Handbook of Natural Fibres: Processing and Applications | Volume 2 | Ryszard M. Kozłowski | 2nd Edition

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Handbook of Natural Fibres Volume 2: Processing and Applications, 2nd Edition
Edited by Ryszard M. Kozłowski
Handbook of natural fibres. Volume 2, Processing and applications 2nd edition

Handbook of Natural Fibres Volume 2

Content of 2nd Edition

Contents
Contributors xiii
Part One Processing techniques for natural fibres 1
1 Cotton fibres, picking, ginning, spinning and weaving 3
Mohamed Negm and Suzan Sanad
1.1 World fibre production and use 3
1.2 Fibre growth development 7
1.3 Cotton fibre quality properties 10
1.4 Cotton picking 15
1.5 Ginning mill processes and technology 16
1.6 Cotton classification 21
1.7 Cotton grading 22
1.8 Cotton yarn spinning 23
1.9 Yarn testing 30
1.10 Weaving 32
1.11 Terry towel 36
1.12 Knitting 38
1.13 Fabric testing 42
1.14 Nondestructive testing 44
1.15 Conclusion 45
References 47
Further reading 48
2 Processing of jute fibres and its applications 49
Ashis Kumar Samanta, Asis Mukhopadhyay and Swapan Kumar Ghosh
2.1 Jute fibre 49
2.2 Chemical composition and structure of jute fibre 52
2.3 Chemical aspects and effect of chemical treatments of jute fibres 60
2.4 Mechanical processing of jute: spinning of jute yarns 67
2.5 Jute weaving 69
2.6 Chemical processing of jute 74
2.7 Eco-friendly processing of jute 102
2.8 Diversified end uses of jute as technical textiles 106

2.9 Conclusions and future trends 111
2.10 Sources of further information and knowledge on jute 112
References 112
Further reading 119
3 Silk e production and future trends 121
K. Murugesh Babu
3.1 Introduction to silk and silk industry 121
3.2 Types of silk and their importance 124
3.3 Silk industry 130
3.4 Post-cocoon technology 132
3.5 Silk reeling technology 133
3.6 Silk fabric manufacture 136
3.7 Spun silk production 140
3.8 Future trends in natural silk production 143
3.9 Sources of further information and advice 144
Acknowledgements 144
References 144
4 The use of flax and hemp for textile applications 147
Małgorzata Muzyczek
4.1 Introduction 147
4.2 Types of flax used for textile applications 148
4.3 Applications and examples 155
4.4 Future trends and conclusions 161
4.5 Sources of further information and advice 163
References 166
5 Use of bast fibres including flax fibres for high challenge technical
textile applications. Extraction, preparation and requirements for
the manufacturing of composite reinforcement fabrics and for geotextiles 169
Pierre Ouagne, Damien Soulat, Philippe Evon, Sullivan Renouard,
Manuela Ferreira, Laurent Labonne, Ahmad Rashed Labanieh,
Eric Laine and Emmanuel De Luycker
5.1 Introduction 169
5.2 Impact of extraction and preparation of flax fibres for technical
applications for differently harvested stems 171
5.3 Composite reinforcement textiles: use of processes that can
maximise the mechanical and the deformability of textile
reinforcement structures 176
5.4 Flax fibre geotextiles 190
5.5 Conclusions 195
References 196

6 Multi-scale mechanical characterization of flax fibres for the
reinforcement of composite materials 205
Alain Bourmaud, Lucile Nuez, Camille Goudenhooft and
Christophe Baley
6.1 Introduction 205
6.2 Link between stem structure and fibre performance: flax plant,
a model for biomimetics 206
6.3 Multi-scale mechanical characterization of flax 208
6.4 Conclusion 221
References 221
7 Enzymatic treatment of natural fibres 227
Ryszard M Kozłowski and Wanda Ro_zanska
7.1 Introduction 227
7.2 Key principles of enzyme treatment of natural fibres 227
7.3 Main types of enzyme treatments for natural fibres 234
7.4 Future trends 239
7.5 Sources of further information and advice 239
References 240
Further reading 244
8 Improving the properties of natural fibres by chemical treatments 245
John A. Rippon and David J. Evans
8.1 Introduction 245
8.2 Wool 246
8.3 Silk 280
8.4 Cotton 287
8.5 Other vegetable fibres 305
8.6 Future trends 307
Appendix: abbreviations 307
Acknowledgements 308
References 308
9 Electrokinetic properties of natural fibres 323
Thomas Luxbacher
9.1 Introduction 323
9.2 Key principles of electrokinetic properties of natural fibres 324
9.3 Applications 335
9.4 Future trends 346
9.5 Conclusion 347
9.6 Sources of further information and advice 348
Appendix: symbols and abbreviations 349
References 350

