High Performance Apparel: Materials, Development and Applications

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High Performance Apparel: Materials, Development and Applications
Edited by John McLoughlin and Tasneem Sabir

Contents
List of contributors xi
Foreword xiii
Preface xv
1 Introduction 1
J. McLoughlin, Tasneem Sabir 

Part One High-Performance Fabric, Materials, and Manufacture 5
2 Fibers used for high-performance apparel 7
Tasneem Sabir
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Consideration of high-performance apparel 7
2.3 Fiber: complex structure 8
2.4 Characteristics of textile fibers 10
2.5 Key properties of textile fibers 13
2.6 Cellulose fibers 16
2.7 Protein fibers 20
2.8 Synthetic fibers 23
2.9 High-performance fibers 26
2.10 Future trends 29
References 30
Further reading 32
3 Yarn and thread manufacturing methods for high-performance apparel 33
M. Tausif, T. Cassidy, I. Butcher
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Staple yarns 35
3.3 Filament yarns 53
3.4 Composite yarns 58
3.5 Key yarn properties 62
3.6 Sewing threads 63
References 72
4 Advanced weaving technologies for high-performance fabrics 75
X. Gong, X. Chen, Y. Zhou
4.1 Introduction 75
4.2 Fibers used for weaving high-performance fabrics 75
4.3 Advances in weaving technologies 84
4.4 Fabric geometry and apparel performance 107
4.5 Future trends 111
References 111
Further reading 112
5 Advanced knitting technologies for high-performance apparel 113
E.J. Power
5.1 Introduction 113
5.2 Challenges in advanced knitting technology 115
5.3 Trends and innovation in knitwear 118
5.4 High tech fibers for knitting 121
5.5 Advances in knitting technology 123
5.6 Future trends and novel applications 124
5.7 Conclusion 125
5.8 Sources for further information 125
References 125
Further reading 126
6 Functional finishes for high-performance apparel 129
R.R. Bonaldi
6.1 Introduction 129
6.2 Functional properties 129
6.3 Yarn processing and finishing techniques 145
6.4 Fabric processing and finishing techniques 147
6.5 Future trends 152
References 154
Further reading 155
7 Joining techniques for high-performance apparel 157
S.G. Hayes
7.1 Introduction 157
7.2 Combining 158
7.3 Connecting 160
7.4 Compound 168
7.5 Future trends 169
References 171

Part Two Blueprint for High-Performance Apparel 173
8 Design and product development in high-performance apparel 175
J. Ledbury
8.1 Introduction 175
8.2 Design and new product development 175
8.3 Design process 176
8.4 User-centered design 180
8.5 Co-creation 181
8.6 Consumers as co-creators 182
8.7 Advances in high-performance apparel for product development 184
8.8 Trends in performance apparel 188
8.9 Summary 188
References 188
Further reading 189
9 Human measurement and product development for high-performance apparel 191
S. Gill
9.1 Product development for high-performance clothing 191
9.2 Human measurement for product development 191
9.3 Anthropometric and ergonomic considerations for performance garments 202
9.4 Future directions 203
9.5 Sources of further information and advice 205
References 205
10 Comfort and durability in high-performance clothing 209
S. Motlogelwa
10.1 Introduction 209
10.2 High performance in clothing 209
10.3 Apparel comfort 210
10.4 Key properties in high performance 213
10.5 Future trends 218
10.6 Summary 218
References 218
Further reading 219

Part Three Applications of High-Performance Apparel
and Wearable Technology 221
11 Future textiles for high-performance apparels 223
J. McLoughlin, Roshan Paul
11.1 Introduction 223
11.2 Evolutionary pathway of textiles 223
11.3 Smart and intelligent fiber structures 229
11.4 Future textiles by functional finishing 233
11.5 Research into textiles for high-performance apparels 237
11.6 Future textiles for space age materials 240
11.7 Thermophysiological comfort of future textiles 242
11.8 Conclusion 244
References 244
Further reading 244
12a Electronics used in high-performance apparel—Part 1/2 245
R.R. Bonaldi
12a.1 Electronics used in high-performance apparel 245
12a.2 Electronics incorporated into textiles 250
12a.3 Future trends 274
12a.4 Sources of further information and advice 275
References 275
Further reading 284
12b Electronics used in high-performance apparel—Part 2/2 285
R.R. Bonaldi
12b.1 The value chain and players 285
12b.2 Applications 285
12b.3 Future trends 304
12b.4 Sources of further information and advice 305
References 305
Further reading 306
13 Fabric handle as a concept for high-performance apparel 307
Danmei Sun
13.1 Introduction 307
13.2 Approaches of fabric handle assessment 309
13.3 The science of fabric handle 312
13.4 Fabric properties and handle of high-performance apparel 319
13.5 Conclusions and future trends 321
References 321
Further reading 323
14 Revolutions in wearable technology for apparel 325
J. Wood
14.1 Introduction 325
14.2 Wearable innovations for apparel 325
14.3 Textile based sensing devices used in apparel 329
14.4 Developments in power sources 330
14.5 Smart textile applications in health and sportswear 333
14.6 Future trends 335
14.7 Sources of further information and advice 337
References 337
Further reading 339
15 High-performance sportswear 341
R.M. Rossi
15.1 Introduction 341
15.2 Smart technologies for thermal management 342
15.3 Compression sportswear 347
15.4 Wearables in sportswear 349
15.5 Future trends 350
15.6 Conclusions/outlook 352
References 352
16 High-performance apparel for protection 357
D.J. Tyler
16.1 Introduction 357
16.2 Impact-resistant materials 358
16.3 Comparisons between materials 359
16.4 R&D initiatives for enhanced protection 366
16.5 Design issues for protective apparel (refer to Chapter 9) 369
16.6 Future trends 372
16.7 Sources of further information and advice 373
References 373
17 Composite textiles in high-performance apparel 377
O€zlenen Erdem I˙şmal, Roshan Paul
17.1 Introduction 377
17.2 Composite materials 378
17.3 Structure of composites 379
17.4 Classification of composite materials 382
17.5 Advantages and properties of composite materials 384
17.6 Fabrication of composites 384
17.7 Composite textiles and apparel 387
17.8 Future trends 415
17.9 Conclusion 416
References 417
Relevant websites 419
18 High-performance apparel for outdoor pursuits 421
E. Jenkins
18.1 Introduction 421
18.2 Performance characteristics of apparel for outdoor pursuits 422
18.3 Base layers 426
18.4 Mid-layer insulation 432
18.5 Outer-shell layer 433
18.6 Innovation and future trends in apparel for outdoor pursuits 441
18.7 Sources of further information and advice 447
References 447
19 Microchip technology used in textile materials 451
T. Dias, P. Lugoda, C.R. Cork
19.1 Introduction 451
19.2 Knowledge base on electronic textiles 451
19.3 Fully integrated electronics within the core of yarns—
The next generation of electronic textiles 454
19.4 Development of electronic temperature sensor (ETS) yarns 455
19.5 Development of a prototype temperature sensor sock 462
19.6 Potential applications of electronically functional yarns 465
19.7 The future 467
19.8 Conclusions 467
References 467
Further reading 471
Index 473

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