Textile Handbook PDF by The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association

By

Textile Handbook
By The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association

Textile Handbook PDF by The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association

Brief Content:

Chapter 1 Textile Fibres
Chapter 2 Spinning Processes and Types of Yarn
Charter 3 Weaving and Woven Fabrics
Chapter 4 Knitting and Knitted Fabrics
Chapter 5 Textile Coloration and Finishing Treatments
Chapter 6 Textiles Testing and Quality Control
Appendix 1 Business Strategies for the Textile and Apparel
Appendix 2 Web Sites Related To Textiles
Appendix 3 The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association 2000/2001
Member List
Appendix 4 The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association
Committee Members of 2000/2001
Appendix 5 Chairman and Vice Chairman List of the Hong Kong
Cotton Spinners Association


Details Contents:
Chapter 1
Textile Fibres ………………………………….. 1-2
Section 1 Fibres Commonly Used for Texilies and Clothing 1-2
1.1 Classification of Textile Fibres ……………………………………. 1-2
1.2 Natural Fibres …………………………………………………………… 1-2
1.2.1 Cotton ………………………………………………………………….. 1-2
1.2.2 Flax (Linen) ………………………………………………………….. 1-4
1.2.3 Jute ……………………………………………………………………… 1-5
1.2.4 Ramie ………………………………………………………………….. 1-5
1.2.5 Silk ……………………………………………………………………… 1-5
1.2.6 Wool ……………………………………………………………………. 1-6
1.2.7 Hair ……………………………………………………………………… 1-7
1.2.8 Asbestos ………………………………………………………………. 1-8
1.3 Man-made Fibres ………………………………………………………. 1-9
1.3.1 Acetate …………………………………………………………………. 1-9
1.3.2 Acrylic …………………………………………………………………. 1-9
1.3.3 Nylon …………………………………………………………………… 1-10
1.3.4 Polyester ………………………………………………………………. 1-10
1.3.5 Rayon (Viscose Rayon) ………………………………………….. 1-11
1.3.6 Spandex ……………………………………………………………….. 1-12
1.3.7 Olefin …………………………………………………………………… 1-13
1.4 Microscopic Appearance of Common Textile Fibres ……. 1-14
Section 2 Fibre Properties ………………………………………………… 1-18
2.1 Desirable Fibre Properties …………………………………………. 1-18
2.1.1 Fibre length ………………………………………………………….. 1-18
2.1.2 Cross-sectional shape and surface ……………………………. 1-18
2.1.3 Straightness ………………………………………………………….. 1-18
2.1.4 Strength ……………………………………………………………….. 1-18
2.1.5 Extensibility and elasticity ……………………………………… 1-18
2.1.6 Hand feel ……………………………………………………………… 1-19
2.1.7 Plasticity ………………………………………………………………. 1-19
2.1.8 Absorbency ………………………………………………………….. 1-19
2.1.9 Abrasion resistance ……………………………………………….. 1-19
2.1.10 Resiliency …………………………………………………………….. 1-19
2.1.11 Lustre …………………………………………………………………… 1-19
2.1.12 Density ………………………………………………………………… 1-19
2.1.13 Wicking ……………………………………………………………….. 1-20
2.2 Important Characteristics and Major End-use of Textile
Fibres ………………………………………………………………………… 1-21
2.3 Examples of Commercial Names and Manufacturers of
Man-Made Fibres ……………………………………………………… 1-25
2.4 Properties of Major Textile Fibres ……………………………… 1-30
2.5 Chemical Resistance of Fibres ……………………………………. 1-31
Section 3 Types of Cotton …………………………………………………. 1-32
3.1 Kinds and Types of Cotton …………………………………………. 1-32
3.1.1 The Features and Characteristics of the Three
Principal Cotton Fibre Groups ………………………………… 1-33
3.1.2 Structure and Properties of Cotton Fibre ………………….. 1-34
3.1.3 Composition of Cotton Fibre …………………………………… 1-35
3.1.4 Chemical Composition of Cotton Fibre …………………….. 1-35
3.1.5 Physical Properties of Cotton Fibre (Upland Cotton) …. 1-36
3.1.6 Chemical Properties of Cotton Fibre ………………………… 1-37
3.2 Classification of Cotton ……………………………………………… 1-38
3.2.1 Classification of Upland Cotton ………………………………. 1-38
3.3 Cotton Species …………………………………………………………… 1-44
3.3.1 Upland Cotton ………………………………………………………. 1-45
3.3.2 Sea-island Cotton ………………………………………………….. 1-45
3.3.3 Peruvian Cotton …………………………………………………….. 1-45
3.3.4 Asiatic Rough Cotton …………………………………………….. 1-45
3.3.5 Tree Cotton …………………………………………………………… 1-45
3.4 World Cotton Classification and Standard …………………. 1-46
3.5 Chinese Cotton Specification ……………………………………… 1-47
3.5.1 Chinese Cotton Grading …………………………………………. 1-47 .
3.5.2 Length …………………………………………………………………. 1-48
3.6 Indian Cotton Grading ………………………………………………. 1-50
3.7 Pakistan Cotton Grading …………………………………………… 1-51
3.8 Influence of the Fibre Characteristics of the Yarn ………. 1-51
3.9 Other Disturbing Factors in the Yarn Manufacturing
Process ………………………………………………………………………. 1-53
3.9.1 Stickiness ……………………………………………………………… 1-53
3.9.2 Cotton Contamination ……………………………………………. 1-55
3.10 Relationship between Fibre Length, Fineness and Yarn
Count to be Spun ………………………………………………………. 1-64
Section 4 World Cotton Production ………………………………….. 1-65
4.1 World Cotton Production and Related Statistics …………. 1-65
4.2 The World’s Major Cotton Growing Areas …………………. 1-73
4.2.1 China …………………………………………………………………… 1-74
4.2.2 United States ………………………………………………………… 1-75
4.2.3 India …………………………………………………………………….. 1-76
4.2.4 Pakistan ……………………………………………………………….. 1-77
4.2.5 Australia ………………………………………………………………. 1-78
4.2.6 Republic of Uzbekistan ………………………………………….. 1-79
Section 5 Man-Made Fibre Production …………………………….. 1-80
5.1 Methods of Man-Made Fibre Spinning ………………………. 1-80
5.1.1 Wet Spinning ………………………………………………………… 1-80
5.1.2 Dry Spinning ………………………………………………………… 1-81
5.1.3 Melt Spinning ……………………………………………………….. 1-81
5.1.4 Gel Spinning …………………………………………………………. 1-83
5.2 The Processing of Tow ……………………………………………….. 1-84
Section 6 New Developement of Textile Fibres ………………….. 1-85
6.1 Microfibres ……………………………………………………………….. 1-85
