Goswami
10.1 Introduction 213
10.2 The history of handmade carpets 213
10.3 Modern handmade carpet production 218
10.4 Carpet production in India 220
10.5 Carpet production in Iran 222
10.6 Carpet production in China 223
10.7 Carpet production in Pakistan 224
10.8 Carpet production in Nepal 225
10.9 Carpet production in Turkey 226
10.10 Carpet production in Europe 227
10.11 The international trade in carpets 229
10.12 Terminology in carpet production 233
10.13 The role of handmade carpets in modern carpet production 254
10.14 Choosing and maintaining a handmade carpet 257
Sources of further information and advice 259
Acknowledgements 259
Appendix Terminology relating to handmade carpets 259
References 268 

11 Developments in handmade carpets: Design and manufacture 269
K.K. Goswami
11.1 Introduction 269
11.2 Traditional carpet designs 272
11.3 Key stages in design 286
11.4 Carpet materials 289
11.5 Sheep wool 289
11.6 Silk 294
11.7 Cotton 296
11.8 Other natural fibres 296
11.9 Synthetic fibres 297
11.10 Backing materials 299
11.11 Manufacturing and techniques 299
11.12 Key terms in manufacturing 319
11.13 Weaving of handmade carpets 320
11.14 Carpet knots 326
11.15 Dyeing 330
11.16 Dyeing of wool 330
11.17 Chemical processing and dyeing of silk 332
11.18 Natural colours for wool and silk carpets 332
11.19 Eco-friendly and organic carpet manufacture 334
11.20 Colour matching 335
11.21 Quality issues 336
11.22 Customer attitudes to quality 340
11.23 Guideline for setting up of a carpet weaving unit 341
Acknowledgements 349
References 349

12 Developments in the thermal processing of carpets 351
W. Carr, H. Dong, H.S. Lee
12.1 Introduction 351
12.2 Carpet yarn twist setting 351
12.3 Carpet dyeing and finishing 356
12.4 Carpet drying after dyeing and finishing 360
12.5 Latex curing 363
12.6 Energy consumption and management 365
12.7 Future trends 367
References 367

13 Carpets from buyer’s viewpoint 369
D. Kebschull, A. Sahasranaman
13.1 Introduction 369
13.2 Wholesaler’s requirements 370
13.3 Retailer’s requirements 371
13.4 Consumer’s choice 373
13.5 Warranty and guarantee 374
13.6 Longevity aspects 375
13.7 Price, delivery, and quantity 376
13.8 Classification of carpets: Brief 377
13.9 Product development in retrospect and prospect 382
13.10 Conclusion 384
References 385
Further reading 385 

14 Processing and finishing in carpet 387
R.K. Malik, K.K. Goswami
14.1 Introduction 387
14.2 Associated chemical process 387
14.3 Finishing 398
14.4 Research findings 402
14.5 Printing of carpets 404
14.6 Chemical used for processing 410
14.7 Finishing of machine made carpets: Tufted and woven 413
14.8 Woven machine made carpets 418
References 418 

15 Carpet cleaning and maintenance 419
A. Zsednai
15.1 Introduction 419
15.2 Principles of carpet soiling 419
15.3 Principles of cleaning 420
15.4 Regular maintenance 422
15.5 Intensive deep cleaning 431
15.6 Combination cleaning methods 436
15.7 Cleaning chemicals for wool and other natural fibres 436
15.8 Post-clean applications 438
15.9 Health, safety, and environmental considerations 439
15.10 Dos and don’ts in cleaning and maintenance of carpets
of different varieties 440
15.11 Conclusions 440
Appendix 1 spot and stain removal guide 441
References 442

16 Carpet wear performance 443
S.K. Gupta, K.K. Goswami
16.1 Introduction 443
16.2 Appearance retention 443
16.3 Carpet durability 448
16.4 Factors affecting carpet wear performance 456
16.5 Conclusion 462
Acknowledgements 462
References 462

17 Classification of carpets 467
B. Baranwal
17.1 Introduction 467
17.2 Handmade carpets 467
17.3 Machine-made carpets 473
17.4 Link of carpets 473
17.5 Dyeing material 476
17.6 Weaving material 476
17.7 Yarn 478
17.8 Size 478
17.9 Shape 478
17.10 Usage 479
17.11 Environmental concern 479
17.12 Segment 479
17.13 Performance 480
17.14 HS Code 480
17.15 Conclusion 482
Acknowledgment 483

18 Performance measurement and management of handmade carpet industry 485
Goswami Propa, D.K. Banwet, K.K. Goswami
18.1 Introduction 485
18.2 Review of literatures 486
18.3 A brief about handmade carpet industry 487
18.4 Performance measures of handmade carpet industry 502
18.5 Management of performance 507
18.6 Sources of further information and advice 525
18.7 Conclusion 525
Acknowledgements 526
References 526
Index 529

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