Innovation and Technology of Women’s Intimate Apparel Edited by W. Yu, J. Fan, S.C. Harlock and S.P. Ng

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Innovation and Technology of Women’s Intimate Apparel
Edited by W. Yu, J. Fan, S.C. Harlock and S.P. Ng
Innovation and Technology of Women’s Intimate Apparel

Contents
Preface ix
Acknowledgements xi
1 Assessment of women’s body beauty 1
N-Y LIM, R ZHENG, W YU and J FAN
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Influential factors of body beauty 1
1.3 Modern definitions of body proportion 7
1.4 Golden ratio 12
1.5 Effect of women’s contour shape 17
1.6 Clothing influence on body cathexis 21
1.7 Conclusion 21
1.8 Acknowledgement 21
1.9 References 21
2 Breast measurement and sizing 28
R ZHENG, W YU and J FAN
2.1 Introduction 28
2.2 Measurement of breast dimensions 28
2.3 Latest technologies for breast measurements 42
2.4 Breast sizing systems 45
2.5 Conclusion 54
2.6 References 55
3 Innovations of bras 59
W YU and S-P NG
3.1 Definition of innovation 59
3.2 A brief history of bra invention and innovation 59
3.3 Bra innovations in the 21st century 64
3.4 Technology behind bra innovations 65
3.5 Bio-electromechanical approaches to bra inventions 69
3.6 Conclusion 73
3.7 Acknowledgement 74
3.8 References 74
4 Bra pattern technology 76
W YU, J-P WANG and K SHIN
4.1 Introduction 76
4.2 Basic block of bra pattern 77
4.3 Direct drafting of flat pattern 89
4.4 Three-dimensional modelling on the mannequin 100
4.5 Computerised 3D intimate pattern design 104
4.6 Comments on various pattern technologies 110
4.7 Future work 111
4.8 Acknowledgement 112
4.9 References 112
5 Innovations of girdles 114
N-Y LIM, W YU, J FAN and J YIP
5.1 Introduction 114
5.2 Historical development of girdles 114
5.3 Classification of modern girdles 116
5.4 Innovations of shape-up girdles 117
5.5 Inventions of health-promoting girdles 118
5.6 New materials for girdles 119
5.7 Considerations of fabric properties in girdle design 123
5.8 Conclusion 129
5.9 Acknowledgement 129
5.10 References 129
6 Physical and physiological health effects of intimate apparel 132
S HO, Y LUO, W YU and J CHUNG
6.1 Introduction 132
6.2 Definition of health 132
6.3 Skin health 133
6.4 Physical support from intimate apparel 135
6.5 Physiological effects of constrictive intimate apparel 140
6.6 Future developments in health-promoting intimate apparel 145
6.7 Acknowledgement 146
6.8 References 146
7 Pressure evaluation of body shapers 151
N-Y LIM, S-P NG, W YU and J FAN
7.1 Introduction 151
7.2 Physiological effects resulting from clothing pressure 151
7.3 Studies using direct pressure sensing systems 154
7.4 Indirect pressure prediction 160
7.5 Factors affecting girdle pressure absorption 165
7.6 Range of comfortable and tolerable pressure 166
7.7 Acknowledgement 168
7.8 References 168
8 Intimate apparel with special functions 171
J YIP and W YU
8.1 Introduction 171
8.2 Sports bra 171
8.3 Pantyhose 174
8.4 Swimwear 177
8.5 Mastectomy bras 179
8.6 Maternity underwear 183
8.7 Conclusions 190
8.8 Acknowledgement 192
8.9 References 192
9 Performance evaluation of knitted underwear 196
J KAR, J FAN and W YU
9.1 Introduction 196
9.2 Functional requirements of knitted underwear 196
9.3 Performance evaluation of knitted underwear 200
9.4 Engineering of knitted underwear fabrics 213
9.5 Recent developments in knitted underwear fabrics 216
9.6 Properties of commercial knitted underwear fabrics 219
9.7 Acknowledgement 219
9.8 References 219
10 Process innovations of seamless intimate apparel 223
W YU, S-P NG, R ZHENG and J YIP
10.1 Introduction 223
10.2 Lamination 223
10.3 Moulding 226
10.4 Seamless knitting technology 229
10.5 Conclusions 237
10.6 Acknowledgement 238
10.7 References 238
Index 241

Preface
The intimate apparel business has witnessed extraordinary public interest and manifold growth in the last decade. Consumers not only look for stylish lingerie but are also increasingly demanding innovative and engineered garments. The use of smart fibres and health-promoting materials as well as functional design and process engineering is transforming this traditional business into a high-tech industry, the future of which will not simply rely on craftsmanship, but be based on continuous scientific research and technological innovation as well as the education of the best talents.

Intimate apparel is an interdisciplinary subject involving body beauty, human anatomy and anthropometrics, pattern design, textile engineering as well as health science. From both the academic and industrial perspective it is important to bring together the literature, which is currently scattered in different disciplines. This monograph is the first attempt to offer a comprehensive review and critical assessment of progress in the scientific understanding and technological innovations in the field of ladies’ intimate apparel.

The book comprises ten chapters related to intimate apparel research and development grouped into three main themes. Chapters 1 to 4 discuss the concepts of body beauty, breast sizing, bra innovation and bra pattern development. Chapters 5 to 7 are devoted to the innovation in girdle design and construction, particularly with regard to health issues and the effects of the pressure that they exert on the wearer. Chapters 8 to 10 introduce the special functionality and performance evaluation of intimate apparel, as well as the product and process innovation applying to seamless knitting technology.

The first chapter considers the general factors affecting the social concepts of body beauty, followed by a critical review of key research work in quantitative approaches and experimental findings on the ideal body proportions as well as the body shaping effects of bras and girdles. Chapter 2 discusses the industrial standards and techniques used by researchers for measuring women’s bust anthropometry and critically evaluating bra sizing systems. An account of the historical evolution of bras and modern developments in innovative bra products is given in Chapter 3, with an emphasis on the technology behind each innovation. Although a bra is the most complex item of intimate apparel, there is a notable absence of literature regarding bra pattern and fitting technology. Chapter 4 compares the documented guidelines of bra pattern development with theories on the mathematical relationship between pattern parameters and body measurements; 2D direct drafting methods, 3D modelling and CAD systems are critically evaluated and research questions are posed for further exploration.

A girdle is an item of functional intimate apparel designed to beautify the body. Chapter 5 reviews the invention of various types of shaping and healthpromoting girdles. The latest development in material technology is provided particularly with respect to the critical property of fabric extensibility. As intimate apparel is a next-to-skin garment, its potential effects on the health of the wearer are very important. Chapter 6 provides a comprehensive account of the physical and physiological effects from wearing constrictive intimate apparel supported by evidence from the literature. Since physiological effects from excessive clothing pressure are always negative, Chapter 7 is devoted to describing the research work related to measuring clothing pressure using both direct and indirect methods. It also discusses the influence of body curvature and tissue softness on pressure absorption.

Intimate apparel offers many special functions. Several common types of functional intimate apparel are introduced in Chapter 8 with a technological appreciation of their efficacy. Chapter 9 considers the industrial standards, techniques and practices used for the performance evaluation of knitted underwear. The last chapter describes the innovations used in the manufacture of intimate apparel introduced in recent years with particular emphasis on the application of seamless knitting technology that is leading a new direction in the development of intimate apparel.

Although this book is principally a research monograph, it is useful not only for academia but also provides a sound theoretical basis and practical reference for technologists, designers and engineers in the industry in their future product development and innovation.

Winnie Yu
Jintu Fan
Simon Harlock
Sun-pui Ng


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