6.1.1 Direct Spinning …………………………………………………….. 1-85
6.1.2 Splittable Fibres ……………………………………………………. 1-85
6.1.3 Mechanically Splittable Bicomponents …………………….. 1-86
6.1.4 Solvent Splittable Bicomponents …………………………….. 1-86
6.1.5 Uses for Microfibres ……………………………………………… 1-86
6.1.6 Shin-Gosen …………………………………………………………… 1-88
6.2 Lyocell ………………………………………………………………………. 1-89
6.2.1 TENCEL® …………………………… 1-89
6.2.2 TENCEL® A100 ……………………………………………………. 1-92
6.3 High Performance Fibres …………………………………………… 1-93
6.3.1 Aramids, Meta-aramid …………………………………………… 1-93
6.3.2 Para-aramid ………………………………………………………….. 1-94
6.3.3 Carbon Fibres — PAN and Pitch Based ……………………. 1-94
6.3.4 Fluorocarbon Fibres (PTFE) …………………………………… 1-94
6.3.5 Glass Fibre …………………………………………………………… 1-95
6.3.6 Melamine ……………………………………………………………… 1-95
6.3.7 Polybenzimidazole — PBI ……………………………………… 1-95
6.3.8 Polyphenylenebenzobisoxazole — PBO1 …………………. 1-96
6.3.9 Cellulose acetate – MicroSafe …………………………………. 1-96
6.3.10 Optical Fibres ……………………………………………………….. 1-96
6.3.11 Chitin, Chitosan (shells of crustacean) ……………………… 1-97
6.4 Smart Technology for Textiles and Clothing ……………….. 1-97
6.4.1 Phase-Transition Materials and Polymer Crystals ……… 1-98
6.4.2 Smart Microcapsules/Microspheres …………………………. 1-98
6.4.3 Smart Fibres for Measurement of Temperature,
Moisture and Strain ……………………………………………….. 1-99
6.4.4 Shape Memory Polymers ……………………………………….. 1-99
6.4.5 Smart Gels and Gel Fibres ……………………………………… 1-100
Chapter 2
Spinning Processes and Types of Yarn 2-2
Section 1 Blowing Room Process ………………………………………. 2-2
1.1 Purpose of Blowing Room Process ……………………………… 2-2
1.2 Bale Opening …………………………………………………………….. 2-2
1.2.1 Features of some Automatic Bale Openers ……………….. 2-3
1.3 Cleaning ……………………………………………………………………. 2-5
1.3.1 Purpose of Cleaning ………………………………………………. 2-5
1.3.2 Feeding System …………………………………………………….. 2-5
1.3.3 Features of Some Cleaning Machines ………………………. 2-6
1.4 Blending ……………………………………………………………………. 2-9
1.4.1 Features of Mixer and Blender ………………………………… 2-9
1.5 Machine Arrangements ……………………………………………… 2-11
1.5.1 Examples of Machines Layout of Blowing Room ……… 2-11
1.6 Foreign Substance Detector ……………………………………….. 2-13
1.6.1 The Vision Shield (Jossi) ………………………………………… 2-14
1.6.2 Securomat (Truetzschler) ………………………………………… 2-15
1.6.3 Cotton Sorter RX-CS (Barco) …………………………………. 2-15
1.6.4 Optiscan (Uster) ……………………………………………………. 2-16
1.7 Maintenance Recommendations for Opening and
Cleaning Machines …………………………………………………….. 2-17
1.7.1 Maintenance of Opening Room/Opening Hoppers …….. 2-17
1.7.2 Maintenance of Cleaners ………………………………………… 2-19
1.8 Trouble Shooting for Opening and Cleaning Machines .. 2-20
Section 2 Carding Process ………………………………………………… 2-25
2.1 Purpose of Carding ……………………………………………………. 2-25
2.2 Carding Actions ………………………………………………………… 2-26
2.3 Card Feeding System …………………………………………………. 2-27
2.3.1 Rieter Aerofeed U …………………………………………………. 2-27
2.3.2 Rieter UNIstore A 77 ……………………………………………… 2-28
2.3.3 Truetzschler Tuft Feeder Directfeed DFK…………………. 2-29
2.3.4 Truetzschler Sensofeed …………………………………………… 2-30
2.3.5 Truetzschler Webfeed …………………………………………….. 2-30
2.4 Card Clothing ……………………………………………………………. 2-31
2.5 Card Clothing Specifications ……………………………………… 2-33
2.5.1 ECC Card Clothing ……………………………………………….. 2-33
2.5.2 Graf Card Clothing ………………………………………………… 2-36
2.5.3 Hollingsworth Card Clothing ………………………………….. 2-44
2.5.4 Kanai Card Clothing ……………………………………………… 2-48
2.7 Card Setting Recommendations …………………………………. 2-58
2.7.1 Conventional Revolving Flat Card …………………………… 2-58
2.7.2 Rieter C51 Card …………………………………………………….. 2-59
2.7.3 Truetzschler DK-803 Card ……………………………………… 2-60
2.8 Grinding ……………………………………………………………………. 2-61
2.8.1 Grinding Intervals …………………………………………………. 2-61
2.8.2 Rieter Integrated Grinding System (IGS) …………………. 2-61
2.9 New Features on Carding Machine …………………………….. 2-66
2.9.1 Precision Flat Setting System (Truetzschler) …………….. 2-66
2.9.2 Flat Distance Measuring System ……………………………… 2-67
2.9.3 Webclean System (Truetzschler) ……………………………… 2-68
2.9.4 On-line Nep Counting (Truetzschler) ……………………….. 2-69
2.9.5 TREXplus (Rieter) ………………………………………………… 2-70
2.10 Tandem Card…………………………………………………………….. 2-71
2.10.1 The New Twin Cylinder Card-Crosrol CST ……………… 2-71
2.10.2 Technical Specification ………………………………………….. 2-72
2.11 Production Calculations …………………………………………….. 2-73
2.12 Conversion of Grain Weight and Sliver Count ……………. 2-74
2.13 Nep Counting ……………………………………………………………. 2-74
2.13.1 Three Different Ways of Nep Counting ……………………. 2-74
2.13.2 Nep Content of Card Web ………………………………………. 2-75
2.14 Uster AFIS N Application for Cotton Card
Maintenance ……………………………………………………………… 2-76
2.15 Maintenance Recommendations …………………………………. 2-77
2.15.1 Lubrication Schedule …………………………………………….. 2-77
2.15.2 Cleaning Procedures For High Production Carding
Equipment ……………………………………………………………. 2-77
2.16 Troubleshooting…………………………………………………………. 2-80
Section 3 Drawing Process ……………………………………………….. 2-85
3.1 Purpose of Drawing …………………………………………………… 2-85
3.2 Definition of Draft ……………………………………………………… 2-85
3.3 Drafting Zone Setting ………………………………………………… 2-87
3.3.1 Technological Main Draft Roll Settings ……………………. 2-87
3.3.2 Technological Break Draft Roll Setting ……………………. 2-88
3.3.3 Draft Rolls Setting …………………………………………………. 2-89
3.3.4 Examples for Drafting System Setting of Rieters
Draw Frame ………………………………………………………….. 2-91
3.4 Trumpet ……………………………………………………………………. 2-92
3.5 Sliver Can …………………………………………………………………. 2-93