10 Improving the flame retardancy of natural fibres 355
Ryszard M. Kozłowski and Małgorzata Muzyczek
10.1 Introduction 355
10.2 Key issues in flame retardancy of natural fibres and
lignocellulosic textiles 362
10.3 Flammability and flame retardancy of some natural fibres
and textiles 368
10.4 Methods of improving flame retardancy in natural fibres 378
10.5 Future trends 384
10.6 Sources of further information and advice 386
10.7 Conclusions 387
References 388
11 Bast fibres: the role of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in remediation
of degraded lands 393
Jerzy Mankowski, Jacek Kołodziej, Krzysztof Pudełko and
Ryszard M. Kozłowski
11.1 Introduction 393
11.2 Key issues in recultivation of polluted lands 394
11.3 Methods of recultivation and remediation of polluted lands 398
11.4 The results 403
11.5 Future trends 413
11.6 Conclusion 414
References 414
Sources of further information and advice 416
12 Medical potential of cannabis: an overview 419
Dariusz Michał Zielonka, Łukasz Kiraga and Ryszard M. Kozłowski
12.1 Plant biology 419
12.2 Human and medicine 427
12.3 Conclusions and prospects 440
Abbreviations 441
References 441
Part Two Applications and case studies for natural fibres 449
13 Chemical and physical characteristic of modified cotton and
linen fabrics with amine-terminated dendritic polymer 451
Somaye Akbari, A. Asayesh, S. Khaliliazar, M. Razipour and N. Esmaeeli
13.1 Introduction 451
13.2 Cotton and linen fabrics modification procedure by
amine-terminated dendritic polymer 454
13.3 Effect of modified cotton and linen fabrics by amine-terminated
dendritic polymers 455

13.4 Future trends 463
13.5 Sources of further information and advice 465
References 465
14 Natural fibre composites (NFCs) for construction and
automotive industries 469
Yong K. Kim and Vijaya Chalivendra
14.1 Introduction 469
14.2 Natural fibre composites (NFCs) 471
14.3 Natural fibre reinforcement forms for green composites 477
14.4 NFC manufacturing methods 480
14.5 Quality assurance and testing 484
14.6 NFCs for building and automotive industries 488
14.7 Conclusions 494
14.8 Future trends 495
Acknowledgements 495
References 496
Further reading 498
15 Natural fibres for geotextiles 499
Sivoney Ferreira de Souza, Bibin Mathew Cherian,
Alcides Lopes Le~ao, Ryszard M. Kozłowski and Sabu Thomas
15.1 Introduction 499
15.2 Natural vegetable fibres for geotextiles and their suitability 500
15.3 Types of synthetics geotextiles 501
15.4 Market size of natural fibre geotextile 503
15.5 Functional requirements of geosynthetic materials 504
15.6 Primary uses for geotextiles 507
15.7 Applications 511
15.8 Future trends 525
15.9 Source of further information 526
15.10 Conclusions 527
Acknowledgements 527
References 528
16 Properties and applications of ultrafine powders produced
from natural fibres 531
Rangam Rajkhowa and Xungai Wang
16.1 Introduction 531
16.2 Production of natural fibre powder by milling 532
16.3 Powder characterization 541
16.4 Applications of natural fibre particles 550
16.5 Conclusion and outlook 553
References 554

17 The application of flax and hempseed in food, nutraceutical and
personal care products 557
Anna Bakowska-Barczak, Marie-Anne de Larminat and
Paul P. Kolodziejczyk
17.1 Introduction 557
17.2 The economic factors affecting flax and hemp industrial
production 558
17.3 Properties and chemical composition of flax and hempseed 560
17.4 Nutritional and health effects of flax and hemp 563
17.5 Flax and hemp related products for food and dietary
supplements for human and animal nutrition 569
17.6 Regulatory issues regarding novel flax and hemp products 572
17.7 Application of flax and hemp in cosmetics and personal care 573
17.8 Conclusion 581
References 582
Further reading 589
18 Natural fibres for paper and packaging 591
Raphaël Passas
18.1 Introduction 591
18.2 Available natural raw materials for paper and packaging 591
18.3 Pulping and papermaking processes 602
18.4 New challenges for paper and board producers 612
18.5 Conclusions and futures trends 614
Acknowledgements 615
References 615
Further reading 619
19 Environmental textiles from jute and coir 621
P.K. Banerjee
19.1 Introduction to environmental textiles 621
19.2 The importance of jute and coconut plant cultivation 622
19.3 Extraction of jute and coir fibres 627
19.4 Critical properties of jute and coir fibres 628
19.5 The nature of commercial products from jute and coir 629
19.6 Some novel environmental textiles from jute and coir 631
19.7 Market potential of jute-coir environmental textiles 647
19.8 Conclusion 648
List of abbreviations 649
References 649
20 Antimicrobial natural fibres 653
Judit Borsa
20.1 Introduction to textiles and microbial hazards: past and present 653
20.2 Survival of microbes on fabric surfaces 654

