Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres Edited by A. R. Bunsell

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Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres
Edited by A. R. Bunsell
Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xv
Acknowledgements xxii
1 Introduction to fibre tensile properties and failure 1
A. R. Bunsell, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Units of measure for fibres and their structures 2
1.3 Fineness and flexibility 3
1.4 Typical fibre properties 8
1.5 Statistical nature of fibre properties 9
1.6 Markets 15
1.7 Conclusions 17
2 Tensile testing of textile fibres 18
A. R. Bunsell, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France
2.1 Introduction 18
2.2 Determination of fibre dimensions 19
2.3 Surface analysis 28
2.4 Internal structure 29
2.5 Mechanical characterisation 40
2.6 High temperature characterisation 43
2.7 Conclusions 46
2.8 References and further reading 46

Part I Tensile properties and failure of natural fibres
3 Tensile properties of cotton fibers 51
R. Farag and Y. Elmogahzy, Auburn University, USA
3.1 Introduction 51
3.2 Fiber tensile behavior during cotton handling 53
3.3 The contribution of cotton fiber tensile behavior to yarn strength 55
3.4 Cotton fiber structure 55
3.5 The tensile behavior of cotton fiber 58
3.6 Conclusions 71
3.7 References 71
4 Tensile properties of hemp and Agave americana fibres 73
T. Thamae, S. Aghedo, C. Baillie and D. Matovic, Queens University, Canada
4.1 Introduction 73
4.2 The experiment 75
4.3 Results and discussion 78
4.4 Conclusions 96
4.5 References 97
5 Tensile failure of wool 100
M.G. Huson, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Australia
5.1 Introduction 100
5.2 Structure of wool 101
5.3 Models and theories of strength 110
5.4 Methods of measurement 112
5.5 Tensile failure 118
5.6 Applications and examples 131
5.7 Future trends 133
5.8 Sources of further information and advice 134
5.9 References 135
6 Types, structure and mechanical properties of silk 144
V. Jauzein, Mines de Paris (ENSMP), France and P. Colomban, CNRS and Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), France
6.1 Introduction 144
6.2 Silks 151
6.3 Mechanical properties and microstructure 159
6.4 Conclusions 172
6.5 Acknowledgements 172
6.6 References 172
7 Structure and behavior of collagen fibers 179
F. H. Silver, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, USA and M. Jaffe, New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA
7.1 Introduction 179
7.2 Collagen fiber structure 182
7.3 Chemical structure of collagen fibers 182
7.4 Collagen fibrillar structure 184
7.5 Collagen self-assembly 185
7.6 Viscoelastic behavior of tendon 185
7.7 Viscoelasticity of self-assembled type I collagen fibers 188
7.8 Collagen fiber failure 189
7.9 Conclusions 191
7.10 References and further reading 192