3.5.1 Order Specifications for Cans …………………………………. 2-93
3.5.2 Specifications for Can’s Bottom With Casters …………… 2-94
3.5.3 Sliver Can Information …………………………………………… 2-94
3.6 Auto Levelling System ……………………………………………….. 2-99
3.6.1 Examples of some Auto Levelling Systems ………………. 2-100
3.7 Recent Developments in Draw Frames ……………………….. 2-101
3.7.1 Integrated Draw Frame IDF ……………………………………. 2-101
3.7.2 CUBIcan Sliver Deposit System ……………………………… 2-103
3.7.3 Sliver Watch (Foreign Matter Detector) ……………………. 2-103
3.8 Relationship between Sliver Weight and other
Parameters ………………………………………………………………… 2-105
3.9 Production Rate per Delivery Head of Draw Frame ……. 2-106
3.10 Front Roller Surface Speed in Relation to Production
Rate ………………………………………………………………………….. 2-108
3.11 Relationship Between Sliver Weight and Production in
Hanks and Pounds …………………………………………………….. 2-109
3.12 Conversion of Sliver Weight to Sliver Count ………………. 2-110
3.13 Maintenance of Draw Frame ……………………………………… 2-111
3.14 Possible Causes of Drawn Sliver Defects …………………….. 2-113
Section 4 Combing Process ………………………………………………. 2-115
4.1 Purpose of Combing ………………………………………………….. 2-115
4.2 Combing Preparation ………………………………………………… 2-115
4.3 Combing Mechanism …………………………………………………. 2-119
4.3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………….. 2-119
4.3.2 Operations ……………………………………………………………. 2-119
4.4 Combing Components Specification …………………………… 2-125
4.4.1 Combing Cylinder …………………………………………………. 2-125
4.4.2 Top Comb …………………………………………………………….. 2-127
4.5 Examples of Input and Output of Combing Process ……. 2-128
4.6 Advanced Development and Automation in Combing …. 2-129
4.6.1 Computer Aided Process Development ……………………. 2-129
4.6.2 SERVOlap E 6/4 – L ………………………………………………. 2-130
4.7 Possible Faults in Combing ………………………………………… 2-131
Section 5 Roving Process ………………………………………………….. 2-133
5.1 Function of Roving Process ………………………………………… 2-133
5.2 Drafting System ………………………………………………………… 2-133
5.2.1 In -feed Material ……………………………………………………. 2-133
5.2.2 Total Draft ……………………………………………………………. 2-133
5.2.3 Rear Draft …………………………………………………………….. 2-134
5.2.4 Roller Loading ……………………………………………………… 2-134
5.2.5 Top Roller Cots Grinding ……………………………………….. 2-134
5.2.6 Roving Guide and Condensers ………………………………… 2-134
5.3 Example of Drafting System on Speed Frame …………….. 2-135
5.3.1 Zone Settings And Maximum Fibre Length ………………. 2-136
5.3.2 Roller Loading ……………………………………………………… 2-137
5.3.3 Top Apron Cradle System ………………………………………. 2-138
5.3.4 Opening at Apron Release Point ……………………………… 2-139
5.3.5 Top Aprons …………………………………………………………… 2-140
5.3.6 Top Roller Cots …………………………………………………….. 2-141
5.3.7 Bottom Apron Nose Bar …………………………………………. 2-141
5.3.8 Rear Roving Guide ………………………………………………… 2-141
5.3.9 Rear Zone Condenser …………………………………………….. 2-142
5.3.10 Front Zone Condenser ……………………………………………. 2-143
5.4 Roving Twist ……………………………………………………………… 2-143
5.4.1 Relationship Between Fibre Fineness (Based On 1 Inch
Fibre Length) and Twist Factor of Roving ………………… 2-144
5.4.2 Factors Affecting Twist Factor of Roving …………………. 2-145
5.4.3 Relationship Between Fibre Length and Twist Factor
of Roving ……………………………………………………………… 2-146
5.5 Flyer Speed and Roving Conditions ……………………………. 2-147
5.5.1 Flyer Speed …………………………………………………………… 2-147
5.5.2 Roving Weight ………………………………………………………. 2-148
5.6 Bobbin Building ………………………………………………………… 2-149
5.6.1 Bobbin Building Mechanism of Toyota Roving
Frame …………………………………………………………………… 2-149
5.7 Roving Tension Adjustment ……………………………………….. 2-152
5.8 Horizontal Coil Density of Roving ……………………………… 2-153
5.8.1 Horizontal Coiling Density and Roving Count ………….. 2-153
5.9 Number of Coils of Roving …………………………………………. 2-154
5.10 Number of Coils Per Inch of Roving …………………………… 2-155
5.11 Common Defects in Roving ………………………………………… 2-156
5.12 Factors Affecting Roving Elongation and Remedies ……. 2-158
5.13 Machine Automation …………………………………………………. 2-159
5.13.1 Automatic Doffing and Bobbin Transfer System
(RO-WE-MAT 670 Roving Frame, Zinser) ………………. 2-159
5.13.2 Automatic Transfer System (Toyota) ……………………….. 2-160
Section 6 Spinning Process……………………………………………….. 2-162
6.1 Purpose of Spinning …………………………………………………… 2-162
6.2 Process Flow Chart for Various Common Spinning
Systems ……………………………………………………………………… 2-162
6.3 Ring Spinning ……………………………………………………………. 2-162
6.3.1 Drafting System ……………………………………………………. 2-163
6.3.2 Draft zones …………………………………………………………… 2-164
6.3.3 Examples of Drafting System for Cotton Ring Frame … 2-164
6.3.4 Top Roller Cots …………………………………………………….. 2-172
6.3.5 Twisting ……………………………………………………………….. 2-179
6.3.6 Ring …………………………………………………………………….. 2-179
6.3.7 Traveller ………………………………………………………………. 2-186
6.3.8 Wear and Life of the Traveller and Ring …………………… 2-191
6.3.9 Setting of Traveller Cleaner ……………………………………. 2-194
6.3.10 Traveller Speed in m/s ……………………………………………. 2-197
6.3.11 Relationship between Inside Diameter of Ring, Spindle
Revolution and Traveller Circumferential Speed ………. 2-198
6.3.12 Relationship between Bobbin Diameter, Twist Number,
Spindle Revolution, and Traveller Revolution …………… 2-199
6.3.13 Relationship between Inside Diameter of Ring, Bobbin
Diameter and Winding Angle ………………………………….. 2-200
6.3.14 Ratio Values of Ring Diameter, Bobbin Diameter, Bobbin
Length And Spindle Gauge …………………………………….. 2-201
6.3.15 High Performance Ring and Traveller ……………………… 2-203
6.3.16 Suessen Novibra Spindle HP-S 68 and Spindle
Bearing ………………………………………………………………… 2-208
6.3.17 Bobbin Building ……………………………………………………. 2-213
