1 Ergonomics development 1
1.1 Definition of ergonomics
1.2 History of ergonomics 4
1.3 Standards 13
2 Divisions of ergonomics 17
2.1 Categories of ergonomics 17
2.2 Types of ergonomics 47
2.3 Micro-ergonomics and macro-ergonomics 51
3 Ergonomic conditions of work 61
3.1 Physiological conditions 61
3.2 Psycho-sociological conditions 66
3.3 Anthropometric conditions 84
3.4 Ecological conditions 100
4 Ergonomic principles 105
4.1 Ergonomic principles in designing workplace 105
4.2 Ergonomic principles in designing working processes 135
4.3 Ergonomic principles in determining working time 136
4.4 Ergonomic principles in handling material and tools 144
4.5 Ergonomic principles in designing environment 151
5 Ergonomic design of workplace in garment industry 175
5.1 Ergonomics in the storage of textile materials 175
5.2 Ergonomics workplaces in garment manufacture preparation 177
5.3 Ergonomics in cutting room 183
5.4 Ergonomics in sewing room 188
5.5 Ergonomics in finishing room 193
5.6 Ergonomics workplaces in garment warehouse and distribution 197
5.7 Ergonomics workplaces in the clothing store 199
5.8 Ergonomics maintenance workplaces 200
The crucial characteristic of the present time is rapid technological development, globalization of markets, enterprises that operate without regional and national boundaries, the diversity of views that must also be considered in making decisions, the individualization of business partners and the uncertainty and unpredictability of development, resulting in recent years in almost all areas in the changes that were not there before. New technologies and production processes are rapidly changing the familiar forms of work. Therefore, the work environment must be increasingly adapted to a man in order to perform a work task successfully without excessive fatigue.
When designing the work environment, it is necessary to align technology and technologicality of garment production, technique, ergonomics and work organization in order to obtain optimum work performance. Rational usage of working capacity of a man is a matter of not only being humane but also being economical. The value of ergonomics goes beyond health and safety. A good ergonomics strategy can add value to a company’s business strategy and ultimately contribute to the business goals of higher profits.
The goal of ergonomics is to improve human’s work activity. Ergonomics deals with the relationship between a man and his work, trying to fi nd a way of better adapting to a man. Since it has an interdisciplinary character, ergonomics approaches the work with complexity: psychologically, physiologically, economically, organizationally, and societally. Today, ergonomics is a discipline that is evolving in new directions, because it cannot ignore the fact that the human’s psychological and social constraints, needs and requirements may also be the limit when using an asset and that they should also be loaded while designing the technical means or the technical system.
Ergonomic disorders are the fastest growing category of all the occupational illnesses. They include 56% of all diseases. Ergonomic risk refers to the physical stress factors and workplace conditions that carry a risk of damage or muscle-bone disorders of the employees. The risk is always present when the job requirements exceed the ability of workers to perform the task. If the tasks or movements repeat frequently (e.g. every few seconds), the strain upon the muscles and tendons can accumulate, which can lead to permanent tissue damage. Tendons and muscles can often recover from the effects of repetitive stress if there is enough time to rest between these repetitions. Unfavorable working postures increase the fatigue of workers and the time of performing technology operations.
The primary task of the manager should be the optimization of work. This is achieved by reducing the difficulty of human activity, which consists of adapting the physical conditions of work to the psycho-physiological and biomorphological human properties, as well as finding a technological process that largely suits a man.
I would like to thank Professor Dr. Danijela Paunovic for her professional support, Professor Sladjana Milojevic for editing, Company NexGen Ergonomics Inc., Laguna Clothing Company, and Ramax Company.
Dr Gordana Colovic