High Performance Textiles and Their Applications by Carl A. Lawrence

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High Performance Textiles and Their Applications
Edited by Carl A. Lawrence
High Performance Textiles and Their Applications

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiii
1 Modelling structure–property relationships in advanced textile materials 1
S. Grishanov, University of Leeds, UK
1.1 Introduction to textile modelling 1
1.2 Approaches to modelling geometry, structure, properties and processes 4
1.3 Experimental models 6
1.4 Modelling the geometry of fibre, yarn and fabric 19
1.5 Modelling the structure of textiles 27
1.6 Modelling the mechanical properties of textiles 35
1.7 Modelling the physical properties of textiles 40
1.8 Modelling textile processes: continuous models 43
1.9 Modelling textile processes: discrete models 51
1.10 Optimization of performance characteristics: linear and non-linear methods 55
1.11 Sources of further information and advice 59
1.12 References 60
2 Novel surface treatments for high performance textiles 70
H. M. El-Dessouky, University of Leeds, UK and Mansoura
University, Egypt
2.1 Introduction 70
2.2 Plasma technologies for textiles 70
2.3 Plasma treatments for high performance textiles 73
2.4 Laser technologies for textiles 80
2.5 Comparing plasma and laser treatments of textile surfaces 86
2.6 Conclusions 88
2.7 References 89
3 High performance textiles for protective clothing 91
N. Mao, University of Leeds, UK
3.1 Introduction 91
3.2 Requirements for protective clothing 94
3.3 High performance textile fi bres 96
3.4 Conventional and high performance fi bre blends for protective clothing 102
3.5 Cut resistant and energy absorption materials 105
3.6 Clothing for fi refi ghters 108
3.7 Chemical protective clothing (CPC) 118
3.8 Materials to improve thermo-physiological comfort
of protective clothing 125
3.9 References 132
4 High performance textiles for heat and fi re protection 144
A. R. Horrocks, University of Bolton, UK
4.1 Introduction 144
4.2 Principles of textile heat and fi re protection 147
4.3 Routes to achieving fi re and heat protection 151
4.4 Evolving technologies and future trends for heat and fi re protection 161
4.5 Applications of heat protective textiles 164
4.6 Sources of further information and advice 172
4.7 References 173
5 High performance medical textiles: an overview 176
M. Miraftab, University of Bolton, UK
5.1 Introduction 176
5.2 Textiles for hygiene and infection control 177
5.3 High performance implantable textiles 179
5.4 Textiles for tissue engineering applications 184
5.5 Textiles for healthcare monitoring 185
5.6 Future trends 186
5.7 References 187
6 High performance textiles for wound care 190
S. Rajendran and S. C. Anand, University of Bolton, UK
6.1 Introduction 190
6.2 Wounds and wound management 191
6.3 Wound dressings 194
6.4 Hi-tech wound dressings: non-adherent, odour adsorbent,
activated charcoal cloth (ACC), and antimicrobial dressings 197
6.5 Treatment of venous leg ulcers 204
6.6 Venous leg ulcer treatment using compression bandages 207
6.7 Improving compression bandages: non-woven vari-stretch compression bandages (NVCB) and three-dimensional compression bandages 212
6.8 Conclusions 218
6.9 References 219
7 High performance textiles for industrial fi ltration 223
E. Hardman, formerly of Madison Filter UK (now Clear
Edge Filtration UK), UK
7.1 Introduction 223
7.2 Dust collection 224
7.3 Fibre selection for dust collection 228
7.4 Fabric types for dust collection 232
7.5 Fabric fi nishing techniques 236
7.6 Solid–liquid fi ltration 240
7.7 Filtration equipment 242
7.8 Fabric selection for solid–liquid fi ltration 244
7.9 Fabric constructions and yarn types for solid–liquid filtration 248
7.10 Fabric fi nishing techniques 249
7.11 Future trends 251
7.12 Sources of further information and advice 253
7.13 References 254
8 High performance textiles for geotechnical engineering: geotextiles and related materials 256
C. A. Lawrence, University of Leeds, UK
8.1 Introduction 256
8.2 Classifi cation of geosynthetics 258
8.3 Functions of geosynthetics: fi ltration 258
8.4 Functions of geosynthetics: drainage 263
8.5 Functions of geosynthetics: separation 266
8.6 Functions of geosynthetics: reinforcement 271
8.7 Functions of geosynthetics: containment (fl uid barrier) and protection 274
8.8 Index and performance testing of geotextiles 277
8.9 Geotextile materials: polymers and fi bres 278
8.10 Geotextile materials: non-woven geotextiles 281
8.11 Geotextile materials: woven and warp knitted 292
8.12 Geogrids, geonets and geomembranes 301
8.13 Geocomposites 305
8.14 Factors affecting the separation and fi ltration mechanism of geotextiles 307
8.15 Factors affecting the drainage mechanism of geotextiles 312
8.16 Factors affecting the protection mechanism of geotextiles 314
8.17 Factors affecting the reinforcement mechanism of geotextiles 315
8.18 Applications: road construction 320
8.19 Applications: rail track construction 324
8.20 Applications: tunnel construction 326
8.21 Applications: reinforced soil structures 329
8.22 Applications: fl uid containment systems 330
8.23 Applications: erosion control 334
8.24 Future trends 339
8.25 References 342
9 High performance fi bers and fabrics for civil engineering applications 351
Y. Gowayed, Auburn University, USA
9.1 Introduction 351
9.2 Fibers 353
9.3 Fabrics 358
9.4 Composites 362
9.5 Future trends 363
9.6 Sources of further information and advice 364
9.7 References 364
10 High performance fi bre-reinforced composites for sustainable energy applications 366
L. C. Hollaway, formerly of the University of Surrey, UK
10.1 Introduction: current use of composite materials in sustainable energy technology 366
10.2 The use of nanoparticles in composites 369
10.3 In-service requirements of advanced fi bre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for sustainable energy applications 373
10.4 Manufacture of FRP composite materials for sustainable energy technologies 377
10.5 Composite materials/fabrication techniques for on-shore and off-shore wind turbines 381
10.6 Composite materials/fabrication techniques for tidal energy power generators 388
10.7 Composite materials/fabrication techniques for solar energy applications 394
10.8 Conclusions and future trends 404
10.9 Sources of further information and advice 408
10.10 Acknowledgements 409
10.11 References 410
10.12 Appendix: solar power 415
Index 419

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