About the author xi
1 Technology 1
1.1 Technology 1
1.2 Cycle technologies 2
1.3 Technology and organization 3
1.4 Technology and production 4
2 Technological system 8
2.1 Technological system 8
2.2 Technological systems, processes and operations 9
2.3 Technological analysis of manufacturing operations 11
2.3.1 Technological analysis of operations for making men’s shirts from denim 14
2.3.2 Technological analysis of operations for making women’s shirts 22
2.3.3 Technological analysis of operations for making women’s denim jacket 26
2.3.4 Technological analysis of operations for making women’s trousers 32
2.3.5 Technological analysis of operations for making sweat 38
3 Determining time of technological operations in clothing production 43
3.1 Methods for determining the time of technological operations in the production of clothing 43
3.2 Determining the production time 49
3.3 MTM method 60
3.4 Method of relationship between the speed of forming stitches and time 66
3.5 Method with calculated time of pressing pedals 68
3.6 Other methods 69
4 Ergonomic workplace 80
4.1 Ergonomic workplace 80
4.2 Division of ergonomics 84
4.2.1 Conceptual ergonomics 84
4.2.2 System ergonomics 84
4.2.3 Corrective ergonomics 85
4.2.4 Software ergonomics 85
4.2.5 Hardware ergonomics 87
4.3 Ergonomic conditions 87
4.4 Movement analysis 91
4.5 Ergonomic design of workplace in garment industry 95
5 Analyze of the planning, layout and logistics in garment manufacturing 106
5.1 Analyze of the planning, layout and logistics in garment manufacturing 106
5.2 Application of computers in preparing for the production of clothing 110
5.3 Risk Analysis 118
5.4 Optimization of planning 124
5.5 Layout optimization 140
5.6 Logistics in garment industry 147
6 Production management 153
6.1 Production management 153
6.2 Flexible manufacturing systems 155
6.3 New methods, tools and techniques of garment production organization 158
6.3.1 Toyota production systems 163
220.127.116.11 Kanban 164
18.104.22.168 PPORF or 20 keys 165
6.3.2 Total quality management 168
6.3.3 Lean production 182
22.214.171.124 Techniques and tools of lean production 184
126.96.36.199 Case study 187
Development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICM) increasingly allows the sale and purchase of various fashion products all over the world, causing shortening the life cycle of products and reducing time of introducing products to the market. On the other hand, there comes the global competition and one can survive on the market only if all unnecessary costs are reduced, the range of production is expanded, and consumers are considered individually, not as statistical average sizes. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust production to market demands, i.e. to set a flexible production model that is capable of quick and easy adjusting to modern requirements.
Rapid technological changes and customer expectations demand from manufacturers to improve their quality of fashion products constantly and thus survive in the market. The process of making clothes is very complex and the application of the latest technological achievements is not enough for producing high-quality clothes.
Due to frequent changes in fashion trends, overcrowded markets, low purchasing power, as well as changes in habits and tastes of consumers, we are faced with a permanent decline in product sales. Changes in the world market require creating and maintaining development policy to be based on identified customer needs. Preconditions of development of workable strategies of corporate fashion industry are primarily the assessment of market potential, its own strengths and weaknesses. It is necessary to explore and explain all phenomena and laws of modern production-market-environment, in order to obtain information indicating what products to produce so that the market would accept them, and that a design as a creative discipline can create optimum products with very different characteristics.
Organization of the technological process of making clothes is different for different garments, because each item is different and requires a different organization of technological processes. Therefore, it is necessary to find the most economical ways of work and time required to perform work operations.
Production of clothing does not bring results if it does not tend to the necessity for improvements, which will lead to the growth of productivity, rational usage of productive resources and reduction of costs. It is necessary to see the growing need to change management, capacity and planning. Thisimplies the implementation of new solutions in manufacturing, information systems, management techniques, design, etc. For successful survival in the market, it is necessary to establish control over other stages of the production cycle such as procurement, sales, promotional activities, logistics, pricing the final product, etc.
Optimization of production within the global logistic chain in the 21 century is all about the problem of determining the optimal production quantity in time, provided that the costs of purchase, costs of production, costs of storage of finished products, transportation costs and demand costs are minimal. Activities of the logistic chain begin by customer specification, and end when a satisfied buyer pays for the clothing supplied. Modern logistic chains are dynamic and flexible networks, which operate on the principle of “predict and do” versus the traditional approach of “produce and sell.” Fast response to changes in demand requires solutions in all phases of the logistic chain: production, procurement, warehousing, transportation and distribution.
The world trend is to be the best, not just successful. Being competitive is not a question of success but it is the question of survival, and production business systems must be flexible, innovative and constantly improving. If the production is viewed as a chain of values that include activities which bring or do not bring the value to the product, the goal of modern production is to reduce the activities that do not bring value.
This book is the author’s attempt to show, apart from introducing classical technology of production of clothing, the importance and need for improving the organization and methods of work, ways of thinking and finding new fashion markets. It is intended primarily for students ofi textile technology, engineers in garment industry, as well as top managers and production managers in garment industry. I would like to thank Professor Dr Danijela Paunovic for her professional support, and Professor Sladjana Milojevic for editing.
-Dr Gordana Colovic