Part II Tensile properties and failure of synthetic fibres
8 Manufacturing, properties and tensile failure of nylon fibres 197
S. K. Mukhopadhyay, AEL Group, South Africa
8.1 Introduction 197
8.2 Raw materials and mechanisms of polymerisation 198
8.3 Manufacturing of nylon 6 and nylon 6.6 fibres 200
8.4 Fibre structure and properties of nylon 6 and nylon 6.6 204
8.5 Preparation and properties of other nylons 211
8.6 Tensile fracture and fatigue failure of nylon fibres 213
8.7 Market trends of nylon 6 and nylon 6.6 fibres 217
8.8 Application of nylon 6 and nylon 6.6 fibres 219
8.9 References 221
9 The chemistry, manufacture and tensile behaviour of polyester fibers 223
J. Militký, Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic
9.1 Introduction 223
9.2 Chemistry and production of polyester fibers 225
9.3 Modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers 231
9.4 Processing and structure evolution in polyester fibers 238
9.5 Spinning 239
9.6 Drawing 244
9.7 Heat treatment 251
9.8 Structure of polyester fibers 259
9.9 Mechanical behavior of polyester fibers 265
9.10 Tensile strength of polyester fibers 292
9.11 Failure mechanisms of polyester fibers 298
9.12 Conclusions 300
9.13 References 301
10 Tensile properties of polypropylene fibres 315
E. Richaud, J. Verdu and B. Fayolle Arts et Métiers ParisTech, France
10.1 Introduction 315
10.2 Polypropylene (PP) structure and properties 316
10.3 Polypropylene (PP) fibre processing 318
10.4 Initial tensile properties 319
10.5 Fibre durability 322
10.6 Conclusions 325
10.7 References 326
11 Tensile fatigue of thermoplastic fibres 332
A. R. Bunsell, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France
11.1 Introduction 332
11.2 Principles of tensile fatigue 333
11.3 The tensile and fatigue failures of thermoplastic textile fibres produced by melt spinning 335
11.4 Mechanisms involved in fibre fatigue 342
11.5 Tensile and fatigue failure at elevated temperatures and in structures 347
11.6 Conclusions 352
11.7 Acknowledgements 352
11.8 References 352
12 Liquid crystalline organic fibres and their mechanical behaviour 354
A. Pegoretti and M. Traina, University of Trento, Italy
12.1 Introduction 354
12.2 Liquid crystalline (LC) aromatic polyamide fibres 357
12.3 Liquid crystalline (LC) aromatic heterocyclic fibres 387
12.4 Liquid crystalline (LC) aromatic copolyester fibres 403
12.5 Applications and examples 422
12.6 References 426
13 The manufacture, properties and applications of high strength, high modulus polyethylene fibers 437
M. P. Vlasblom, DSM Dyneema, The Netherlands and J. L. J. van Dingenen, DSM Dyneema (retired), The Netherlands
13.1 Introduction 437
13.2 Manufacture 438
13.3 Fiber characteristics 443
13.4 Properties 444
13.5 Processing 467
13.6 Applications 475
13.7 References 483
14 Tensile failure of polyacrylonitrile fibers 486
B. S. Gupta and M Afshari North Carolina State University, USA
14.1 Introduction 486
14.2 Preparation of acrylonitrile 488
14.3 Polymerization of acrylonitrile polymer 489
14.4 Stereoregularity and chain conformation of polyacrylonitrile 498
14.5 Acrylic fiber manufacturing 500
14.6 Structure of acrylic fibers 506
14.7 Physical properties of acrylic fibers 508
14.8 Carbon fiber precursor 511
14.9 Failure mechanisms of acrylic fibers 513
14.10 Conclusions 524
14.11 References 525
15 Structure and properties of glass fibres 529
F. r. Jones, The University of Sheffield, UK and N. T. Huff, Owens Corning, USA
15.1 Introduction 529
15.2 Historical perspective 529
15.3 The nature of glass 532
15.4 Fibre manufacture 544
15.5 Strength of glass fibres 548
15.6 Conclusions 570
15.7 References 571
16 Tensile failure of carbon fibers 574
Y. Matsuhisa, Toray Industries Inc., Japan and A. R. Bunsell, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France
16.1 Introduction 574
16.2 Carbon fibers 575
16.3 Carbon fibers produced from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursors 577
16.4 Carbon fibers produced from pitch precursors 595
16.5 Carbon fibers produced from regenerated cellulose 598
16.6 Conclusions 600
16.7 References 601
17 The mechanical behaviour of small diameter silicon carbide fibres 603
A. R. Bunsell, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France
17.1 Introduction 603
17.2 First generation fine silicon carbide (SiC) fibres 604
17.3 Second generation small diameter silicon carbide (SiC) fibres 610
17.4 Third generation small diameter silicon carbide (SiC) fibres 616
17.5 Conclusions 623
17.6 Acknowledgements 623
17.7 References 624
18 The structure and tensile properties of continuous oxide fibers 626
D. Wilson, 3M Company, USA
18.1 Introduction 626
18.2 Sol/gel processing and technology 627
18.3 Heat treatment and fiber microstructure 628
18.4 Comparative properties of oxide fibers 631
18.5 Fiber strength and properties 637
18.6 High temperature fiber properties 643
18.7 Conclusions and future trends 647
18.8 Sources of further information and advice 649
18.9 References 649
Index 651

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