Introduction to Textile Fibres | Sreenivasa Murthy

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Introduction to Textile Fibres
H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy
Introduction to Textile Fibres

Contents
Preface xi

1 Fibre characteristics 1
1.1 Definitions of some important terms 1
1.1.1 Textile 1
1.1.2 Fibre 2
1.1.3 Textile fibre 2
1.1.4 Staple 3
1.1.5 Filament 3
1.1.6 Yarn 3
1.1.7 Thread 4
1.2 Characteristics of a good textile fibre 4
1.2.1 Essential properties of a textile fibre 5
1.2.2 Desirable properties of textile fibre 6
1.3 Classification of textile fibres 10
1.3.1 Classification according to their nature and origin 11
1.3.2 Classification according to their botanical, zoological or chemical name 16
1.3.3 Classification according to their ability to absorb moisture 23
1.3.4 Classification according to their thermoplasticity 23
1.3.5 Classification according to their utility 24

2 Some major natural fibres 25
2.1 Advantages of natural fibres 25
2.2 Disadvantages of natural fibres 26
2.3 Cotton 26
2.3.1 Bt-Cotton 31
2.3.2 Organic cotton 32
2.3.3 Coloured cotton 36
2.4 Jute 38
2.5 Wool 39
2.5.1 Wool quality number 41
2.6 Silk 45

3 Some minor natural fibres 51
3.1 Bast fibres 51
3.1.1 Flax 51
3.1.2 Hemp 55
3.1.3 Ramie 56
3.2 Leaf fibres 58
3.2.1 Abaca fibre 58
3.2.2 Sisal 61
3.2.3 Pineapple fibre 64
3.3 Fruit fibre 65
3.3.1 Coir 65
3.4 Mineral fibre 68
3.4.1 Asbestos 68

4 Manmade fibres 71
4.1 The position of manmade fibres 71
4.2 Advantages of manmade fibres 75
4.3 Disadvantages of manmade fibres 77
4.4 General principles of manufacturing manmade fibres 77
4.5 Nanofibres 80
4.5.1 Inherently conducting polymers 82
4.5.2 Nanoparticles: composite fibres and finishings 83
4.6 Microfibres 91
4.6.1 History of microfibres 92
4.6.2 Production of microfibres 92
4.6.3 Manufacturing of microfibres 92
4.6.4 General properties of microfibres 95
4.6.6 Some examples of general and spectacular applications of microfibres 100
4.6.7 Economics aspects of microfibre processing and future prospects for microfibres 101
4.7 Regenerated fibres 102
4.7.1 Manufacture of viscose rayon 103
4.7.2 Manufacture of polynosic and HWM fibre 107
4.7.3 Manufacture of cuprammonium rayon 114
4.7.4 Manufacture of acetate rayon 116
4.7.5 Bamboo fibre 119
4.7.6 Soyabean protein fibre 121
4.8 Synthetic fibres 122
4.8.1 Manufacture of polyamide fibres 127
4.8.2 Some similarities and differences between nylon-6 and nylon-66 fibres 131
4.8.3 Manufacture of polyester fibre 132
4.8.4 Manufacture of acrylic fibre 134
4.8.5 Modacrylic fibres 135
4.8.6 Bi-component fibres 136
4.9 Inorganic fibres 138
4.9.1 Manufacture of glass fibre 138
4.9.2 Metalic: fibres or threads 139

5 Fibre structure 141
5.1 Fine structure: general features 141
5.1.1 Arrangement of molecules 142
5.1.2 Molecular structure of fibres 143
5.2 Fine structure of natural fibres 146
5.2.1 Fine structure of cotton 146
5.2.2 Fine structure of wool 148
5.2.3 Fine structure of silk 151
5.3 Fine structure of manmade fibres 152
5.3.1 Fine structure of viscose rayon 152
5.3.2 Fine structure of acetate fibres 152
5.3.3 Fine structure of acrylic fibres 153
5.3.4 Fine structure of polyamide fibres 153
5.3.5 Fine structure of polyester fibre 154

6 Vital fibre properties 155
6.1 Physical properties 155
6.1.1 Length of fibres 155
6.1.2 Stress–strain properties of textile fibres 156
6.1.3 Defi nitions of some basic terms: load 156
6.1.4 Tensile strength of fibres 165
6.1.5 Elasticity of fibres 167
6.2 Thermal properties 170
6.3 Biological properties 171
6.4 Chemical properties of fibres 172
6.4.1 Effect of acids and alkalies 172
6.4.2 Effect of sunlight on fibres 173

7 Moisture relations 175
7.1 Definitions of some important terms 175
7.1.1 Moisture regain 175
7.1.2 Moisture content 175
7.1.3 Absolute humidity 177
7.1.4 Relative humidity 177
7.2 Some effects of regain on fibre properties 178
7.2.1 Dimensional changes 178
7.2.2 Mechanical properties 178
7.2.3 Electrical properties 178
7.2.4 Thermal effects 179
7.3 The effect of relative humidity on strength and other properties of textile fibres 179
7.4 Practical signifi cance of relative humidity 182

8 Technical consequences and importance of some fibre properties 183
8.1 Technical consequences of shape and dimensions of textile fibres 183
8.1.1 Length and fi neness 184
8.1.2 Fibre cross-sectional shape 185
8.1.3 Major heterogeneities 188
8.1.4 Crimp 188
8.2 Technical importance of some physical and chemical properties of textile fibres 188
8.2.1 Physical properties 188
8.2.2 Chemical properties 193
8.3 Some methods of altering the physical properties of manmade fibres 194
8.3.1 Physical modification 195
8.3.2 Chemical modification 197

9 Identification of textile fibre properties 199
9.1 Microscopic tests 200
9.1.1 Morphology and structure of fibres 200
9.2 Chemical tests 210
9.2.1 Distinguishing animal from vegetable fibres with an alkali 210
9.2.2 Distinguishing vegetable and animal fibres with an acid 210
9.2.3 Distinguishing silk from wool fibres 210
9.2.4 Distinguishing nylon from other fibres 210
9.2.5 Distinguishing polyester from other fibres 210
9.2.6 Distinguishing viscose rayon, cuprammonium rayon and acetate rayon fibres 211
9.2.7 Distinguishing acetate rayon from other fibres 211
9.2.8 Distinguishing linen from cotton 211
9.2.9 Distinguishing arnel-triacetate from other fibres 211
9.2.10 Distinguishing orlon-acrylic fibre from other fibres 212
9.3 Burning test 212
9.3.1 Limitation of burning tests 213
9.4 Feeling tests 214
9.4.1 Limitations of feeling tests 214
9.5 Breaking tests 215
9.5.1 Limitation of breaking tests 215
Appendix-I 217
Appendix-II 223
Suggested further reading 227
Index 233
About the author 237

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