6.4 Open-End Spinning …………………………………………………… 2-218
6.4.1 Principle of Open-end Spinning ………………………………. 2-218
6.4.2 Relationship between Rotor Speed, Rotor Type and Yarn
Count …………………………………………………………………… 2-224
6.4.3 Layout of Spinning Components …………………………….. 2-225
6.4.4 Example of Recent Development in OE Spinning ……… 2-228
6.5 AIR-JET SPINNING …………………………………………………. 2-230
6.5.1 Processing Parameters and Fibre Characteristics for
Spinning 100% Cotton Yarn ……………………………………. 2-231
6.5.2 Muratec 851 MVS Air-jet Spinning Machine ……………. 2-236
6.5.3 Muratec 804 RJS – Roller Jet Spinning …………………….. 2-236
6.6 Various Developments in Spinning …………………………….. 2-237
6.6.1 Suessen Ring-Can Spinning System ………………………… 2-237
6.6.2 Rieter ComforSpin ………………………………………………… 2-238
6.6.3 Suessen EliTe Yarn ………………………………………………… 2-239
6.6.4 Zinser Compact Yarn ……………………………………………… 2-241
Section 7 Winding Process ……………………………………………….. 2-243
7.1 Purpose of Winding …………………………………………………… 2-243
7.2 Knotting Mechanism …………………………………………………. 2-243
7.3 Air Splicing Mechanism …………………………………………….. 2-246
7.4 Correct Build of Ring Cops ………………………………………… 2-247
7.4.1 Causes of Sloughing ………………………………………………. 2-247
7.4.2 Optimum Shaping of Spinning Bobbin …………………….. 2-248
7.4.3 Balloon Breaker ……………………………………………………. 2-250
7.5 Measures to Prevent Ribbon Winding ………………………… 2-251
7.5.1 Ribbon Winding ……………………………………………………. 2-251
7.5.2 Measures to Prevent Ribbon Winding ………………………. 2-252
7.5.3 Contact Pressure ……………………………………………………. 2-252
7.5.4 Ribbon Breaker Interval …………………………………………. 2-253
7.5.5 Tension ………………………………………………………………… 2-256
7.5.6 Increase (dish) ………………………………………………………. 2-256
7.5.7 Drum …………………………………………………………………… 2-257
7.6 Balloon Control and Tensioning Device ………………………. 2-258
7.6.1 Tension Manager and Bal-Con (Muratec) …………………. 2-258
7.6.2 Autotense Yarn Tension Control (Autoconer338) ………. 2-259
7.7 Calculation of Package Density ………………………………….. 2-261
7.8 Measures Against Excessive Yarn Breakage ……………….. 2-263
7.9 Causes and Corrective Actions for Poor Winding ……….. 2-264
7.10 Electronic Yarn Clearer ……………………………………………… 2-267
7.11 Conversion Graph of Peyer and UAM ……………………….. 2-269
7.12 Correlation Between Material and Type of Yarn by the
Static Electricity Amount …………………………………………… 2-270
7.13 Material Setting of Uster UAM Yarn Clearer ……………… 2-271
7.14 Types of Yarn Faults ………………………………………………….. 2-271
Section 8 Twisting Process ……………………………………………….. 2-273
8.1 Up Twister ………………………………………………………………… 2-273
8.2 Ring Twister ……………………………………………………………… 2-273
8.3 Two-for-One Twisting ………………………………………………… 2-274
8.3.1 Two-for-One Principle …………………………………………… 2-274
8.3.2 Characteristics of Two-for-One Twisting ………………….. 2-275
8.3.3 Tritec Twister ………………………………………………………… 2-275
8.4 Twisting Parameter ……………………………………………………. 2-277
Section 9 Application of Information Technology in
Spinning …………………………………………………………….. 2-283
9.1 ABC-Control for Blow Room and Carding …………………. 2-283
9.2 Spiderweb : The Mill Data and Information System …… 2-284
9.3 Barco Sycotex System ………………………………………………… 2-286
9.4 Uster Labdata ……………………………………………………………. 2-286
Section 10 Special Types of Yarns …………………………………….. 2-287
10.1 Production of Rough-Spun (Slub and Neps) Yarn on
Conventional Equipment …………………………………………… 2-287
10.1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………….. 2-287
10.1.2 Machinery Settings ………………………………………………… 2-287
10.1.3 Maintenance …………………………………………………………. 2-288
10.1.4 Other Considerations ……………………………………………… 2-288
10.2 Recommendation for Producing Linen-Look Yarn on
Conventional Equipment …………………………………………… 2-290
10.2.1 Operating Procedures ………………………………………………. 2-290
10.2.2 Experiment Details ………………………………………………… 2-291
10.3 Slub Effect Yarn with Amsler GOE Device on OE Spinning
Machine ……………………………………………………………………. 2-293
10.3.1 Function ……………………………………………………………….. 2-293
10.4 Amsler Cortex System ……………………………………………….. 2-295
10.4.1 Features ……………………………………………………………….. 2-295
10.5 Core Spun Yarn by Plyfil Spinning System …………………. 2-297
10.5.1 Equipment for Hard Core Yarns ………………………………. 2-297
10.5.2 Equipment for Soft Core Yarns ……………………………….. 2-298
10.5.3 The advantages of PLYfiL ……………………………………… 2-300
10.6 Parallel Yarn by Parafil Spinning System …………………… 2-301
10.6.1 Structure of Parallel Yarn ……………………………………….. 2-301
10.6.2 Properties of Parallel Yarn ………………………………………. 2-302
Section 11 Wool Spinning Process …………………………………….. 2-304
11.1 Worsted System …………………………………………………………. 2-304
11.1.1 The Worsted Spinning Process Flow ………………………… 2-304
11.1.2 Scouring ………………………………………………………………. 2-304
11.1.3 Drying …………………………………………………………………. 2-304
11.1.4 Oiling …………………………………………………………………… 2-305
11.1.5 Carding ………………………………………………………………… 2-305
11.1.6 Backwashing ………………………………………………………… 2-305
11.1.7 Combing ………………………………………………………………. 2-305
11.1.8 Gilling …………………………………………………………………. 2-306
11.1.9 Drawing ……………………………………………………………….. 2-306
11.1.10 Spinning ………………………………………………………………. 2-306
11.2 Woollen System …………………………………………………………. 2-306
11.2.1 Woollen Spinning Process Flow ……………………………… 2-306
11.2.2 Scouring and drying ………………………………………………. 2-307
11.2.3 Carbonizing ………………………………………………………….. 2-307
11.2.4 Dyeing …………………………………………………………………. 2-307
11.2.5 Blending ………………………………………………………………. 2-307
11.2.6 Oiling …………………………………………………………………… 2-307
11.2.7 Carding ………………………………………………………………… 2-307
11.2.8 Spinning ………………………………………………………………. 2-307
Section 12 Texturing ………………………………………………………… 2-308
12.1 Purpose of Texturing …………………………………………………. 2-308
