Fibrous and Composite Materials for Civil Engineering Applications Edited by R. Fangueiro

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Fibrous And Composite Materials for Civil Engineering Applications
Edited by R. Fangueiro

Contents
Contributor contact details ix
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiii

Part I Types of fibrous textiles and structures 1
1 Natural and man-made fibres: Physical and mechanical
properties 3
M. DE A RAÚJO , University of Minho, Portugal
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Natural fibres 5
1.3 Man-made fibres 6
1.4 Textile fibres for use in civil engineering applications: an overview 8
1.5 Natural textile fibres for use in civil engineering applications 12
1.6 Synthetic textile fibres for use in civil engineering applications 14
1.7 Fibre–matrix adhesion 26
1.8 Sources of further information and advice 26
1.9 References 27
2 Yarns: Production, processability and properties 29
R. A LAGIRUSAMY and A. D AS , Indian Institute of
Technology, Delhi, India
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Synthetic filament yarns 30
2.3 Natural fibre yarns 36
2.4 Synthetic yarn manufacture 39
2.5 Natural fibre yarn manufacture 45
2.6 Yarn parameters on cement reinforcement 53
2.7 Conclusions 59
2.8 References 60
3 Textile structures 62
R. F ANGUEIRO and F. S OUTINHO , University of Minho, Portugal
3.1 Introduction 62
3.2 Planar (2D) textile structures 67
3.3 Three-dimensional (3D) textile structures 75
3.4 Directionally oriented structures (DOS) 82
3.5 Hybrid structures 87
3.6 Sources of further information and advice 89
3.7 References 89

Part II Fibrous materials as a concrete reinforcement material 93
4 Steel fibre reinforced concrete: Material properties and structural applications 95
J. A. O. B ARROS , University of Minho, Portugal
4.1 Introduction 95
4.2 The fundamentals of fi bre reinforcement effectiveness 96
4.3 Mix design and steel fi bre reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) compositions 102
4.4 Fibre pullout 103
4.5 Characterization of the mechanical properties 108
4.6 Structural behaviour 133
4.7 FEM models for the analysis of laminar SFRC structures 137
4.8 Possibilities of steel-fi bre reinforced concrete (SFRC) for underground structures 142
4.9 Acknowledgements 150
4.10 References 150
5 Natural fi ber reinforced concrete 154
F. P. T ORGAL and S. J ALALI , University of Minho, Portugal
5.1 Introduction 154
5.2 Fiber characteristics and properties 155
5.3 Matrix characteristics 157
5.4 Properties 158
5.5 Durability 162
5.6 Future trends 163
5.7 References 164
6 The role of fi ber reinforcement in mitigating shrinkage cracks in concrete 168
K. R AOUFI and J. W EISS , Purdue University, USA
6.1 Introduction 168
6.2 Restrained shrinkage cracking of fi ber reinforced concrete 169
6.3 Cracking and damage development in concrete 171
6.4 Influence of the length of slabs on shrinkage cracking 173
6.5 Influence of the degree of restraint on shrinkage cracking 181
6.6 Examples of shrinkage cracking in fi ber
reinforced concrete slabs 182
6.7 Conclusions 185
6.8 References 185

Part III Fibrous materials based composites for civil engineering applications 189
7 Fibrous materials reinforced composites production techniques 191
A. T. M ARQUES , University of Porto, Portugal
7.1 Introduction 191
7.2 Organic matrices 192
7.3 Fibres 195
7.4 Production techniques: general characteristics 195
7.5 Processing: materials and parameters 198
7.6 Strengthening of structures 210
7.7 Properties of composite material laminates 211
7.8 Conclusions 211
7.9 Bibliography 215
8 Fibrous materials reinforced composite for internal reinforcement of concrete structures 216
R. F ANGUEIRO University of Minho, Portugal and C. G. P EREIRA ,
The Polytechnic Institute of Setubal, Portugal
8.1 Introduction 216
8.2 Raw materials for composite rods 217
8.3 Composite manufacturing processes 220
8.4 Mechanical performance of composite rods 226
8.5 Durability performance of composite rods 231
8.6 Composite rod/concrete bond behaviour 234
8.7 Self-monitoring composite rods 236
8.8 Applications of composite rods 243
8.9 Design and application recommendations 245
8.10 References 246
9 Fibrous materials reinforced composites for structural health monitoring 250
A. G UEMES , Technical University of Madrid, Spain
and J. R. C ASAS , Technical University of Catalonia, Spain
9.1 Introduction 250
9.2 Materials and systems: hardware and software 253
9.3 Applications 258
9.4 Future trends 266
9.5 Sources of further information and advice 267
9.6 References 268
10 Fibrous insulation materials in building engineering applications 271
X. L U and M. V ILJANEN , Aalto University, Finland
10.1 Introduction 271
10.2 Raw materials and manufacturing process 272
10.3 Fibrous materials: characteristics and properties 277
10.4 Applications 288
10.5 Sources of further information and advice 295
10.6 References 298
11 Acoustic behaviour of fi brous materials 306
J. A NTÓNIO , University of Coimbra, Portugal
11.1 Introduction 306
11.2 Sound absorbers 306
11.3 Sound absorption coeffi cient 307
11.4 Factors affecting the sound absorption of fi brous materials 310
11.5 Modelling sound-absorbing materials 315
11.6 Airborne sound insulation 316
11.7 Impact sound insulation 319
11.8 Conclusions 321
11.9 References 321
12 The use of textile materials for architectural membranes 325
J. M ONJO -C ARRIÓ , Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain
and J. T EJERA , BAT (Buró Arquitectura Textil), Spain
12.1 Introduction 325
12.2 Typology 333
12.3 Support systems 347
12.4 Textile materials 357
12.5 Membrane manufacture and installation 371
12.6 Sources of further information and advice 386
12.7 References 387
Index 389

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