Regenerated Cellulose Fibres Edited by Calvin Woodings

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Regenerated Cellulose Fibres
Edited by Calvin Woodings
Regenerated Cellulose Fibres

Contents
Preface ix
Contributors xi
1 A brief history of regenerated cellulosic fibres 1
calvin woodings
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Cellulose nitrate 2
1.3 Direct dissolution in cuprammonium hydroxide: cupro 4
1.4 Dissolution via cellulose xanthate: viscose 5
1.5 Direct dissolution in amine oxide: lyocell 14
1.6 Other routes 19
References 20
2 Industrial cellulose 22
bruno lönnberg
2.1 Wood fibre sources 22
2.2 Pulping methods 22
2.3 Dissolving pulp processes 24
2.4 Environmental assessment 28
2.5 Dissolving pulp production 31
2.6 Future of dissolving pulp processes and pulps 32
References 34
3 The viscose process 37
andrew g wilkes
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Viscose making 39
3.3 Spinning 50
3.4 Chemical recovery and environmental control 57
4 Lyocell: the production process and market development 62
patrick white mbe
4.1 Overview 62
4.2 Amine oxide technology – timeline 63
4.3 Process description 65
4.4 Lyocell conversion 72
4.5 Dyeing and finishing of lyocell 76
4.6 Lyocell marketing 86
5 Cuprammonium processes 88
kenji kamide and kazunari nishiyama
5.1 Short history 88
5.2 Science and technology of manufacturing processes 107
5.3 Morphology and properties 140
5.4 Products and application 144
5.5 Conclusion and future prospects: does the cuprammonium rayon industry have a future? 148
References 150
6 Fibres related to cellulose 156
john w s hearle and calvin woodings
6.1 Cellulose acetate 156
6.2 Alginate fibres 168
6.3 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose fibres 171
References 172
7 Other processes 174
albin turbak
7.1 Historical review 174
7.2 Thermodynamic requirements for dissolution 175
7.3 Cellulose solvent systems 176
7.4 Unstable cellulose derivatives 178
7.5 Cellulose as an acid or a base 190
References 196
8 Physical structure and fibre properties 199
john w s hearle
8.1 Introduction 199
8.2 Fibre forms 201
8.3 Fine structure 202
8.4 Physical properties 208
References 232
9 Applications development 235 calvin woodings
9.1 Artificial silk 235
9.2 Artificial cotton 237
9.3 From speciality to commodity 241
9.4 Industrial yarns 242
9.5 Modified staple fibres 246
9.6 Nonwoven applications 257
References 272
10 Current and future market trends 273 tim f n johnson
10.1 Introduction 273
10.2 The broad picture 274
10.3 Breakdown by fibre type 277
10.4 Breakdown by main area 278
10.5 Capacity and production trends, 1980–2010 282
10.6 Trends in markets by end-use 283
Appendix A Lyocell end-use development datasheets 290
Appendix B Archive photographs of regenerated cellulosic fibre processes 318
Index 331

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