12.2 False Twist Method ……………………………………………………. 2-308
12.3 Edge-Crimped Yarns …………………………………………………. 2-310
12.4 Stuffer-Box Crimping ………………………………………………… 2-311
12.5 Air-Textured Yarns ……………………………………………………. 2-312
12.6 Knit-De-Knit Method ………………………………………………… 2-313
12.7 Gear Crimping ………………………………………………………….. 2-313
12.8 Twist-Textured Yarns …………………………………………………. 2-313
Chapter 3
Weaving and Woven Fabrics… ………… 3-2
Section 1 Warp Preparation Process…………………………………. 3-2
1.1 Warping Process ……………………………………………………….. 3-2
1.1.1 Direct Beaming …………………………………………………….. 3-2
1.1.2 Section Warping ……………………………………………………. 3-2
1.1.3 Ball Warping …………………………………………………………. 3-3
1.2 Warping Data ……………………………………………………………. 3-3
1.3 Examples of Machine Settings for Warping ………………… 3-5
1.4 Recent Development in Sectional Warping Machine …… 3-5
1.5 Defects and Possible Causes in Direct Beaming …………… 3-6
1.6 Warp Preparation for Rope Dyeing ……………………………. 3-9
1.6.1 Ball Warper Specification ……………………………………… 3-9
1.6.2 Ball Warping Process Parameters …………………………….. 3-9
1.6.3 Rope Dyeing …………………………………………………………. 3-10
1.6.4 Typical Recipe of Master Solution for Rope Dyeing ….. 3-11
1.6.5 Technical Features of Rope Dyeing Range ……………….. 3-12
1.6.6 Processing Parameters for Re-Beaming Of Rope
Dyeing …………………………………………………………………. 3-13
1.7 Slasher Dyeing …………………………………………………………… 3-13
1.7.1 Warping Requirements …………………………………………… 3-14
1.7.2 Typical Recipes of Master Solution for Slasher Dyeing 3-15
1.7.3 Slasher Dyeing Processing Parameters …………………….. 3-16
1.8 Rope Dyeing Versus Slasher Dyeing……………………………. 3-16
1.8.1 Characteristics of Rope Dyeing ………………………………. 3-16
1.8.2 Disadvantages of Rope Dyeing ……………………………….. 3-17
Section 2 Warp Sizing ……………………………………………………… 3-19
2.1 Purpose of Warp Sizing ……………………………………………… 3-19
2.2 Warp Size Types and Properties …………………………………. 3-19
2.2.1 Warp Size Types And Properties ……………………………… 3-19
2.2.2 Size Auxiliary Chemicals ……………………………………….. 3-23
2.3 Sizing Agents and Applications …………………………………… 3-25
2.4 Examples of Recipes of Sizing Solution ………………………. 3-25
2.4.1 Protein Sizes …………………………………………………………. 3-25
2.4.2 Starch Sizes ………………………………………………………….. 3-25
2.4.3 Cellulose Ether Sizes ……………………………………………… 3-26
2.4.4 Polyvinyl Alcohol Sizes …………………………………………. 3-26
2.4.5 Acrylate Copolymer Sizes ………………………………………. 3-27
2.5 Comparison of the Properties of Four Types of Sizing
Agent ………………………………………………………………………… 3-27
2.6 Emulsified Oil, Liquid Wax and Solid Wax ………………… 3-28
2.7 Manufacturers and Brand of Commonly Used Liquid
Wax…………………………………………………………………………… 3-28
2.8 Size Defects and Possible Causes ………………………………… 3-29
2.9 Sizing Process Defects and Possible Causes ………………… 3-30
2.10 Example of Warp Tension for Cotton Yarn during
Sizing ………………………………………………………………………… 3-34
2.11 Guidelines for the Sizing of Denim ……………………………… 3-35
2.11.1 Size Requirements …………………………………………………. 3-35
2.11.2 Causes of Faults in Sizing and its Solutions ……………… 3-35
2.12 Recent Development in Sizing ……………………………………. 3-37
2.12.1 Wetsize Box SC (Sucker-Mueller-Hacoba) ……………….. 3-37
2.12.2 Ben-ecosize (Benninger) ………………………………………… 3-37
Section 3 Weaving Preparation ………………………………………… 3-38
3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………. 3-38
3.1.1 Leasing ………………………………………………………………… 3-38
3.1.2 Drawing-in …………………………………………………………… 3-38
3.2 Specifications of Heald Wires …………………………………….. 3-38
3.3 Specifications of Drop Wire ……………………………………….. 3-40
3.4 Reed ………………………………………………………………………….. 3-43
3.5 Tying-in …………………………………………………………………….. 3-44
3.6 Recent Development in Weaving Preparation …………….. 3-44
3.6.1 Quick Style Change in Weaving ……………………………… 3-44
3.6.2 The Process Flow of a QSC System ………………………… 3-44
Section 4 Weaving ……………………………………………………………. 3-47
4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………. 3-47
4.2 Basic Motions of A Weaving Machine …………………………. 3-47
4.2.1 Shuttle Loom ………………………………………………………… 3-47
4.2.2 Shuttleless Looms …………………………………………………. 3-48
4.2.3 Useful Calculation Formulae for Weaving ………………… 3-54
Section 5 Woven Fabric Features ……………………………………… 3-56
5.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………. 3-56
5.2 Warp and Weft Yarns ………………………………………………… 3-56
5.3 Selvedges …………………………………………………………………… 3-57
5.3.1 Selvedge Structure for Conventional Loom …………………. 3-58
5.3.2 Selvedge Problem …………………………………………………….. 3-62
5.4 Yarns Per Unit Length ……………………………………………….. 3-62
5.5 Face and Back …………………………………………………………… 3-63
5.6 Top and Bottom …………………………………………………………. 3-63
Section 6 Woven Structure ……………………………………………….. 3-64
6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………. 3-64
6.2 Plain Weave ………………………………………………………………. 3-64
6.2.1 Characteristics ………………………………………………………. 3-64
6.2.2 Ribbed Plain Fabrics ……………………………………………… 3-65
6.2.3 Plain Weave Derivative ………………………………………….. 3-66
6.3 Twill Weave ………………………………………………………………. 3-67
6.3.1 Characteristics ………………………………………………………. 3-69
6.3.2 Broken Twill Weave ………………………………………………. 3-70
6.4 Satin Weave ………………………………………………………………. 3-70
6.4.1 Satin-Weave Fabric ……………………………………………….. 3-71
6.4.2 Sateen Fabric ………………………………………………………… 3-71
6.4.3 Characteristics ………………………………………………………. 3-72
6.5 Comparison of Basic Weave Properties ………………………. 3-72
6.6 Special Weave Sturctures …………………………………………… 3-72
6.6.1 Pile Weaves ………………………………………………………….. 3-72
6.6.2 Double-cloth Weave ………………………………………………. 3-75
6.6.3 Crepe Weave …………………………………………………………. 3-75
6.6.4 Leno Weave ………………………………………………………….. 3-76
6.6.5 Swivel Weave ……………………………………………………….. 3-76