20.3 Textiles as protection against biohazards and as
infection reservoirs 656
20.4 Antimicrobial fibres 658
20.5 Antimicrobial agents: silver, other metals and their salts 660
20.6 Antimicrobial agents: quaternary ammonium compounds 662
20.7 Antimicrobial agents: chitosan 664
20.8 Antimicrobial agents: dyes 666
20.9 Antimicrobial agents: photomicrobicidal materials 667
20.10 Antimicrobial agents: natural agents 669
20.11 Antimicrobial agents: others 670
20.12 Risks of antimicrobial finishing 672
20.13 Future trends 673
References 674
Further reading 687
21 Biomimetics and textile materials 689
Michael S. Ellison
21.1 Introduction 689
21.2 Key principles of biomimesis 691
21.3 Key principles and issues of biomimetic inspired textiles 694
21.4 Conclusions and future trends 697
Acknowledgements 699
References 699
Index 701

Contents of 1st Edition

Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvi

Part I Processing techniques for natural fibres 1
1 Silk production and the future of natural silk manufacture 3
K. M. BABU, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and
Technology (BIET), India
1.1 Introduction to silk and the silk industry 3
1.2 Types of silk and their importance 5
1.3 The silk industry 12
1.4 Post-cocoon technology 14
1.5 Silk reeling technology 15
1.6 Silk fabric manufacture 18
1.7 Spun silk production and manufacture 22
1.8 Future trends in natural silk production 26
1.9 Sources of further information and advice 28
1.10 Acknowledgements 28
1.11 References 28
2 Improving the flame retardancy of natural fi bres 30
R. M. KOZŁOWSKI, Institute for Engineering of Polymer
Materials and Dyes (IMPIB), Poland and M. MUZYCZEK,
Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants
(INF&MP), Poland
2.1 Introduction 30
2.2 Key issues in flame retardancy of natural fi bres and lignocellulosic textiles 35
2.3 Flammability and flame retardancy of some natural fi bres and textiles 42
2.4 Methods of improving flame retardancy in natural fi bres 53
2.5 Future trends 57
2.6 Sources of further information and advice 58
2.7 Conclusions 58
2.8 References 59
3 Improving the properties of natural fibres by chemical treatments 63
J. A. RIPPON and D. J. EVANS, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Australia
3.1 Introduction 63
3.2 Wool 64
3.3 Silk 96
3.4 Other protein fibres 103
3.5 Cotton 103
3.6 Other vegetable fibres 123
3.7 Future trends 125
3.8 Acknowledgements 126
3.9 References 126
3.10 Appendix: abbreviations 140
4 Ultraviolet-blocking properties of natural fibres 141
M. ZIMNIEWSKA and J. BATOG, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland
4.1 Introduction 141
4.2 UV protection by textiles 145
4.3 Properties of natural fi bres 152
4.4 Methods of improving the ultraviolet properties of natural fi bres 153
4.5 Future trends 164
4.6 Conclusion 164
4.7 References 164
5 Enzymatic treatment of natural fi bres 168
W. KONCZEWICZ and R. M. KOZŁOWSKI, Institute of
Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland
5.1 Introduction 168
5.2 Key principles of enzyme treatment of natural fi bres 168
5.3 Main types of enzyme treatments for natural fi bres 174
5.4 Future trends 179
5.5 Sources of further information and advice 180
5.6 References 180
6 Electrokinetic properties of natural fibres 185
T. LUXBACHER, Anton Paar GmbH, Austria
6.1 Introduction 185
6.2 Key principles of electrokinetic properties of natural fibres 186
6.3 Applications 198
6.4 Future trends 208
6.5 Conclusion 210
6.6 Sources of further information and advice 210
6.7 References 211
6.8 Appendix: symbols and abbreviations 214

