Clothing Appearance and Fit: Science and Technology | J. Fan, W. Yu and L. Hunter

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Clothing Appearance and Fit: Science and Technology
J. Fan, W. Yu and L. Hunter
Clothing Appearance and Fit: Science and Technology

Contents
List of figures ix
List of tables xv
Preface xvii
Acknowledgements xix
1 Perception of body appearance and its relation to clothing 1
J FAN
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Beauty 1
1.3 Facial attractiveness 3
1.4 Body physical attractiveness 4
1.5 Body image 8
1.6 Modification of body appearance by dressing 9
1.7 References 13
2 Subjective assessment of clothing appearance 15
J FAN
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Assessment of fabric surface smoothness 15
2.3 Assessment of seam appearance 20
2.4 Assessment of crease retention 24
2.5 Assessment of appearance retention of finished garments 25
2.6 Reliability of subjective assessment 27
2.7 References 29
3 Subjective assessment of clothing fit 31
W YU
3.1 Definition of fit 31
3.2 Influences on clothing fit 32
3.3 Testing methods for dimensional fit 33
3.4 Subject rating scales 37
3.5 Subjective fitting guide 38
3.6 Conclusions 41
3.7 References 41
4 Objective evaluation of clothing appearance 43
J F A N , L H U N T E R A N D F L I U
4.1 Introduction 43
4.2 Objective evaluation of fabric wrinkling 43
4.3 Objective evaluation of fabric pilling 54
4.4 Objective evaluation of seam pucker 60
4.5 Objective evaluation of overall garment appearance 66
4.6 References 68
5 Objective evaluation of clothing fit 72
W Y U
5.1 Introduction 72
5.2 Moire optics 72
5.3 Algebraic evaluation of clothing fit 78
5.4 Clothing waveform 80
5.5 Pressure evaluation of clothing fit 84
5.6 3D modelling of pressure fit 86
5.7 Conclusions 86
5.8 References 87
6 Fabric properties related to clothing appearance and fit 89
L H U N T E R A N D J F A N
6.1 Introduction 89
6.2 Reviews 92
6.3 Fabric objective measurement (FOM) 92
6.4 References 111
7 Garment drape 114
L H U N T E R A N D J F A N
7.1 Introduction 114
7.2 Reviews on drape 114
7.3 The measurement of fabric drape 115
7.4 Empirical prediction of static drape 117
7.5 Dynamic fabric drape 122
7.6 Seamed fabric drape 122
7.7 Modelling fabric and garment drape 123
7.8 Drape models in commercial CAD and Internet systems 125
7.9 Concluding remarks 130
7.10 References 131
8 3-D body scanning 135
W Y U
8.1 Introduction 135
8.2 Global development of body scanners 136
8.3 Principles and operations of body scanning technologies 145
8.4 Benchmarking 161
8.5 Challenges of 3D body scanning 164
8.6 Concluding remarks 166
8.7 References 167
9 Human anthropometrics and sizing systems 169
W Y U
9.1 Terms and definitions 169
9.2 Traditional anthropometry 171
9.3 Historical development of sizing system 174
9.4 Latest national size survey using 3-D body scanner 177
9.5 International sizing 182
9.6 Principles of sizing systems 184
9.7 Conclusion 190
9.8 References 193
10 Garment design for individual fit 196
M Y K W O N G
10.1 Introduction 196
10.2 Pattern alteration for fit 196
10.3 Prediction of garment patterns from body measurements 203
10.4 Three-dimensional (3-D) apparel design systems for pattern 207
generation and garment fit
10.5 Virtual fitting on the Internet 226
10.6 References 229
Index 234

Preface
Decoration, modesty and protection are the three most fundamental reasons for people to wear clothing. Two of these, decoration and modesty, are directly influenced by the appearance and fit of the clothing. The question which arises is how clothing should be designed, manufactured and dressed so as to provide not only good individual fit, but also body image enhancement. The subject is interdisciplinary, involving science of beauty, social psychology, human anthropometrics, fashion and textile design and technology. Most books related to the subject cover aspects, such as sociology (e.g. dressing for the right occasion) and dress-making, and there is a lack of a comprehensive treatment of the subject, particularly from the scientific and technological perspective.

This monograph is the first book aimed at providing a critical appreciation of technological developments and scientific understanding in areas related to clothing appearance and fit, bridging the science of beauty, fashion design, fabric and garment evaluation technology, garment drape, as well as human anthropometrics and sizing.

The book is divided into ten chapters, each dealing with a specific topic. Chapter 1 considers body attractiveness or image and how it relates to clothing material and design parameters. Both classical theories of beauty and recent findings on the interrelationship between body image, body measurements and clothing are discussed. Chapters 2 and 3 present and discuss the techniques, methods and standards used by the industry and researchers for assessing clothing appearance and fit. Chapters 4 and 5 review research and development on objective measurement technologies for the evaluation of clothing appearance and fit. Chapters 6 and 7 deal with fabric objective measurement, relevant fabric properties and garment drape. R&D and related aspects on body measurement, anthropometrics and sizing systems are covered in Chapters 8 and 9. The last chapter reviews published work on garment design and pattern alteration for achieving good clothing appearance and fit.

The book is intended for a wide spectrum of readers, including students, researchers and academics, as well as professionals in the clothing and textile industries. For easy comprehension, the text is supplemented by illustrations and photographs wherever possible. Although it is essentially a research monograph, it includes considerable industrial standards, techniques and practices. It is therefore not only useful for the academia, but also provides a handy reference for professionals in the industry.

Jintu Fan, Winnie Yu and Lawrance Hunter
Hong Kong


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