Advances in Fire Retardant Materials Edited by A. Richard Horrocks, D. Price


Advances in Fire Retardant Materials
Edited by A. Richard Horrocks, D. Price

Advances in fire retardant materials

Table of Contents

Cover image
Title page
Copyright page
Contributor contact details 1: Introduction 

Part I: Advances in fire retardant materials
2: Flame retardancy of textiles: new approaches
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Developments in assessing levels of flame retardancy of textiles
2.3 Flame retardant natural fibres
2.4 Flame retardant synthetic fibres
2.5 Flame retardant inorganic man-made fibres
2.6 Future trends
3: Developments in phosphorus flame retardants
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Main types of phosphorus flame retardants
3.3 Polycarbonate and its blends
3.4 Polyesters and nylons
3.5 Epoxy resins
3.6 Polyurethane foams
3.7 Polyolefins
3.8 Future trends
3.10 Conclusions
4: Halogen-free flame retardants
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Challenges posed by replacing halogen-containing flame retardants
4.3 Attempts at successful halogen replacement in special applications
4.4 Flame retardancy and anti-dripping properties
4.5 Flame retardancy and mechanical properties
4.6 Future trends
4.7 Acknowledgements
5: Nanocomposites I: Current developments in nanocomposites as novel fame retardants Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Brief history of polymer nanocomposites in flame retardancy applications
5.3 Nanoparticles for polymer nanocomposite use
5.4 Polymer nanocomposite formation
5.5 Polymer nanocomposite flammability – measured effects without conven- tional flame retardants
5.6 Mechanism of flammability reduction
5.7 Polymer nanocomposites combined with conventional flame retardants
5.8 Applications for flame retardant polymer nanocomposites
5.9 Future trends and conclusions
5.10 Acknowledgements
6: Nanocomposites II: Potential applications for nanocomposite-based flame retar- dant systems Abstract
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Applications and processing challenges for nanocomposite polymers
6.3 Potential application areas
6.4 Future trends
7: Flame retardant/resistant textile coatings and laminates
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Main types of fire retardant/resistant coatings and laminates
7.3 Halogen replacement in back-coated textile formulations
7.4 Role of nanoparticles
7.5 Introduction of volatile phosphorus-containing species
7.6 Novel or smart ways of introducing flame retardant coatings to textiles and laminates
7.7 Plasma-initiated coatings
8: Environmentally friendly flame resistant textiles
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Key environmental/ecotoxicological issues
8.3 Desirable properties of environmentally friendly flame retardant chemicals
8.4 Examples of potentially environmentally friendly flame retardant appli- cations for cotton-based textiles
8.5 Potentially environmentally friendly flame retardant applications for mat- tresses, bedclothes and upholstered furniture
8.6 Inherently flame retardant fibers
8.7 Risk management, risk mediation and risk reduction
8.8 Future trends
8.9 Acknowledgements
9: Recycling and disposal of flame retarded materials
9.1 Introduction on flame retardants
9.2 Recycling
9.3 Directives on recycling of flame retarded materials
9.4 Recyclability of flame retarded polymers
9.5 Conclusions

Part II: Testing, regulation and assessing the benefits of fire retar- dant materials
10: Challenges in fire testing: a tester’s viewpoint
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Type I flammability tests
10.3 Type II.A flammability tests
10.4 Type II.B flammability tests
10.5 Challenges in assessing material flammability
10.6 Use of material flammability tests
10.7 Limitations of material flammability tests
10.8 Future trends in material flammability assessment
11: Challenges in fire testing: reaction to fire tests and assessment of fire toxicity
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Fire testing – principles and problems
11.3 Fire resistance tests
11.4 Reaction to fire tests
11.5 Measurement of heat release
11.6 Fire toxicity
11.7 Future trends: prediction of fire behaviour from material properties and models of fire growth
12: New and potential flammability regulations
12.1 Introduction: overview of present fire safety regulations in Europe
12.2 Building
12.3 Fire testing of construction products in the European Union
12.4 Fire safety requirements and tests for electrical engineering and electronics equipment 12.5 Fire safety requirements and tests in transportation for rail vehicles and ships
12.6 Fire safety requirements and tests in furniture
12.7 Future trends
13: Life cycle assessment of consumer products with a focus on fire performance
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Life Cycle Assessment
13.3 Television case study
13.4 Cable case study
13.5 Furniture case study
13.6 Conclusions
13.7 Future trends

Part III: Applications of fire retardant materials
14: The risks and benefits of flame retardants in consumer products
14.1 Background
14.2 The importance of understanding risks and benefits
14.3 Primary risks of flame retardants in consumer products
14.4 Balance of risk
14.5 Benefits of flame retardants in consumer products
14.6 Differentiating the effects of smoking and smoke alarm trends
14.7 Future trends
15: Composites having improved fire resistance
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Composites and their constituents
15.3 Key issues and performance requirements for different sectors
15.4 Flammability of composites and their constituents
15.5 Fire retardant solutions
15.6 Mechanical property degradation during and after fire
15.7 Post-fire mechanical performance of fire retardant composites
15.8 Future trends
16: Improving the fire safety of road vehicles
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Regulatory requirements
16.3 United States fire loss statistics
16.4 State of the art of regulation and guidelines
16.5 Activities of the US NFPA Hazard and Risk of Contents and Furnishings Technical Committee
16.6 2007 Draft Guide NFPA 556
16.7 Alternate approach
16.8 Conclusions
17: Firefighters’ protective clothing
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Different tasks and requirements for fire and heat protection
17.3 Types and design of clothing required for protection
17.4 Materials used in firefighters’ clothing
17.5 Measuring flame and thermal performance
17.6 Future trends 18: Fire protection in military fabrics
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Fire hazards
18.3 Military burn injuries
18.4 Clothing protection for military personnel
18.5 Existing flame retardant solutions for military uniforms
18.6 Flame retardant textiles: military applications
18.7 Types of military clothing
18.8 Testing standards and methodologies
18.9 Performance standards and durability requirements
18.10 Future trends
19: Flame retardant materials for maritime and naval applications
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Fire threat
19.3 Fire safety regulations
19.4 Methods of reducing flammability
19.5 Fibre reinforced plastics
19.6 Fire performance and test methods for fibre reinforced plastics
19.7 Summary
20: Materials with reduced flammability in aerospace and aviation
20.1 Introduction
20.2 History of aircraft fire regulations
20.3 Materials used in commercial aircraft
20.4 Fire test methods for aircraft materials3,5
20.5 Future trends
20.6 Acknowledgements

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