Fire Toxicity Edited by Anna Stec and Richard Hull

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Fire Toxicity
Edited by Anna Stec and Richard Hull
Fire Toxicity

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Preface xix
Acknowledgements xxi
List of abbreviations and standards xxiii

Part I Introduction
1 Introduction to fire toxicity 3
T. R. HULL and A. A. STEC, University of Central
Lancashire, UK
1.1 Fire toxicity 3
1.2 Hazards to life from fire 6
1.3 Important toxicants 9
1.4 Quantification of toxic hazards from fire 15
1.5 Bench-scale generation of fire effluents 20
1.6 Fire death and injury statistics 21
1.7 References 23
2 Fire scenarios and combustion conditions 26
D. A. PURSER, A.A. STEC and T. R. HULL, University of Central Lancashire, UK
2.1 Introduction 26
2.2 Idealised fire growth and typical toxic products 26
2.3 Studies on methane flames 29
2.4 The equivalence ratio _ 32
2.5 Types of fire and stages of growth 34
2.6 Combustion conditions in full-scale compartment fires 36
2.7 Conclusions 46
2.8 References 47

Part II Harmful effects of fire effluents
3 Hazards from smoke and irritants 51
D. A. P U R S E R , University of Central Lancashire, UK
3.1 Introduction 51
3.2 Hazard assessment issues in relation to smoke and irritants 52
3.3 Effects of smoke obscuration and irritancy on escape and tenability 52
3.4 Why irritants are an important aspect of fire hazard 57
3.5 Range of irritant effects and importance of concentration and exposure dose 58
3.6 Concentration and dose±response relationships 62
3.7 Similarities and differences between animal species in relation to effects of irritants 75
3.8 Potency ranges for sensory and lung irritancy 83
3.9 Setting tenability limits for concentration and dose-related irritant effects 86
3.10 ASET FED calculation models for time to incapacitation and lethal dose of irritants 93
3.11 Calculating the effects of sensory irritancy on walking speed 95
3.12 Conclusions 97
3.13 References 98
Appendix A: Comparison of FEC, Cnt and RD models for calculating time to and severity of sensory irritancy in human fire victims during fires 101
Appendix B: Setting tenability limits for irritants 108
4 Asphyxiant components of fire effluents 118
D. A. P U R S E R , University of Central Lancashire, UK
4.1 Introduction 118
4.2 Asphyxia, hypoxia and asphyxiant fire gases 119
4.3 Dose±effect relationships and uptake rate calculation methods for individual gases and interactions 131
4.4 Carbon monoxide 131
4.5 Hydrogen cyanide 160
4.6 Low oxygen hypoxia 183
4.7 Interactions between the effects of different asphyxiant gases 186
4.8 Conclusions 193
4.9 References 194
5 Effects of fire effluents on fire victims 199
R. S H E P H E R D , Royal Liverpool Hospital, UK
5.1 Introduction 199
5.2 Legal aspects of the investigation of sudden or unnatural deaths 200
5.3 Death investigation 201
5.4 The pathology of heat trauma 203
5.5 Examination of the victims 206
5.6 Fire effluents 210
5.7 Conclusions 212
5.8 References 213

Part III Biological assessment of fire toxicity
6 Experimental methods in combustion toxicology 217
A. A. S T E C , University of Central Lancashire, UK
6.1 Introduction 217
6.2 Principles of toxicology and toxicity 218
6.3 Descriptive animal toxicology tests 219
6.4 Standardisation and validation of alternative methods 223
6.5 Conclusions 227
6.6 References 228
7 Animal exposure studies 229
J. P A U L U H N , Bayer Schering Pharma, Germany
7.1 Introduction 229
7.2 Principles of combustion inhalation toxicology 231
7.3 Bioassays 242
7.4 Exposure systems for the study of inhalation toxicity 250
7.5 Principles of hazard identification and risk characterisation 253
7.6 Inhalation toxicity tests with fire effluents: end points 258
7.7 Non-lethal end points 266
7.8 Acute inhalation toxicity of combustion products: examples 272
7.9 Conclusions 276
7.10 Future trends 277
7.11 References 278
8 Application of human and animal exposure studies to human fire safety 282
D. A. P U R S E R , University of Central Lancashire, UK
8.1 Introduction 282
8.2 The development of toxic hazards in fires 283
8.3 Toxicity of individual fire gases and toxic potency of
different materials 286
8.4 Fractional effective dose methodology for hazard analysis 289
8.5 Similarities and differences between animal models and humans 293
8.6 Identification of toxic species in fire effluents and assessment
of contributions to toxic hazards 302
8.7 Conclusions 341
8.8 References 342
9 In vitro biological toxicity assessments for fire combustion products 346
F. LE S T A R I , Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia, A. J. HA Y E S
and A. R. GR E E N , University of New South Wales, Australia
9.1 Introduction 346
9.2 Combustion furnace 347
9.3 In vitro toxicology 349
9.4 Future trends 360
9.5 References 361
10 A combined fire smoke and lung model test equipment 366
T. HE R T Z B E R G and P. BL OMQ V I S T , SP Technical
Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden and
R.NO S R A T A B A D I , LinkoÈping University Hospital, Sweden
10.1 Introduction 366
10.2 Results 371
10.3 Discussion 379
10.4 Conclusions 381
10.5 References 382

