Process Control in Textile Manufacturing Edited by Abhijit Majumdar, Apurba Das, R. Alagirusamy and V. K. Kothari

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Process Control in Textile Manufacturing
Edited by Abhijit Majumdar, Apurba Das, R. Alagirusamy and V. K. Kothari
Process Control in Textile Manufacturing

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiv
Foreword xix

Part I General issues 1
1 Basics of process control in textile manufacturing 3
VEDPAL and V. JAIN, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Process mapping, analysis and control 5
1.3 Statistical process control (SPC) and improving processes 9
1.4 Future trends 11
1.5 References 13
2 Basic principles of control systems in textile manufacturing 14
S. S. SAHA, Government College of Engineering & Textile
Technology, Berhampore, India
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Components of control systems 18
2.3 The control system design process 28
2.4 Digital control systems 34
2.5 Intelligent control systems using soft computing 36
2.6 Application of control systems in textile processing 39
2.7 References 39
3 Testing and statistical quality control in textile manufacturing 41
A. DAS, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
3.1 Introduction: statistical quality control 41
3.2 Basic measurement concepts in statistical quality control 42
3.3 Interpretations: critical difference 48
3.4 Interpretations: ‘t’ tests, ‘ F ’ tests and the chi-square method 53
3.5 Decision-making using control charts 57
3.6 Decision-making: hypothesis testing 59
3.7 Decision-making: signifi cance testing 61
3.8 Testing fi bre and yarn properties 72
3.9 Testing fabric properties 75
3.10 References 78

Part II Process control in fi bre production and yarn manufacture 79
4 Process and quality control in cultivating natural textile fibres 81
M. ZIMNIEWSKA, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants,
Poland, I. FRYDRYCH, Technical University of Lodz, Poland,
J. MANKOWSKI, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants,
Poland, and W. TRYWIANSKA, Gdynia Cotton Association, Poland
4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Control of cotton fi bre quality 81
4.3 Indexes for cotton fi bre quality 85
4.4 Process control in harvesting 89
4.5 Control of natural lignocellulosic/bast fi bre quality: climatic conditions 96
4.6 Process control in production 100
4.7 Evaluating fi bre quality 105
4.8 Future trends 107
4.9 References 107
5 Process control in the manufacturing of synthetic textile fibres 109
B. L. DEOPURA, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
India, A. CHATTERJEE, Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar, India and N. V. PADAKI, CSTRI Central Silk Board, India
5.1 Introduction 109
5.2 Process control in polymerisation and fi bre spinning 111
5.3 Post-spinning process control: drawing and heat setting 122
5.4 Key control points in synthetic fi bre manufacture 127
5.5 Future trends 130
5.6 References 131
6 Process control in blowroom and carding operations 132
R. ALAGIRUSAMY, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
6.1 Introduction to blowroom operations 132
6.2 General process control in the blowroom 135
6.3 Process control in blowroom processes 137
6.4 Process control in carding: control of process parameters 142
6.5 Process control in carding: control of card clothing, wire maintenance and card waste 147
6.6 Yarn count issues and other common process control problems for blowroom and carding operations 153
6.7 Bibliography 157
7 Process control in drawing, combing and speed frame operations 158
A. GHOSH, Government College of Engineering & Textile Technology, Berhampore, India, and A. MAJUMDAR, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
7.1 Introduction 158
7.2 Process control in drawing: key elements 159
7.3 The impact of drawing on yarn quality 164
7.4 Process control in drawing: common problems 166
7.5 Process control in combing: key elements 171
7.6 Process control in combing: the impact of combing on yarn quality and common problems arising from the process 178
7.7 Process control in speed frame operations: key elements 181
7.8 Process control in speed frame operations: the impact of speed frame operations on yarn quality and common defects related to the process 185
7.9 Conclusions and future trends 189
7.10 Acknowledgement 189
7.11 References 189
8 Process control in ring and rotor spinning 191
P. K. MAJUMDAR, Government College of Engineering & Textile
Technology, Serampore, India
8.1 Introduction 191
8.2 Factors affecting spinning tension in ring spinning 195
8.3 Control of end breakage rate in ring spinning 202
8.4 Factors affecting end breakage rates in ring spinning 205
8.5 Control of fl y generation and twist variations in ring spinning 208
8.6 Process control in rotor spinning 213
8.7 Control of end breakage rate and twist loss in rotor spinning 217
8.8 Future trends 220
8.9 References 221
9 Maintenance of yarn spinning machines 225
A. BASU, Central Silk Board, India
9.1 Introduction 225
9.2 Maintenance of spinning preparatory machines 231
9.3 Maintenance of ring and rotor spinning machines 235
9.4 Future trends 236
9.5 Sources for further information and advice 239
9.6 References 240

