Colour Design: Theories and Applications Edited by Janet Best

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Colour Design: Theories and Applications
Edited by Janet Best
Colour Design: Theories and Applications

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvii 

Part I Colour and colour perception 1
1 What is colour? 3
A. R. Hanson, National Physical Laboratory, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Visible light 5
1.3 Organising colours 7
1.4 Conclusions 20
1.5 References 23
2 Variability in normal and defective colour vision: consequences for occupational environments 24
J. L. Barbur and M. Rodriguez-Carmona,
City University London, UK
2.1 Introduction 24
2.2 Vision information channels 25
2.3 The concept of the luminous effi ciency function 27
2.4 Photoreceptor contrasts and the CIE (x,y) chromaticity chart 31
2.5 Individual differences in colour vision 33
2.6 Methods of assessing colour vision loss 40
2.7 Anomaloscope variability in the parameters of the yellow match 46
2.8 Colour assessment and diagnostics (CAD) test 49
2.9 Colour in occupational environments 62
2.10 Colour in healthcare 70
2.11 Conclusions 76
2.12 Sources of further information and advice 77
2.13 Acknowledgements 77
2.14 References 77
3 Colour illusions and the human visual system 83
A. Rizzi and C. Bonanomi, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy
3.1 Introduction 83
3.2 Illusions in the context of the human visual system 84
3.3 From isolated colour to colour in context: some experiments 90
3.4 Examples of the different groups of colour illusions 95
3.5 Conclusions 103
3.6 References 103
4 Colour psychology: the emotional effects of colour perception 105
B. Mikellides, Oxford Brookes University, UK
4.1 Introduction 105
4.2 Colour preference: the longitudinal perspective 1970–2009 108
4.3 Colour and psycho-physiological arousal 112
4.4 Colour and subjective time estimation 122
4.5 Colour and the subjective feeling of warmth 123
4.6 Conclusions and further reading 125
4.7 Sources of further information and advice 126
4.8 References 126
5 Understanding colour perception and preference 129
A. Hurlbert and Y. Ling, Newcastle University, UK
5.1 Introduction 129
5.2 The origins and uses of colour vision 130
5.3 Colour preference in humans 134
5.4 Colour preference in animals 147
5.5 Physiological effects of background and illumination colours: ‘warm’ vs ‘cool’ colours 149
5.6 Conclusions 151
5.7 References 152
6 Predicting responses to colour 158
A. Wright, Colour Affects, UK
6.1 Introduction 158
6.2 A different approach 159
6.3 The Wright Theory 160
6.4 The process of colour specifying 172
6.5 Conclusions 173
6.6 Bibliography 173

Part II Measuring and describing colour 175
7 International standards for colour 177
T. M. Goodman, National Physical Laboratory, UK
7.1 Introduction 177
7.2 CIE standard colorimetric observers 182
7.3 CIE illuminants and sources 185
7.4 Standards for measuring refl ecting and transmitting materials 187
7.5 Expressing colour in terms of chromaticity coordinates 189
7.6 Other descriptors of chromaticity 195
7.7 Colour difference evaluation 199
7.8 Colour appearance 207
7.9 Calibration, traceability and measurement uncertainty 209
7.10 Future trends 215
7.11 Conclusions 216
7.12 Sources of further information and advice 216
7.13 References 217
8 Colour description and communication 219
J. S. Setchell, Jr, formerly of Pantone, Inc. (retired), USA
8.1 Introduction 219
8.2 Colour order systems 223
8.3 Named colour systems 225
8.4 Colour naming 229
8.5 Instrumental measurement of colour 230
8.6 Digital imaging systems 235
8.7 Colour constancy 242
8.8 Metamerism 243
8.9 Colour standards 243
8.10 Colour difference 244
8.11 Computation of colour co-ordinates 244
8.12 Derivation of the CIE 1931 standard observer 247
8.13 Future trends 249
8.14 Sources of further information and advice 250
8.15 References 252
9 Colour naming for colour communication 254
D. Mylonas and L. MacDonald, University College
London, UK
9.1 Introduction 254
9.2 Mapping the terrain 255
9.3 Previous colour naming studies 256
9.4 Conducting a colour naming experiment over the internet 259
9.5 An online colour naming model 264
9.6 Colour naming selection guidelines 267
9.7 Conclusions and future directions 267
9.8 Sources of further information 268
9.9 Acknowledgements 269
9.10 References 269
10 Colour specifi cation and visual approval methods for textiles 271
J. Best, Retail Colour Management Specialist (Consultant), UK
10.1 Introduction 271
10.2 Global colour supply chain 274
10.3 Colour communication 275
10.4 Colour specifi cation 280
10.5 Colour vision 285
10.6 Tools for colour assessment 287
10.7 Conclusions 293
10.8 Acknowledgement 294
10.9 Sources of further information 294
10.10 Bibliography 294
11 Colour management and approval methods in lithographic printing 295
S. Wilkinson, Hallmark, UK
11.1 Introduction 295
11.2 Case study: typical procedures of a commercial print company 299
11.3 International printing standards 302
11.4 Colour management in practice 303
11.5 Conclusions 304
11.6 Sources of further information 305

