Textiles in Automotive Engineering | Mike Hardcastle and Walter Fung


Textiles in Automotive Engineering
by Mike Hardcastle and Walter Fung

Textiles in Automotive Engineering


Preface x
Acknowledgements xiii
1 Introductory survey 1
1.1 General survey 1
1.2 Material survey – fibres 8
1.3 Material survey – plastics 15
1.4 Material survey – natural and synthetic rubbers 18
1.5 Requirements from suppliers 19
1.6 References 22
1.7 Further reading 22

2 Interior design 24
2.1 Interior design 24
2.2 Further reading 42
3 Fabric structures and production methods 44
3.1 Introduction, fibres and yarn types 44
3.2 Fabric structures – wovens 54
3.3 Fabric structures – warp knitted 76
3.4 Fabric structures – weft knitted 86
3.5 Fabric structures – flat-bed knitting 94
3.6 Fabric structures – non-wovens 95
3.7 References 106
3.8 Further reading 106 

4 Yarn and fabric processing 110
4.1 Introduction 110
4.2 Dyeing and finishing 112
4.3 Printing 126
4.4 Coating and lamination 137
4.5 References 155
4.6 Further reading 156 

5 Quality assurance and testing 158
5.1 Quality assurance 158
5.2 Test method details 166
5.3 References 190
5.4 Further reading 192 

6 Product engineering – interior trim 194
6.1 Introduction 194
6.2 Seats 195
6.3 Headliners 212
6.4 Door casings 215
6.5 Parcel shelves 218
6.6 Other interior trim 219
6.7 Complete modular interiors 221
6.8 References 222
6.9 Further reading 226 

7 Other textile applications 227
7.1 Introduction 227
7.2 Seat belts 228
7.3 Airbags 231
7.4 Carpets 234
7.5 Cabin air filters 238
7.6 Battery separators 241
7.7 Bonnet (hood) liners 242
7.8 Wheel arch liners 243
7.9 Hood material for convertibles 243
7.10 Tyres 244
7.11 Hoses and belts – general considerations 247
7.12 References 249
7.13 Further reading 252 

8 Automotive textiles and the environment 254
8.1 Introduction 254
8.2 The greenhouse effect and global warming 255
8.3 Environmental legislation 257
8.4 The effects of pollutants 263
8.5 Manufacturing concerns 265
8.6 Sustainable development 269
8.7 References 275
8.8 Further reading 279 

9 Textiles in other forms of transportation 281
9.1 Introduction 281
9.2 Composite materials 282
9.3 Flame retardancy 289
9.4 Fabric coating 292
9.5 Textiles in other road vehicles 302
9.6 Railway applications 306
9.7 Marine applications 308
9.8 Textiles in aircraft 311
9.9 References 319
9.10 Further reading 322

10 Future development and outlook 324
10.1 General survey 324
10.2 Manufacturing 326
10.3 Fabric performance 327
10.4 New developments and opportunities 328
10.5 Environmental issues 329
10.6 Visions of the future – fabric design aspects 331
10.7 Further visions of the future 332
10.8 References 334
10.9 Further reading 334

11 Sources of further information 336
11.1 Conferences 337
11.2 Journals 339
11.3 Technical and professional organizations and institutions 343
11.4 Market information on automotive industry 347
11.5 General textile reference 348
11.6 Glossary of terms and abbreviations 348
11.7 Abbreviations used in references at end of chapters 354
Index 355

In preparing this textbook, it has been the authors’ objective to provide a work of reference and instruction to all those involved with textiles in the automotive industry. Textiles are present in many forms in the automobile ranging from the seats to battery separators, from headliners to bonnet liners. The automotive textile industry requires knowledge of several disciplines, textile chemistry, fabric technology, plastics’ science, production engineering and interior fabric design. The latter, which has become more important in recent years, combines artistic talent with textile technology. Some information is available in specialist trade journals but there is shortage of literature and especially textbooks dealing with the subject as a whole. This book is intended to plug that gap and cuts across all the disciplines involved.

The book is written in a concise, simple style which it is hoped can be understood by anyone with only a basic scientific background knowledge. The scientific principles are explained to help readers understand why processes are done in such a way, and it is also hoped this will assist with problem solving. Because of the practical nature of the industry, all technical, design and manufacturing personnel are frequently referred to as ‘engineers’. It is hoped that this book, while containing some scientific theory and some history to make it more readable, will be of practical help to all automobile engineers who deal with components containing a textile and also to interior trim designers.

Today the technical requirements of performance and durability of interior trim fabrics, often seem to override all other considerations such as colour design and texture. However it must not be forgotten that the original driving force for the widespread use of textile fabrics and structures in car interiors during the early 1970s was to expand the design and colour potential of the car interior, which aesthetically had become fairly dull and uninspiring. An attractive interior trim is now regarded as a major aid to sales and model differentiation. The different textile production methods of weaving, knitting and printing all come with their own particular advantages and features, but also with limitations regarding the design and colouration achievable. The importance of all of these aspects, which concern both the fabric supplier and the car manufacturer, is fully explored in this book.

In the face of very severe competition, the automotive industry worldwide is undergoing intensive and wide-ranging restructuring. At present cost is the major driving force in development as a whole. New processes are being introduced to make components more quickly and more economically. Frequently they involve processes and conditions, usually applied to more heat-resistant plastics, which are adapted to process textiles which are less heat resistant and have delicate surfaces and texture. Examples are the newer moulding processes now being used for door casings, seats, and other interior trim. Sometimes the operatives and even supervisors involved have no comprehension of what conditions the textile will withstand in terms of temperature and pressure.The result is many rejects which can be detrimental to the factory involved and to the industry as a whole.This book should help by explaining the physical limitations and other properties of the textile.

Car makers, known as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are becoming assemblers of outsourced components or modules made by their direct suppliers, the so called Tier-1 companies. When Henry Ford invented the production line his warehouse always carried 4 months of spares so that the production line never stopped. Today, the efficient OEM has virtually no warehouse but relies on just-in-time (JIT) deliveries of components. This necessitates the Tier-1 suppliers’ production to be always right up to schedule. In turn the production schedules of the suppliers to the Tier-1s must also be on time. Severe financial penalties may be imposed by the OEMs, if production lines are held up. This situation demands that any production problem must be quickly identified and put right.

Frequently the past history of the textile has contributed to a particular fault and it is very important that the quality engineer is familiar with the previous process, which the textile has already undergone, to solve that problem – and better still to prevent it happening again. In addition, the quality engineer should be fully aware of the process conditions his own customer will subject the material to, so that he can be sure that his own process is not likely to cause problems further down the production chain or for the ultimate customer, the car purchaser.This book should be invaluable to the quality engineer in these activities to improve quality and efficiency and hence profitability.

The book should also be of use in universities and colleges for both students and research workers, who now have all the relevant information in one textbook, together with numerous literature references, references to test methods and a glossary of unfamiliar terms and abbreviations. A detailed list of technical and professional organizations, journals and recommended conferences are also presented for keeping up to date.

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