Part III Process control in fabric manufacture, coloration and finishing 241
10 Process control in knitting 243
S. C. RAY, University of Calcutta, India
10.1 Introduction 243
10.2 Key control points in knitting 244
10.3 Quality control of knitted fabrics 248
10.4 Control of knitted loop length 251
10.5 Common faults in knitted fabrics 253
10.6 Other process control factors in knitting 259
10.7 Future trends: online quality control 262
10.8 References 264
11 Process control in weaving 265
V. K. KOTHARI, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
11.1 Introduction 265
11.2 Controlling loom productivity, effi ciency and fabric quality 267
11.3 Online process control, quality control and monitoring in weaving 269
11.4 Cost control in weaving 276
11.5 References 278
12 Process control in nonwovens production 279
D. MOYO, A. PATANAIK and R. D. ANANDJIWALA, CSIR Materials
Science and Manufacturing, South Africa, and Department of Textile
Science, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa
12.1 Introduction 279
12.2 Needle punching: process variables and process control 280
12.3 Hydroentanglement: process variables and process control 285
12.4 Melt blowing: process variables and process control 288
12.5 Spunbonding: process variables and process control 292
12.6 Future trends 295
12.7 Sources of further information 296
12.8 Acknowledgement 296
12.9 References 296
13 Process control in dyeing of textiles 300
S. M. SHANG, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
13.1 Introduction 300
13.2 Dyeing of cotton 302
13.3 Dyeing of synthetic materials 315
13.4 Dyeing of blends 322
13.5 Process control in batchwise dyeing machines 326
13.6 Process control in continuous dyeing machines 334
13.7 References 338
14 Process control in printing of textiles 339
S. M. SHANG, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
14.1 Introduction 339
14.2 Direct printing 339
14.3 Discharge, resist and heat transfer printing 345
14.4 Process control in roller and screen printing machines 348
14.5 Inkjet printing and its process control 353
14.6 Product safety and low-carbon production 360
14.7 Sources of further information 361
14.8 References 362
15 Process control in fi nishing of textiles 363
A. K. ROY CHOUDHURY, Government College of Engineering and Textile Technology, Serampore, India
15.1 Introduction 363
15.2 Instrumental process control 365
15.3 Textile finishing processes and process control in fi nishing 369
15.4 Process control in basic fi nishing machines 373
15.5 Process control in stenter machines 376
15.6 Calendering process 380
15.7 Surface raising and pre-shrinking fi nishes 385
15.8 Finishing with alkali 389
15.9 Softeners 393
15.10 Resin fi nishes 396
15.11 Protection from fi re damage and water penetration 401
15.12 Anti-pilling fi nish 405
15.13 Other types of fi nishing: antistatic, soil release, antimicrobial and UV protection 407
15.14 Wool treatment and enzyme fi nishes 413
15.15 Low-liquor fi nishing 417
15.16 Plasma treatments 421
15.17 Future trends 425
15.18 References 425
16 Process control in apparel manufacturing 428
G.THILAGAVATHI and S.VIJU, PSG College of Technology, India
16.1 Introduction 428
16.2 Process control in spreading, pattern making and cutting 428
16.3 Process control in sewing 432
16.4 Causes of damage to the fabric during sewing 441
16.5 Control of fusing and pressing operations, storage and packaging 449
16.6 Quality evaluation of apparel: testing for tailorability 454
16.7 Quality evaluation of apparel: testing for sewability 463
16.8 Quality evaluation of accessories 465
16.9 References 471
Index 475

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