Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and Practices, 6th Edition PDF by P Nick Blanchard and James W Thacker

By

Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and Practices, Sixth Edition

By P Nick Blanchard and James W Thacker

Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and Practices, Sixth Edition

Contents

Preface xv1

1 Training in Organizations 1

Overview of the Chapter 3

Training System and Processes 4

The ADDIE Model 7

Analysis Phase 8

Design Phase 8

Development Phase 8

Implementation Phase 9

Evaluation Phase 9

Alternative Training Process Models 9

So What to Use ADDIE or SAM 10

Important Concepts and Meanings 11

Learning 11

Training, Development, and Education 14

What Do We Call the People Delivering and Receiving the Training? 14

Key Issues For Training 15

Aligning Training with Business Strategy 15

Advances in Technology 16

Managing Talent due to Changing Demographics 16

Quality and Continuous Improvement 17

legal Issues 19

A Career In Training 21

Competencies 21

Career Jobs 22

Preparing for a Career in T&D 24

Focus on Small Business 24

Summary 25

Key Terms 26

Case Questions 27

Exercises 27

Web Research 28

Questions For Review 28

2 Aligning Training with Strategy 31

Overview of the Chapter 34

Strategic Planning 35

Organizational Mission 36

Strategic Choices 36

Internal Alignment with Strategy 38

Aligning HR with Strategy 40

Aligning HRD with Strategy 42

Factors of Concern to Organizations 44

Globalization 45

Technology 45

The Internet 45

labor Market 45

Increase in Diversity 46

Putting It All Together 46

Change Management 46

CM and Strategy 47

levels of Change and Resistance 48

Training and CM 51

Putting It All Together 53

HRDs Relationship with Other HR Functions 54

Developing an HRD Strategy 54

Focus on Small Business 58

Summary 60

Key Terms 61

Case Questions 61

Exercises 62

Web Research 62

Questions For Review 63

3 Learning, Motivation, and Performance 67

A Few Words About Theory 69

Understanding Motivation and Performance 71

Motivation: Why Do They Act like That? 72

Self-efficacy and Motivation 79

Understanding Learning 80

What is learning? 80

Social Learning Theory 83

Motivation 83

Attention 84

Retention 84

Behavioral Reproduction 85

Aligning Training Design With Learning Process 85

Motivation to Learn 86

Environmental Factors and Resistance 89

Individual Factors and Resistance 90

Training That Motivates Adults to Learn 94

Adult Learning Theory 94

Training Relevance, Value, and Readiness to Learn 94

Involving Trainees in the Process 95

Summary 97

Key Terms 97

Case Analysis 98

Case Questions 100

Exercises 101

Web Research 102

Questions For Review 103

4 Needs Analysis 107

Why Conduct A Training Needs Analysis? 108

A Few Words About Fabrics Inc. 110

When to Conduct A TNA 110

The TNA Model 111

Where to Look for the Trigger (PG) 113

How to Conduct a TNA 115

Organizational Analysis 115

Operational Analysis 119

Person Analysis 134

Gathering Data for the TNA: Final Thoughts 143

Rapid Needs Analysis 143

Output of TNA 144

Non-training Needs 144

Training Needs 147

Approaches to TNA 147

Proactive TNA 147

Reactive TNA 149

Reactive versus Proactive 149

Focus on Small Business 150

Assistance for Small Business 151

TNA and Design 152

TNA and Evaluation 152

Reminder 153

Summary 154

The Training Program (Fabrics, Inc.) 155

Key Terms 161

Case Analysis 161

Case Questions 162

Exercises 162

Web Research 162

Questions for Review 162

5 Training Design 171

Overview of the Chapter 172

A Word About Fabrics Inc. 173

Organizational Constraints 174

Organizational Priorities 174

Budgeting for Training 175

Trainee Population 179

Developing Objectives 180

Creating Objectives 180

Writing a Good Learning Objective 181

Why Use Train ing Objectives? 185

The Trainee 186

The Training Designer 187

The Trainer 187

The Evaluator 187

Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee 188

Individual Differences in KSAs 188

Increased Diversity 188

Differences in Learning Styles 189

What’s a Trainer To Do? 191

Motivation of Trainee 193

Facilitation of Learning: Focus on Training Design 198

Social Learning Theory 198

Design Theory 202

Strategic Knowledge 209

Experiential Learning: A Key Design Component 211

Facilitation of Transfer: Focus on Training 213

Conditions of Practice 213

Other Considerations to Facilitate Transfer 216

Facilitation of Transfer: Focus on Organizational Intervention 219

Supervisor Support 219

Peer Support 219

Trainer Support 220

Reward Systems 220

Evaluation of Behavior and Results 220

Climate and Culture 220

Focus on Small Business 221

Outcomes of Design 223

Evaluation 223

Identification of Alternative Methods of Instruction 224

Reminder 224

Summary 225

The Training Design (Fabrics, Inc.) 226

Key Terms 229

Exercises 229

Web Research 230

Questions For Review 231

6 Traditional Training Methods 235

Overview of the Chapter 236

Lectures and Demonstrations 237

Straight lecture /lecturette 237

Lecture/Discussion Method 239

Den1onstrations 240

Strengths and Limitations of lectures and Demonstration 241

Training Group Characteristic 245

Games and Simulations 246

Equipment Simulators 246

Business Games 248

In-Basket Technique 250

Case Studies 252

Role-Play 253

Behavior Modeling 256

Strengths and l imitations of Games and Simulations 257

Exercises and Activities 261

Putting It All Together 262

Blended Learning 264

On-The-Job Training 264

Job Instruction Technique (JIT) 265

Focus on Small Business 268

Apprenticeship Training 269

Coaching 269

Mentoring 273

Strengths and Limitations of OJT 275

Matching Methods with Outcomes 276