Part III Colour, design and coloration 307
12 The history of colour theory in art, design and science 309
R. M. Osborne, Micro Academy, UK
12.1 Introduction 309
12.2 The Reformation (c. 1520–c. 1550) 310
12.3 The Counter-Reformation (c. 1550–c. 1610) 313
12.4 Early Baroque (c. 1610–c. 1645) 315
12.5 Baroque Classicism (c. 1645–c. 1715) 316
12.6 High Baroque (c. 1715–c. 1770) 317
12.7 Neo-Classicism (c. 1770–c. 1815) 319
12.8 Romanticism (c. 1815–c. 1845) 321
12.9 Victorian Classicism (c. 1845–c. 1885) 323
12.10 Early Modernism (c. 1885–c. 1915) 326
12.11 Modern Classicism (c. 1915–c. 1955) 329
12.12 Late Modernism (c. 1955–c. 1985) 333
12.13 References 335
13 Enhancing design using color 336
J. Kopacz, Allegro Interior Architecture, USA
13.1 Introduction 336
13.2 Importance of context 337
13.3 Color infl uence 343
13.4 Color and depth perception 350
13.5 Applying color to a surface 356
13.6 Future trends 360
13.7 Sources of further information 363
13.8 References 364
14 Understanding and forecasting colour trends in design 365
M. Hidefi , Colour and Trends Consultant, Canada
14.1 Introduction 365
14.2 Colour trends 365
14.3 Colour trend research 370
14.4 The colour research process 373
14.5 Colour forecasting 376
14.6 Conclusions 379
14.7 References 379
15 Colour symmetry: the systematic coloration of patterns and tilings 381
B. G. Thomas, University of Leeds, UK
15.1 Introduction 381
15.2 Patterns and tilings: a historical perspective 384
15.3 Principles of pattern geometry 389
15.4 Colour symmetry 400
15.5 Counterchange colouring 406
15.6 Colour symmetry of higher orders 424
15.7 Conclusions 427
15.8 References 429
16 The history of dyes and pigments: from natural dyes to high performance pigments 433
A. Abel, DCC (Europe) Ltd, UK
16.1 Introduction 433
16.2 Cave paintings 434
16.3 Dyes from ancient Egypt 437
16.4 Pigments of ancient Egypt 441
16.5 Greco–Roman dyes and pigments 443
16.6 Medieval dyes and pigments 447
16.7 Pigments of the industrial revolution 452
16.8 Synthetic dyes 456
16.9 Organic pigments 463
16.10 Conclusions 468
16.11 References 469
17 Dye types and application methods 471
P. R. Richards, Richtex Textile Consultancy, UK
17.1 Introduction 471
17.2 Dye selection 472
17.3 Preparation of materials for dyeing 474
17.4 Dyeing of cellulosic fi bres 475
17.5 Dyeing of protein fi bres 479
17.6 Dyeing of polyamide fi bres 481
17.7 Dyeing of polyester fi bres 483
17.8 Dyeing of acrylic fi bres 484
17.9 Fluorescent brightening agents 485
17.10 Dyeing of fi bre blends 485
17.11 Dyeing machinery 486
17.12 Conclusions 495
17.13 Sources of further information and advice 496
18 Colour printing techniques 497
C. Parraman, University of the West of England, UK
18.1 Hardcopy colour: analogue versus digital 497
18.2 Colour theory in relation to printing 507
18.3 An overview of halftoning and digital print technologies 511
18.4 An overview and development of inks 515
18.5 Inkjet papers and inks 519
18.6 Recent and future trends in colour, printing inks and hardware 522
18.7 Sources of further information 525
18.8 References 525
18.9 Glossary 526

Part IV Colour and design in particular applications 533
19 Colour trends and selection in fashion design 535
J. A. King, De Montfort University, UK
19.1 Introduction 535
19.2 Colour associations 537
19.3 Key issues of colour in fashion design 540
19.4 Case studies 542
19.5 Conclusions 547
19.6 Sources of further information and advice 548
19.7 References 548
20 Colour in interior design 551
K. Haller, Interior Colour Expert, Karen Haller Interiors Ltd, UK
20.1 Introduction 551
20.2 The role of an interior designer 552
20.3 Colour psychology 557
20.4 In the home: colour and its many moods 560
20.5 Colour toolkit 561
20.6 Factors that infl uence colour 566
20.7 Colour in the public and commercial space 572
20.8 Colour trends 579
20.9 How cultural infl uences affect colour 582
20.10 Conclusions 582
20.11 Sources of further information and advice 583
20.12 References 584
21 Colour in food 585
J. B. Hutchings, University of Leeds, UK
21.1 Introduction 585
21.2 Colour, evolution and health 585
21.3 Appearance 588
21.4 Total appearance and expectations 590
21.5 Assessment and measurement 592
21.6 Halo effects, commercial exploitation and ethics 594
21.7 Conclusions 598
21.8 References 598
22 Choosing effective colours for websites 600
C. Sik-Lányi, University of Pannonia, Hungary
22.1 Introduction 600
22.2 Choosing effective colours for websites 601
22.3 HTML colours 604
22.4 Colour harmony 606
22.5 Users with special needs (disabled and colour-deficient users) 610
22.6 Web content accessibility guidelines 613
22.7 Conclusions 618
22.8 Sources of further information 619
22.9 References 620
23 Evolution and colour change in works of art 622
J. H. Townsend, Tate Britain, UK
23.1 Introduction 622
23.2 Art and collectables 623
23.3 Domestic display: commonsense preservation 633
23.4 Sources of further information and advice 634
23.5 References 635
Index 636

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