Part IV Toxicity assessment using chemical analysis
11 Sampling and measurement of toxic fire effluent 385
P. F A R D E L L , formerly of BRE (Fire and Security), UK and E. GU I L L A UME , LNE, France
11.1 Introduction 385
11.2 Sampling fire effluents: general principles 387
11.3 Practical arrangements for a typical sampling line for fire effluent gases and vapours 389
11.4 Analysis of gaseous fire effluents: general principles 394
11.5 Analysis of fire effluents: summary of principal methods available 395
11.6 Sampling and analysis of aerosols 407
11.7 Lower limits of detection, quantification, accuracy and precision 410
11.8 References 412
Appendix A: Summary of sampling and analytical methods for fire gases and vapours 414
Appendix B: Table of analytical methods for aerosols 422
12 Bench-scale generation of fire effluents 424
T. R. HU L L , University of Central Lancashire, UK
12.1 Introduction 424
12.2 Bench-scale generation of fire effluents: general requirements 425
12.3 Classification of test methods 431
12.4 Flow-through methods 442
12.5 Overall comparisons between bench and large scales 456
12.6 Conclusions 457
12.7 References 458
13 Large-scale generation and characterisation of fire effluents 461
P. BL OMQ V I S T and M. S IMO N S O N -McNAME E ,
SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden
13.1 Introduction 461
13.2 Fire characterisation 463
13.3 Sampling and analysis of fire gas from large-scale tests 464
13.4 Large-scale testing 474
13.5 Specially designed tests 484
13.6 References 511
14 Effects of the material and fire conditions on toxic product yields 515
D. A. P U R S E R , A. A. S T E C and T. R. HU L L , University of Central Lancashire, UK
14.1 Introduction 515
14.2 Toxic product yields for common materials and fire conditions 516
14.3 Generalised mechanism of polymer decomposition 517
14.4 Material composition and the effect of ventilation condition on toxic product yields 518
14.5 Effects of temperature on product yields 533
14.6 Effects of lowered oxygen concentration 537
14.7 Conclusions 538
14.8 References 538
15 Estimation of toxicity during burning of common materials 541
A. A. S T E C , University of Central Lancashire, UK
15.1 Introduction 541
15.2 Fractional effective dose (FED) 544
15.3 Fire toxicity of common polymers with fire condition 544
15.4 Summary of FED for various polymers 549
15.5 FED fire retarded materials 551
15.6 FED nanocomposite materials: impact of fire retardants and nanofillers on toxicity 552
15.7 Fractional effective dose (FED) of whole cables 554
15.8 References 557

Part V National and international fire safety regulations
16 Prescriptive regulations and tests considering the toxicity of fire effluents 561
J. T R O I T Z S C H , Fire and Environment Protection Service
FEPS, Germany
16.1 Introduction 561
16.2 Mandatory toxicity requirements, classification and tests for products used in transportation and building 562
16.3 Transportation 562
16.4 Buildings 572
16.5 Future trends 580
16.6 References 581
17 An international standardised framework for prediction of fire gas toxicity 583
T. R. HU L L and A. A. S T E C , University of Central
Lancashire, UK
17.1 Introduction 583
17.2 The workings of the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on Fire Safety (TC92) 584
17.3 Fire threat to people and the environment TC92 SC3 589
17.4 Overview of assessment of hazards to life 590
17.5 Current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards covering fire threat to people and the environment 590
17.6 Proposed International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for fire toxicity 597
17.7 Future standard development in fire toxicity and fire safety engineering: `the matrix' 600
17.8 Proposed standards on the harmful effects of fire effluents on the environment 601
17.9 References 603

Part VI Numerical simulation of fires and their hazards
18 Computer simulation of fire hazards and evacuation 607
K. GR EWO L L S , IngenieurbuÈro fuÈ r Brandschutz Grewolls,
Germany
18.1 Numerical fire analyses: history, motivation and types of application 607
18.2 Types of fire simulation model 608
18.3 Evacuation simulation 615
18.4 References 617
19 Toxic hazard calculation models for use with fire effluent data 619
D. A. P U R S E R , University of Central Lancashire, UK
19.1 Introduction 619
19.2 A comprehensive hazard calculation model for time and dose to incapacitation and lethality 620
19.3 Fractional effective dose (FED) methodology for hazard analysis 623
19.4 Overall hazard analysis for a fire 631
19.5 Application to escape calculations 634
19.6 Conclusions 634
19.7 References 635
20 Modelling fire growth and toxic gas formation 637
S. WE L C H , S. C. P A U L and J. L. T O R E R O , The
University of Edinburgh, UK
20.1 Introduction 637
20.2 Fundamentals of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) fire modelling 641
20.3 Combustion and pyrolysis models 645
20.4 Prediction of products of combustion and toxic gas 653
20.5 Applications 657
20.6 Conclusions 660
20.7 Acknowledgements 661
20.8 Nomenclature 661
20.9 References 662
Index 668

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