Part II Applications of natural fibres and case studies 217
7 Natural fibres for automotive applications 219
A. BALTAZAR-Y-JIMENEZ and M. SAIN, University of
Toronto, Canada
7.1 Introduction 219
7.2 Natural fi bre-reinforced composites 230
7.3 Environmental aspects of natural fi bres in automotive applications 235
7.4 Processing technologies for natural fi bre composites 238
7.5 End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and environmental pressures 241
7.6 Design for recycling (DFR) 245
7.7 Future trends 245
7.8 Acknowledgements 246
7.9 References 246
8 Natural fi bre composites (NFCs) for construction and automotive industries 254
Y. K. KIM, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA
8.1 Introduction 254
8.2 Natural fi bre composites (NFCs) 256
8.3 Natural fi bre reinforcement forms for green composites 261
8.4 NFC manufacturing methods 264
8.5 Quality assurance and testing 268
8.6 NFCs for building and automotive industries 272
8.7 Conclusions 277
8.8 Acknowledgements 277
8.9 References 278
9 Natural fibres for geotextiles 280
A. L. LEÃO, B. M. CHERIAN and S. F. DE SOUZA,
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil,
R. M. KOZŁOWSKI, Institute for Engineering of Polymer
Materials and Dyes (IMPIB), Poland, S. THOMAS,
Mahatma Gandhi University, India and M. KOTTAISAMY,
Thiagarajar College of Engineering, India
9.1 Introduction 280
9.2 Natural vegetable fi bres for geotextiles 282
9.3 Types of geosynthetics and their composition 283
9.4 Important characteristic properties of geotextiles 286
9.5 The market for natural fi bre geotextiles 287
9.6 Functional requirements of geosynthetic materials 288
9.7 Primary uses for geotextiles 291
9.8 Applications of geotextiles 293
9.9 Future trends 308
9.10 Conclusions 309
9.11 References 310
10 The use of fl ax and hemp for textile applications 312
M. MUZYCZEK, Institute of Natural Fibres and
Medicinal Plants (INF&MP), Poland
10.1 Introduction 312
10.2 Types of fl ax used for textile applications 313
10.3 Applications and examples 321
10.4 Future trends 325
10.5 Sources of further information and advice 326
10.6 References 327
11 The application of fl ax and hemp seeds in food, animal feed and cosmetics production 329
P. KOLODZIEJCZYK, Biolink Consultancy Incorporated and
University of Alberta, Canada, L. OZIMEK, University of Alberta,
Canada and J. KOZŁOWSKA, RK Science, Poland
11.1 Introduction to fl ax and hemp seeds 329
11.2 Flax- and hemp-related food products 343
11.3 Flax seed in animal nutrition 345
11.4 Health effects of fl ax and hemp products 355
11.5 Regulatory issues and sources of information on fl ax 358
11.6 Conclusions 359
11.7 References 360
12 Natural fi bres for paper and packaging 367
R. PASSAS, Grenoble INP-Pagora, France
12.1 Introduction 367
12.2 Natural fi bres for paper and packaging 368
12.3 Pulp and paper processes 380
12.4 Applications of natural fi bres for paper and packaging 390
12.5 Future trends 393
12.6 Acknowledgements 396
12.7 References 396
13 Environmental textiles from jute and coir 401
P. K. BANERJEE, Indian Institute of Technology,
New Delhi, India
13.1 Introduction to environmental textiles 401
13.2 The importance of jute and coconut plant cultivation 402
13.3 Extraction of jute and coir fibres 406
13.4 Critical properties of jute and coir fibres 407
13.5 The nature of commercial products from jute and coir 409
13.6 New environmental textiles from jute and coir 410
13.7 Market potential of jute–coir environmental textiles 425
13.8 References 425
13.9 Appendix: list of abbreviations 427
14 Antimicrobial natural fibres 428
J. BORSA, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary
14.1 Introduction to textiles and microbial hazards: past and present 428
14.2 Survival of microbes on fabric surfaces 429
14.3 Textiles as protection against biohazards and as infection reservoirs 432
14.4 Antimicrobial fibres 434
14.5 Antimicrobial agents: silver, other metals and their salts 436
14.6 Antimicrobial agents: quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) 439
14.7 Antimicrobial agents: chitosan 440
14.8 Antimicrobial agents: dyes 442
14.9 Antimicrobial agents: photomicrobicidal materials 444
14.10 Antimicrobial agents: natural agents 446
14.11 Antimicrobial agents: others 447
14.12 Risks of antimicrobial finishing 450
14.13 Future trends 451
14.14 References 452
15 Biomimetics and textile materials 467
M. S. ELLISON, Clemson University, USA
15.1 Introduction 467
15.2 Key principles of biomimesis 469
15.3 Key principles and issues of biomimetic inspired textiles 473
15.4 Conclusions and future trends 477
15.5 Acknowledgment 478
15.6 References 478
16 Enhancing consumer demand for natural textile fibres 481
A. FIJOL, ABF Consulting LLC, USA (formerly at
Cotton Council International, USA)
16.1 Introduction: current market scenario for natural fibres 481
16.2 The role of marketing and advertising in the natural fibre market 484
16.3 Understanding and affecting consumer buying behaviour 484
16.4 Demand building techniques 486
16.5 Future trends 493
16.6 Conclusion 496
16.7 References 497
Index 499

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