6.7 Woven Pattern Design ……………………………………………….. 3-77
6.7.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………….. 3-77
6.7.2 Dobby Pattern ……………………………………………………….. 3-77
6.7.3 Jacquard Pattern ……………………………………………………. 3-78
6.8 A Summary of Special Weaves and their Characteristics 3-79
Section 7 Woven Fabric Analysis ……………………………………… 3-81
7.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………. 3-81
7.2 Identification of the Construction of a Fabric …………….. 3-81
7.3 Determining Yarn Counts of a Fabric …………………………. 3-82
7.4 Fabric Weight ……………………………………………………………. 3-82
7.4.1 Expression of Fabric Weight …………………………………… 3-82
7.4.2 Fabric Weight Calculation ………………………………………. 3-82
7.5 Converting Fabric Weight from one System to Another . 3-83
7.6 Weight of Silk Fabric …………………………………………………. 3-84
7.7 Woven Fabric Design …………………………………………………. 3-84
7.7.1 Cloth Setting Theories ……………………………………………. 3-84
7.7.2 Similarly Built Cloths ……………………………………………. 3-89
7.7.3 Other Expression of Setting ……………………………………. 3-91
7.8 Fabric Cover ……………………………………………………………… 3-92
7.8.1 Cover and Cover Factor (F.T. Peirce) ………………………. 3-92
7.8.2 Cloth Cover Factor ………………………………………………… 3-94
Chapter 4
Knitting and Knitted Fabrics ………….. 4-2
Section 1 Knitting …………………………………………………………… 4-2
1.1 Knitting Process ………………………………………………………… 4-2
1.2 Weft-Knitting ……………………………………………………………. 4-2
1.3 Weft Knitting Machines …………………………………………….. 4-3
1.3.1 Two Types of Knitting Machines Using Beard Needles 4-3
1.3.2 Two Types of Knitting Machines Using Latch Needles 4-4
1.4 Key Components for Weft Knitted Fabric Formation …. 4-5
1.4.1 Knitting Needles ……………………………………………………. 4-5
1.4.2 Needle Bed …………………………………………………………… 4-6
1.4.4 Yarn Feeding ………………………………………………………… 4-7
1.4.3 Cam Box………………………………………………………………. 4-7
1.4.5 Sinker ………………………………………………………………….. 4-8
1.4.6 Key Terms of Knitted Fabric …………………………………… 4-9
1.5 Stitch (loop) Formation Sequence on a Latch Needle ….. 4-10
1.6 Types of Knitting Stitches ………………………………………….. 4-11
1.6.1 Plain Stitch …………………………………………………………… 4-11
1.6.2 Miss Stitch (Welt or float) ………………………………………. 4-11
1.6.3 Tuck Stitch …………………………………………………………… 4-11
1.7 Recent Developments in Weft Knitting ……………………….. 4-12
1.7.1 Examples of Recent Developments in Flat Knitting
Machines ……………………………………………………………… 4-13
1.7.2 Examples of Recent Developments in Circular Knitting
machines ………………………………………………………………. 4-14
Section 2 Typical Weft-Knit Structure………………………………. 4-17
2.1 Methods Used to Represent Weft-Knitted Structures ….. 4-17
2.1.1 Three Kinds of Methods used to Represent Weft
Knitted Structure …………………………………………………… 4-17
2.2 Single Knit Structures ……………………………………………….. 4-18
2.2.1 Plain Knit. ……………………………………………………………. 4-18
2.2.2 Lacoste ………………………………………………………………… 4-19
2.3 Double Knit Structures ……………………………………………… 4-20
2.3.1 Rib ………………………………………………………………………. 4-20
2.3.2 Half Milano ………………………………………………………….. 4-20
2.3.3 Full Milano …………………………………………………………… 4-21
2.3.4 Full Cardigan ………………………………………………………… 4-21
2.3.5 Half Cardigan ……………………………………………………….. 4-22
2.3.6 Purl Structure ……………………………………………………….. 4-22
2.3.7 Interlock Fabrics ……………………………………………………. 4-24
2.4 Structures and Techniques Commonly Applied to
Sweaters ……………………………………………………………………. 4-24
2.4.1 Intarsia …………………………………………………………………. 4-24
2.4.2 Designs Through Loop Transfer ……………………………… 4-25
2.5 Special Knit Fabrics Produced by Circular Knitting ….. 4-26
2.5.1 High-Pile Knits ……………………………………………………… 4-26
2.5.2 Knitted Terry ………………………………………………………… 4-27
2.5.3 Knitted Velour ………………………………………………………. 4-28
2.5.4 Fleecy Fabric ………………………………………………………… 4-28
2.5.5 Coloured Stripe Fabrics ………………………………………….. 4-29
2.5.6 Jacquard Fabric …………………………………………………….. 4-30
2.5.7 Polar Fleece ………………………………………………………….. 4-31
Section 3 Yarn Count and Machine Gauge ……………………….. 4-32
3.1 Yarn Count and Machine Gauge for Circular Knit …….. 4-32
3.2 Yarn Count and Machine Gauge for Wool Knitwear …… 4-34
Section 4 Quality and Production of Circular Kniting ………. 4-36
4.1 Pre-requisites of a Circular Knitting Machine …………….. 4-36
4.2 Production Conditions for Knitting ……………………………. 4-37
4.2.1 Selection of Proper Yarn Count ……………………………….. 4-37
4.2.2 Setting of the Knitting Machine. ……………………………… 4-37
4.2.3 Yarn Storage …………………………………………………………. 4-38
4.2.4 Air Conditioning of the Knitting Plant ……………………… 4-38
4.2.5 Cleaning of Knitting Machines ……………………………….. 4-38
4.3 Production Calculations …………………………………………….. 4-38
4.3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………….. 4-38
4.4 Quality Characteristics of Ring-spun 100% Combed
Cotton Yarn for Circular Weft Knitting ……………………… 4-40
Section 5 Fabric Analysis ………………………………………………… 4-45
5.1 The Geometry of Plain Weft-knitted Fabric ……………….. 4-45
5.2 Stitch Density (Fabric Count) …………………………………….. 4-46
5.3 Cover Factor ……………………………………………………………… 4-46
5.4 Prediction of Knitted Performance by Mathematical
Model ……………………………………………………………………….. 4-47
5.4.1 Engineering the Fabric …………………………………………… 4-47
5.4.2 Checking the Specification …………………………………….. 4-47
5.4.3 Calculations Based on K values ………………………………. 4-48
5.4.4 Limitations of K values ………………………………………….. 4-50
5.5 STARFISH – Engineered Knitted Program for Cotton
Circular Knits …………………………………………………………… 4-51
Section 6 Typical Fabric Imperfections on Circular Knitting4-53
6.1 Fabric Skew ………………………………………………………………. 4-53
6.1.1 Definition …………………………………………………………….. 4-53
6.1.2 Causes …………………………………………………………………. 4-53
6.1.3 Evaluation of the Effect of Yarn, Knitting and Finishing
