Physical Properties of Textile Fibres | W. E. Morton and J. W. S. Hearle (Fourth Edition)

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Physical Properties of Textile Fibres (Fourth edition)
 by W. E. Morton and J. W. S. Hearle
Physical Properties of Textile Fibres

Contents
Preface to the first edition xi
Preface to the fourth edition xiii
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xv
1 An Introduction to fibre structure 1
1.1 General introduction 1
1.2 Methods of investigation of structure 4
1.3 Approaches to polymer fibre structure 21
1.4 Cellulose fibres 33
1.5 Regenerated and modified celluloses 43
1.6 Protein fibres 48
1.7 Synthetic fibres for general use 57
1.8 High-performance fibres 68
1.9 Specialist fibres 75
1.10 Some concluding views 77
1.11 References 78
2 Testing and sampling 82
2.1 Test procedures 82
2.2 Variability and sampling 83
2.3 Numerical and biased samples 86
2.4 Sampling techniques 90
2.5 Zoning 93
2.6 References 95
3 Fibre fineness and transverse dimensions 97
3.1 Fibre dimensions 97
3.2 Terms and definitions 99
3.3 The technical significance of fibre fineness 103
3.4 Variation in fineness 105
3.5 Measurement of linear density 107
3.6 Direct measurement of transverse dimensions 109
3.7 Optical technology for high-speed testing 111
3.8 Air-flow methods 115
3.9 The vibroscope method 122
3.10 Fibre shape and cotton maturity 123
3.11 References 131
4 Fibre length 134
4.1 Fibre lengths 134
4.2 Technical significance of fibre length 136
4.3 Length distributions and fibre diagrams 137
4.4 Wool and cotton 144
4.5 Crimp 146
4.6 Individual fibre length measurement 147
4.7 Comb-sorter methods 149
4.8 The Balls sledge sorter 152
4.9 Cutting-and-weighing methods 153
4.10 Automated scanning of fibre tufts 156
4.11 Scanning individual fibres 161
4.12 References 162
5 Fibre density 163
5.1 Introduction 163
5.2 Measurement 163
5.3 Results 165
5.4 Density and order 165
5.5 References 167
6 Thermal properties 168
6.1 Introduction 168
6.2 Thermal parameters 168
6.3 References 176
7 Equilibrium absorption of water 178
7.1 Introduction 178
7.2 Definitions 178
7.3 Measurement of regain 180
7.4 Relation between regain and relative humidity 184
7.5 References 193
8 Heats of sorption 195
8.1 Definitions 195
8.2 Measurement 196
8.3 Results 198
8.4 Effects of evolution of heat 201
8.5 References 201
9 Rate of absorption of moisture 202
9.1 Introduction 202
9.2 Diffusion of moisture 202
9.3 The interaction of moisture and heat 212
9.4 Practical effects 223
9.5 References 228
10 The retention of liquid water 229
10.1 Introduction 229
10.2 Centrifuging of wet fibres 229
10.3 Suction 232
10.4 Interactions 235
10.5 References 236
11 Swelling 237
11.1 Introduction 237
11.2 Measurement of swelling 238
11.3 Results 240
11.4 References 242
12 Theories of moisture sorption 243
12.1 The general view 243
12.2 Quantitative theories of absorption 251
12.3 The relations between absorption, swelling and elastic properties 261
12.4 Surface adsorption 270
12.5 The effect of temperature 271
12.6 References 272
13 Tensile properties 274
13.1 General introduction 274
13.2 Factors determining the results of tensile experiments 274
13.3 Expressing the results: quantities and units 276
13.4 Experimental methods 283
13.5 Fibre properties 289
13.6 Other factors 309
13.7 References 319
14 The effects of variability 322
14.1 Introduction 322
14.2 Variability, specimen length and strength 322
14.3 Variability and other quantities 330
14.4 Composite-specimen effects 332
14.5 Variability in practice 335
14.6 Changes in specimen during test 335
14.7 References 337
15 Elastic recovery 338
15.1 Introduction 338
15.2 Definitions 339
15.3 Experimental methods 340
15.4 Results 341
15.5 Change of properties as a result of straining: mechanical conditioning 346
15.6 Swelling recovery 348
15.7 Simple recovery models 349
15.8 References 356
16 Rheology 357
16.1 The study of time dependence 357
16.2 Creep 358
16.3 Stress relaxation 370
16.4 Time and tensile testing 376
16.5 Dynamic tests 390
16.6 References 411
17 Directional effects 414
17.1 Introduction 414
17.2 Bending of fibres 414
17.3 Twisting of fibres and the shear modulus 430
17.4 Shear strength 440
17.5 General elastic deformation 441
17.6 Compression stresses on fibre masses 455
17.7 References 455
18 Thermomechanical responses 458
18.1 Introduction 458
18.2 Melting 462
18.3 Dynamic mechanical responses 469
18.4 Transitions in keratin fibres 478
18.5 Thermomechanical responses 483
18.6 Setting 490
18.7 References 506
19 Fibre breakage and fatigue 509
19.1 Fibre-fracture morphology 509
19.2 Monotonic breaks 509
19.3 Tensile fatigue 525
19.4 Torsional fatigue 529
19.5 Flex fatigue 530
19.6 Combined bending and twisting: biaxial rotation 540
19.7 Surface wear and peeling 553
19.8 Abrasion and wear 554
19.9 References 557
20 Theories of mechanical properties 559
20.1 Introduction 559
20.2 Structural effects in rayon fibres 564
20.3 Nylon, polyester and similar fibres 574
20.4 High-performance fibres 580
20.5 A general theory of orientation 588
20.6 Structural effects in natural fibres 592
20.7 Theories of time dependence 604
20.8 Thermodynamic effects 618
20.9 References 622
21 Dielectric properties 625
21.1 General introduction 625
21.2 Definitions of dielectric properties 625
21.3 Measurement 628
21.4 The effect of frequency 631
21.5 The effect of moisture 634
21.6 The effect of temperature 635
21.7 The effect of other factors 638
21.8 Summary of results for various materials 640
21.9 References 642
22 Electrical resistance 643
22.1 Introduction 643
22.2 Definitions 643
22.3 Methods of measurement 644
22.4 Results of experiments 645
22.5 Theoretical 657
22.6 References 664
23 Static electricity 665
23.1 Introduction 665
23.2 Measurement of static 667
23.3 Results 669
23.4 Generation of charge 676
23.5 Leakage of charge 679
23.6 References 689
24 Optical properties 690
24.1 Introduction 690
24.2 Refraction 690
24.3 Absorption and dichroism 704
24.4 Reflection and lustre 705
24.5 References 707
25 Fibre friction 709
25.1 Introduction 709
25.2 Measurement of fibre friction 710
25.3 Empirical results 716
25.4 The nature of friction 726
25.5 The friction of wool 732
25.6 References 736
Appendix I: units 738
AI.1 Introduction 738
AI.2 Fineness 738
AI.3 Stress and specific stress 738
Appendix II: fibre names 740
AII.1 Introduction 740
AII.2 Regenerated fibres 740
AII.3 Synthetic fibres of linear macromolecules 741
AII.4 High-modulus, high-tenacity (HM–HT) linear polymer fibres 741
AII.5 Carbon fibres 742
AII.6 Inorganic fibres 742
AII.7 Reference 742
Appendix III: standard test methods 743

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