Informal Learning 277

Audiovisual Enhancements to Training 280

Static Media 280

Dynamic AV Methods 282

Strengths and Limitations of AVs 284

Summary 289

Key Termss 289

Case Analysis 290

Case Questions 292

Exercises 292

Web Research 292

Questions for Review 293

7 Electronic Training Methods 297

Overview of the Chapter 298

Electronic Training Program Sophistication Levels 299

Progran1med Instruction 301

Interactive Multimedia 303

Intelligent Tutoring Systems 307

Virtual Reality and Augn1ented Reality 309

Learning Management Systems 311

E-Training Delivery Systems 312

Offline Delivery 312

Online and Web-Based Delivery 313

Delivery Through Social Media and Other Sources 314

E-Training Process 314

Needs Analysis 314

Use Learning  Design Principles 315

Provide Individualized Attention 316

Match Delivery Method to Purpose of Training 316

Keep Focus on the Learning, Not the Process 317

Strengths and Limitations of E-Training 317

Costs 317

Control of Material and Process 321

Learning Objectives (KSAs) 322

Learning Process 322

Training Group Characteristics 323

Blended Training 324

Summary 325

Key Terms 325

Case Analysis 326

Case Question 326

Exercises 326

Web Research 327

Questions For Review 327

8 Developments, Implementation, and Transfer of Training 331

Overview of the Chapter 332

A Word About Fabrics, Inc. 333

Development of Training 333

Choosing Instructional Methods 333

Instructional Strategy 334

Training Modules: Objectives and Learning Points 335

Materials and Equipment 338

Trainee’s Manual 338

Trainer’s Manual 339

Facilities 339

Refreshments 342

The Trainer 342

Trainer Competencies 343

Using Outside Resources 345

Overview of the Implementation of Training 348

Implementation Ideas for Training Structure 349

Icebreaker 349

Provide Variety 350

Exercises or Games 350

Experiential Learning Model 351

Implementation Ideas for Trainers 352

Preparation 352

First In1pression 354

The Start of Training 355

Tips on Dealing with Different Participant Personalities 359

Dry Run 360

Pilot Program 361

Transfer of Training 362

Reminder 364

Summary 366

Fabrics, Inc., Development Phase 366

Key Terms 371

Case Analysis 371

Case Questions 371

Exercises 372

Web Research 372

Questions For Review 372

9 Evaluation of Training 375

Overview of the Chapter 377

A Word About Fabrics Inc. 377

Rationale for Evaluation 378

Resistance to Training Evaluation 378

There Is Nothing to Evaluate 378

No One Really Cares About Evaluating Training 379

Evaluation Is a Threat to My Job 379

So We Must Evaluate 380

Types of Evaluation Data Collected 381

Process Evaluation 381

Outcon1e Evaluation 384

Evaluating the Costs and Benefits of Training 394

When and What Type of Evaluation to Use 399

Focus on Small Business 401

Evaluation Beyond Learning 402

Reminder 403

Summary 404

The Training Progra1n (Fabrics, Inc.) 404

Key Terms 412

Case Analysis 412

Case Questions 413

Exercises 413

Web Research 413

Websites of Interest 414

Questions For Review 414

10 Employee and Management Development 429

Employee Development 430

Development in the Current Job 431

Job Rotation 433

Special Assignments 434

Employee Development: Whose Responsibility Is It? 436

Management Development 438

Managers Get a Lot of Training 439

Managers Are Accountable for Success 439

Managers Have Complex Jobs 439

Our Approach to Management Development 440

General Overview of the Managerial Job 440

Managerial Roles 441

Organizational Factors 442

Integrating Strategy, Structure, and Technology 442

General Characteristics of Managers 443

Management Styles 443

Categories of Managen1ent Characteristics 443

Integrating Managerial  Roles and Characteristics 445

Roles, KSAs, and Management Level 446

Integration: Strategies and Management Characteristics 447

Technical Con1petence and Context 447

Interpersonal Competence and Context 448

Conceptual Con1petence and Context 448

Personal Traits and Context 448

Management Style and Context 448

Management Development Implications 450

An Understanding of Context 450

Self-Awareness and Diagnostic Skills 450

Managerial Person Analysis 451

Sources of Knowledge/Skill Acquisition 453

Externally Based Training 453

Corporate Universities 454

Types of Management Developn1ent Programs 456

Training for Executive-Level Management 457

Skills, Traits, and Leadership Style 458

Strategies for Development of Executives and Future Executives 458

Succession Planning 462

Focus on Small Business 465

Summary 466

Key Terms  467

Case Analysis 467

Case Questions 467

Exercises 468

Web Research 469

Questions For Review 469

11 Key Areas and the Future of Organizational Training 473

Overview of the Chapter 475

Orientation (Onboarding) 476

Why It is Important 476

What Organizations are Doing 477

Using the Training Model to Develop Orientation Training 480

Diversity Training 491

Why It Is Important 491

What Organizations are Doing 493

Sexual Harassment Training 494

Why It Is Important 495

What Organizations are Doing 495

Team Training 498

Why It Is Important 498

What Organizations are Doing 499

Cross-Cultural Training 500

Why It Is Important 501

What Organizations are Doing 503

Other Training Programs and Issues 504

Training and Equity 504

Basic Skills Training 507

Safety Training 508

Training Workers fron1 Different Cultures 509

The Future of Training and Development 510

Use of Technology 510

The Role of the Training Professional 512

Lifelong Learning 513

Summary 513

Key Terms 514

Case Analysis 514

Case Questions 515

Exercises 515

Web Research 516

Questions For Review 516

Glossary 521

Index 533

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