Parameters on Skew ………………………………………………. 4-54
6.1.4 Summary ……………………………………………………………… 4-58
6.2 Barre ………………………………………………………………………… 4-58
6.2.1 Definition of Barre ………………………………………………… 4-58
6.2.2 Causes of Barre …………………………………………………….. 4-58
7.2 Warp Knitting Machine Classification ……………………….. 4-61
Section 7Warp knitting and Warp Knitted Fabrics …………..4-61
7.1 Warp Knitting …………………………………………………………… 4-61
7.2.1 Tricot Machines …………………………………………………….. 4-62
7.2.2 Raschel Machines ………………………………………………….. 4-62
7.3 Knitting Elements of Warp Knitting Machine …………….. 4-63
7.3.1 Needle …………………………………………………………………. 4-63
7.3.2 The Sinker ……………………………………………………………. 4-64
7.3.3 Guides and Guide Bars …………………………………………… 4-64
7.3.4 Driving Mechanisms of Knitting Elements ……………….. 4-65
7.4 Key Terms of Warp Knits ………………………………………….. 4-66
7.4.1 Course and Wales ………………………………………………….. 4-66
7.4.2 Stitch Density ……………………………………………………….. 4-66
7.4.3 Loop Parts ……………………………………………………………. 4-66
7.4.4 Open and Closed Laps …………………………………………… 4-67
7.4.5 Technical Back ……………………………………………………… 4-67
7.4.6 Technical Face ………………………………………………………. 4-67
7.4.7 Run-in ………………………………………………………………….. 4-68
7.5 Common Warp Knit Fabric Structures and their
Characteristics ………………………………………………………….. 4-68
7.5.1 Tricot Fabrics ……………………………………………………….. 4-68
7.5.2 Raschel Fabrics …………………………………………………….. 4-72
Chapter 5
Textile Coloration and Finishing
Treatments …………………………………….. 5-2
Section 1 Textile Coloration and Finishing ……………………….. 5-2
1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………. 5-2
1.2 Preparation of Cotton Goods ……………………………………… 5-2
1.2.1 Grey Inspection ……………………………………………………. 5-3
1.2.2 Singeing ……………………………………………………………….. 5-3
1.2.3 Desizing ……………………………………………………………….. 5-3
1.2.4 Scouring ………………………………………………………………. 5-3
1.2.5 Bleaching ……………………………………………………………… 5-4
1.2.6 Mercerization ……………………………………………………….. 5-5
1.2.7 Summary ……………………………………………………………… 5-5
1.3 Fluorescent Brightening …………………………………………….. 5-5
1.4 Dyeing ………………………………………………………………………. 5-6
1.4.1 Terminology Relating to Dyeing ……………………………… 5-6
1.4.2 Factors that Affect Dyeing ……………………………………… 5-7
1.4.3 Classification of Dyes ……………………………………………. 5-8
1.4.4 Colour Formulation ……………………………………………….. 5-10
1.4.5 Colour Fastness …………………………………………………….. 5-10
1.4.6 Application of Pigments …………………………………………. 5-12
1.4.7 Methods of Dyeing ………………………………………………… 5-12
1.4.8 Special Dyeing Effects …………………………………………… 5-20
1.4.9 Computer Colour Matching ……………………………………. 5-20
1.5 Printing …………………………………………………………………….. 5-22
1.5.1 General Printing Procedures …………………………………… 5-23
1.5.2 Methods of Printing ……………………………………………….. 5-25
1.5.3 Printing Effects ……………………………………………………… 5-33
1.5.4 Types of Prints ………………………………………………………. 5-33
1.5.5 CAD/CAM System for Textile Printing ……………………. 5-35
1.6 Finishing …………………………………………………………………… 5-36
1.6.1 Preparation …………………………………………………………… 5-36
1.6.2 Finishing ………………………………………………………………. 5-37
1.6.3 Classification of Finishing ……………………………………… 5-37
Section 2 Common Finishing Treatments for Cotton Fabrics 5-44
2.1 Wrinkle-free Treatment of Cotton Fabrics and
Garments ………………………………………………………………….. 5-44
2.1.1 General Considerations for Wrinkle-free Treatment …… 5-44
2.1.2 Treatment Processes ………………………………………………. 5-45
2.2 Flame Retardant Treatment on Cotton Fabric by
Precondensate/NH3 Process ……………………………………….. 5-50
2.2.1 Fabric Preparation …………………………………………………. 5-50
2.2.2 Precondensate Formulation …………………………………….. 5-50
2.2.3 Application …………………………………………………………… 5-51
2.2.4 Ammoniation ………………………………………………………… 5-51
2.2.5 Oxidation and Process Washing ………………………………. 5-53
2.2.6 Fabric After-Treatments …………………………………………. 5-54
2.2.7 Treatment of Cotton Blended Fabrics ………………………. 5-54
2.3 Hints for Wet Processing of Cotton/Spandex Fabric ……. 5-55
2.3.1 Spandex in Knitted Fabric ………………………………………. 5-55
2.3.2 Relaxation ……………………………………………………………. 5-55
2.3.3 Heat-Setting ………………………………………………………….. 5-56
2.3.4 Dyeing …………………………………………………………………. 5-57
2.3.5 Drying …………………………………………………………………. 5-58
2.3.6 Cotton/Spandex Woven Fabric ………………………………… 5-58
2.3.7 Relaxation ……………………………………………………………. 5-58
2.3.8 Heat-Setting ………………………………………………………….. 5-58
2.3.9 Dyeing …………………………………………………………………. 5-59
2.3.10 Finishing ………………………………………………………………. 5-59
Chapter 6
Textiles Testing and Quality Control .. 6-2
Section 1 Cotton Fibre Testing …………………………………………. 6-2
1.1 Terms Relating to the Conditioning and Testing of
Textiles ……………………………………………………………………… 6-2
1.2 Recommendations for a Physical Testing Laboratory
for Fibre and Yarn …………………………………………………….. 6-3
1.3 Fibre Testing Condition ……………………………………………… 6-4
1.3.1 Ambient Laboratory Conditions for Fibre Testing ……… 6-4
1.4 Fibre Moisture …………………………………………………………… 6-4
1.4.1 Measurement of Moisture Regain ……………………………. 6-4
1.4.2 Commercial Moisture Regain Values ……………………….. 6-5
1.4.3 Relationship of Temperature and Relative Humidity
on Moisture Regain of Cotton …………………………………. 6-7
1.5 Fibre Length Testing Principle …………………………………… 6-8
1.5.1 Staple Diagram Method – Shirley Comb Sorter …………. 6-9
1.5.2 Fibrograph ……………………………………………………………. 6-11
1.5.3 Comparison and Evaluation of Staple Diagram and
Fibrogram …………………………………………………………….. 6-13
1.5.4 Staple Length Conversion ………………………………………. 6-17
1.6 Fibre Fineness Testing ……………………………………………….. 6-17
1.6.1 Micronaire Testing Procedure …………………………………. 6-18
1.6.2 Calculation of Average Fibre Fineness ……………………… 6-19
1.7 Fibre Maturity Testing ………………………………………………. 6-20
1.7.1 Microscopic Array Method …………………………………….. 6-20
