Handbook of Weaving by Sabit Adanur

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Handbook of Weaving
by Sabit Adanur
Handbook of Weaving

Table of Contents
Introduction ix
1 FABRIC FORMATION BY WEAVING
1.1 Fabric Formation Methods 1
1.2 Weaving and Woven Fabrics 2
1.2.1 History of Weaving 2
1.2.2 Weaving Machines 4
1.2.3 Woven Fabrics 6
References 7
Suggested Reading 7
Review Questions 7
2 OVERVIEW OF POLYMERS, FIBERS AND YARNS USED IN WOVEN FABRICS
2.1 Polymers 9
2.2 Textile Fibers 9
2.2.1 Fiber Classification and Spinning 9
2.2.2 Microfilaments and Microfibers 11
2.2.3 Processing Microfilaments 12
2.3 YARNS 14
2.3.1 Yarn Manufacturing and Classification 14
2.3.2 Yarn Count Systems 16
2.3.3 Yarn Twist 16
References 17
Suggested Reading 17
Review Questions 17
3 WOVEN FABRIC DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
3.1 Woven Fabric Construction 19
3.1.1 Symbolic Representation of a Weave 19
3.1.2 Drawing-in-Draft (DID) 20
3.1.3 The Reed Plan 23
3.1.4 Cam Draft or Chain Draft (CD) 24
3.1.5 Warp and Filling Profiles 24
3.2 Basic Weave Designs 25
3.2.1 Plain Weave 27
3.2.2 Warp Rib 28
3.2.3 Filling Rib 28
3.2.4 Basket Weaves 29
3.2.5 Twill Weave and Its Derivatives 29
3.2.6 Satin Weave and Its Derivatives 31
3.2.7 Other Fabric Designs 33
Review Questions 34
4 WEAVING PREPARATION
4.1 Winding 36
4.1.1 Winding Process 36
4.1.2 Quill Winding 45
4.1.3 Winding Machines 46
4.1.4 Precision Winding 47
4.2 Warp Preparation 49
4.2.1 Warping 49
4.2.2 Warping Machines 58
4.2.3 Tension Control in Warping 66
4.3 Slashing (Sizing) 69
4.3.1 The Need for Slashing 69
4.3.2 Slashing Machines 75
4.3.3 Film Formers 82
4.3.4 Lubricants and Other Additives 92
4.3.5 Choosing the Proper Chemistry for Sizing 93
4.3.6 Filament Sizing 94
4.3.7 Desizing 95
4.3.8 Cold and Pre-Wet Sizing 97
4.4 Drawing-in and Tying-in 99
4.4.1 Drawing-In 99
4.4.2 Tying-In 102
References 105
Suggested Reading 106
Review Questions 106
5 WEAVING FUNDAMENTALS
5.1 Basic Weaving Motions 109
5.1.1 Warp Let-off 109
5.1.2 Warp Shedding 110
5.1.3 Filling Insertion 114
5.1.4 Beat-Up 118
5.1.5 Take-Up 123
5.2 Auxiliary Functions 124
5.3 Fabric Control 125
5.3.1 Fabric Width 125
5.3.2 Selvages 126
References 128
Suggested Reading 128
Review Questions 128
6 SHEDDING SYSTEMS
6.1 Crank (Treadle) Shedding 129
6.2 Cam Shedding 129
6.2.1 Cam Design 130
6.2.2 Negative Cam Shedding 131
6.2.3 Positive Cam Shedding 131
6.3 Dobby Shedding 132
6.3.1 Negative Dobby Shedding 133
6.3.2 Positive Dobby Shedding 137
6.3.3 Rotary Dobby 139
6.4 Jacquard Shedding 152
6.4.1 Single Lift, Single Cylinder Jacquard 153
6.4.2 Double Lift, Single Cylinder Jacquard 154
6.4.3 Double Lift, Double Cylinder Jacquard 155
6.4.4 Electronic Jacquard 155
6.4.5 Special Jacquard Mechanisms 159
6.4.6 Auxiliary Equipment for Jacquard Shedding 163
References 167
Suggested Reading 167
Review Questions 167
7 SHUTTLE WEAVING
Suggested Reading 174
Review Questions 174
8 JET WEAVING
8.1 Air-jet Weaving 175
8.1.1 Historical Development of Air-jet Machines 176
8.1.2 Yarn Insertion Systems 177
8.1.3 Principles of Air-jet Filling Insertion 182
8.1.4 Performance of Yarns in Air-jet Insertion 195
8.1.5 Functional Characteristics of Modern Air-jet Weaving Machines 197
8.1.6 Economics of Air-jet Weaving 212
8.2 Water-jet Weaving 219
References 223
Suggested Reading 224
Review Questions 224
9 PROJECTILE WEAVING
9.1 Functional Description of Projectile Weaving Machines 228
9.2 Projectile Terry Weaving Machine 253
9.3 P-Lean Machine 255
9.4 Operations 259
Review Questions 261
10 RAPIER WEAVING
10.1 Functional Description of Double Flexible Rapier Weaving Machine 265
10.2 “Wavy Terry” Rapier Weaving Machine 284
10.3 Analysis of Stresses on Warp and Filling Yarns during Rapier Weaving 285
10.4 Operations 289
References 291
Suggested Reading 291
Review Questions 291
11 MULTIPHASE WEAVING
11.1 M8300 Multiphase Weaving Machine 294
11.2 Other Multiphase Systems 302
11.2.1 Filling Direction Shed Wave Principle 304
11.2.2 Warp Direction Shed Wave Principle 305
References 308
Suggested Reading 308
Review Questions 309
12 MANUFACTURING OF SPECIAL FABRICS
12.1 Denim 311
12.1.1 Warp Preparation 312
12.1.2 Weaving 314
12.2 Terry Fabrics 315
12.3 Technical Textiles 319
12.3.1 Textiles in Transportation 323
12.3.2 Paper Machine Clothing 334
12.3.3 Geotextiles 335
12.3.4 Safety and Protective Fabrics 336
12.3.5 Agrotextiles 343
12.3.6 Sail Cloth 345
12.3.7 Other Technical Textiles 347
12.4 Carpet Weaving 349
12.5 Velvet Weaving 352
12.6 Narrow Fabric Weaving 353
References 360
Suggested Reading 360
Review Questions 360
13 FABRIC STRUCTURE, PROPERTIES AND TESTING
13.1 Woven Fabric Structure 361
13.2 Woven Fabric Properties 362
13.3 Woven Fabric Identification 368
References 373
Suggested Reading 373
Review Questions 373
14 WEAVING PLANT OPERATIONS
14.1 Improving Productivity 377
14.2 Plant Layout 381
14.3 Air Conditioning in Textile Plants 383
14.4 Computers and Automation 384
14.5 Technology Support Centers 392
14.6 Standards and Regulations 392
14.6.1 ISO 9000 Quality Standards 392
14.6.2 ISO 14000 Environmental Standards 395
References 397
Suggested Reading 397
Review Questions 397
15 FUTURE OF WEAVING
References 401
Suggested Reading 401
Question 401
Appendix 1: Characteristics of Major Weaving Machines Produced in the World 403
Appendix 2: Troubleshooting In Warping and Sizing 407
Appendix 3: Typical Sizing Examples of Common Fabric Styles 413
Appendix 4: Examples of Temples Used in the Textile Industry 419
Appendix 5: Units and Conversion Factors 425

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