1.7.2 Differential Dyeing ……………………………………………….. 6-21
1.7.3 Caustic Method …………………………………………………….. 6-21
1.8 Fibre Strength Testing ……………………………………………….. 6-22
1.8.1 Pressley Fibre Strength Tester …………………………………. 6-22
1.8.2 Stelometer ……………………………………………………………. 6-24
1.8.3 Pressley Index and Fibre Strength (lb/in2) Conversion
Table ……………………………………………………………………. 6-25
1.9 Fibre Dust and Trash …………………………………………………. 6-26
1.9.1 Definition of Dust and Trash …………………………………… 6-26
1.9.2 Trash And Dust Measurement By Using Shirley
Analyzer ………………………………………………………………. 6-27
1.10 Fibre Identification ……………………………………………………. 6-29
1.11 Typical Fibre Testing Equipment ……………………………….. 6-34
1.11.1 High Volume Instrument (HVI) ………………………………. 6-34
1.11.2 Advanced Fibre Information System (Uster AFIS) ……. 6-38
1.11.3 MicroDust and Trash Analyser (Uster MDTA 3) ……….. 6-40
1.11.4 Comparison Between Uster® MDTA 3 and
Uster®AFIS-T ……………………………………………………….. 6-41
1.11.5 Recommendations for Fields of Application ……………… 6-43
1.11.6 Statistics on Raw Cotton Fibre Properties Determined
with Uster HVI ……………………………………………………… 6-44
Section 2 Yarn Testing ……………………………………………………… 6-49
2.1 Yarn Conditioning …………………………………………………….. 6-49
2.1.1 Basis of Unscoured Yarn ………………………………………… 6-49
2.1.2 Basis of Scoured Yarn ……………………………………………. 6-49
2.1.3 Preconditioning …………………………………………………….. 6-49
2.1.4 Conditioning …………………………………………………………. 6-50
2.1.5 Oven-Drying ………………………………………………………… 6-50
2.2 Yarn Numbering Systems …………………………………………… 6-50
2.2.1 Direct and Indirect Systems ……………………………………. 6-50
2.2.2 Conversion Between Yarn Numbering Systems ………… 6-52
2.2.3 Yarn Diameter ………………………………………………………. 6-52
2.3 Testing Plan ………………………………………………………………. 6-52
2.4 Yarn Count Testing ……………………………………………………. 6-61
2.4.1 Instruments …………………………………………………………… 6-61
2.4.2 Sampling ……………………………………………………………… 6-61
2.4.3 Testing Procedure ………………………………………………….. 6-61
2.5 Lea Yarn Strength ……………………………………………………… 6-62
2.5.1 Lea Yarn Strength Testing ………………………………………. 6-62
2.5.2 Yarn Strength Conversion ………………………………………. 6-62
2.6 Yarn Twist Testing …………………………………………………….. 6-65
2.7 Yarn Appearance Characteristics ………………………………. 6-66
2.7.1 Count Variation …………………………………………………….. 6-66
2.7.2 Mass Variation ………………………………………………………. 6-66
2.7.3 Hairiness ………………………………………………………………. 6-67
2.7.4 Imperfections ………………………………………………………… 6-67
2.7.5 Testing of Yarn Appearance Characteristics (Uster® Yarn
Testing Series) ………………………………………………………. 6-67
2.8 Tensile Properties ………………………………………………………. 6-71
2.8.1 Uster Tensojet ……………………………………………………….. 6-72
2.9 Classimat Defects ………………………………………………………. 6-73
2.10 Yarn Quality Statistics of 100% Cotton Carded Ring
Spun Yarns ………………………………………………………………… 6-74
2.10.1 Yarn Quality …………………………………………………………. 6-74
2.10.3 CLASSIMAT Defects ……………………………………………. 6-77
2.10.2 Imperfections ………………………………………………………… 6-77
2.10.4 Tensile Properties ………………………………………………….. 6-78
2.10.5 HV Tensile Properties ……………………………………………. 6-81
2.11 Standard Tolerances for Yarn Spun on the Cotton
System ………………………………………………………………………. 6-85
2.11.1 Strength ……………………………………………………………….. 6-85
2.11.2 Yarn Number ………………………………………………………… 6-85
2.11.3 Twist ……………………………………………………………………. 6-85
2.11.4 Extractable Matter …………………………………………………. 6-85
2.11.5 Appearance …………………………………………………………… 6-85
2.11.6 Uniformity ……………………………………………………………. 6-86
2.12 New Developments in Testing …………………………………….. 6-86
2.12.1 Uster® Qualiprofile ………………………………………………… 6-86
2.12.2 Uster® Lab Expert …………………………………………………. 6-87
Section 3 Woven Fabric Inspection and Testing ……………….. 6-88
3.1 Woven Fabric Testing ………………………………………………… 6-88
3.1.1 Fabric Construction ……………………………………………….. 6-88
3.1.2 Durability, Aesthetics and Environmental Resistance … 6-91
3.1.3 Fabric Strength ……………………………………………………… 6-94
3.1.4 Relationship Between Strip Test & Grab Test ……………. 6-95
3.2 Woven Fabric Inspection System ……………………………….. 6-95
3.2.1 4 Point System ………………………………………………………. 6-95
3.2.2 10 Point System …………………………………………………….. 6-98
3.2.3 Graniteville “78” System of Visual Quality Evaluation
for Woven and Knitted Fabrics ……………………………….. 6-99
Section 4 Knitted Fabric Inspection and Testing ……………….. 6-101
4.1 Knitted Fabric Testing ……………………………………………….. 6-101
4.1.1 Fabric Construction ……………………………………………….. 6-101
4.1.2 Durability, Aesthetics and Environmental Resistance … 6-102
4.1.3 Fabric Strength Testing ………………………………………….. 6-102
4.2 Knitted Fabric Inspection Systems …………………………….. 16-02
4.2.1 The KTA System for Circular Knitted Fabrics …………… 6-102
4.2.2 The KTA System for Raschel Knitted Fabrics …………… 6-104
4.2.3 The KTA System for Tricot Fabrics …………………………. 6-107
Section 5 Fabric Quality and Performance ……………………….. 6-113
5.1 Quality Standard and Performance Tests for Apparel …. 6-113
5.1.2 Quality Guideline for Fabrics Containing Lycra®  6-116
5.2 US Standard for Flammability …………………………………… 6-120
5.2.1 Flammable Fabrics Act Standards – USA …………………. 6-120
5.2.2 Federal Test Method Standard 191 – Textile Test
Methods ……………………………………………………………….. 6-122
5.2.3 Miscellaneous Tests ……………………………………………….. 6-123
5.3 Woven Fabric Defect Description and Cause ………………. 6-124
5.4 Illustrations of Woven Fabric Faults ………………………….. 6-129
5.5 Knitted Fabric Defect Description and Cause …………….. 6-136
5.6 Illustrations of Knitted Fabric Faults …………………………. 6-140

 

This book is US$10. Order for this book:
(Request for sample page click on "Order Now" button)

Book Order
Or, Send email: textileebooks@gmail.com

Share this Book!

Leave a Comment