Plasma Technologies for Textiles Edited by R. Shishoo

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Plasma Technologies for Textiles
Edited by R. Shishoo
Plasma Technologies for Textiles

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Introduction – The potential of plasma technology in the
textile industry xv
R. Shishoo, Shishoo Consulting AB, Sweden

Part I Plasma science and technology 1
1 The physics and chemistry of plasmas for
processing textiles and other materials 3
W. G. Graham, Queen’s University, Belfast, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Gases 3
1.3 Plasmas 6
1.4 Plasma chemistry 12
1.5 Plasma–surface collisions 17
1.6 Summary 22
1.7 Bibliography 23
2 The diagnosis of plasmas used in the processing of textiles and other materials 25
J. W. Bradley and P. M. Bryant, University of
Liverpool, UK
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 Discharge electrical characteristics 26
2.3 Electrical plasma diagnostics 32
2.4 Plasma mass spectrometry 40
2.5 Optical emission spectroscopy 47
2.6 References 54
3 Low-pressure cold plasma processing technology 64
P. Lippens, Europlasma N. V., Belgium
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 Low-pressure vacuum plasma technology 65
3.3 Equipment for low-pressure vacuum plasma technology 68
3.4 Plasma activation in the technical textile and nonwoven industries 72
3.5 Plasma deposition on nonwoven materials 74
3.6 The economics of vacuum plasma treatment for fabrics and nonwovens 76
3.7 Conclusions 77
3.8 References 78
4 Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma processing technology 79
T. Herbert, Dow Corning Plasma Solutions, Ireland
4.1 Introduction 79
4.2 Basic manufacturability needs from plasma technology 81
4.3 Atmospheric-pressure plasma types for textile processing 86
4.4 Atmospheric-pressure plasma equipment for textile processing 101
4.5 Atmospheric-pressure plasma surface properties for textile products 111
4.6 The atmospheric-pressure plasma audit 125
4.7 References 128
5 Corona and dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment of textiles for technical applications 129
T. Stegmaier, A. Dinkelmann and V. von Arnim,
Institute for Textile Technology and Process Engineering
Denkendorf, Germany, and A. Rau, Ahlbrandt System,
Germany
5.1 Introduction to atmospheric-pressure plasma processes 129
5.2 Special adaptations of DBD technology to textiles 136
5.3 Plasma-induced surface activation of fi bres 141
5.4 Deposition of nano-layers by gas polymerisation 146
5.5 Combination of DBD treatment and liquor deposition 150
5.6 Future trends 153
5.7 References 155
6 Nano-scale treatment of textiles using plasma technology 158
D. Hegemann and D. J. Balazs, Empa – Materials
Science and Technology, Switzerland
6.1 Introduction 158
6.2 Plasma technology for the textile industry 158
6.3 Materials and methods 160
6.4 Plasma cleaning 163
6.5 Plasma metallisation 165
6.6 Plasma polymerisation 168
6.7 Plasma co-polymerisation 172
6.8 Future trends 176
6.9 Sources of further information 177
6.10 References 177

Part II Textile applications 181
7 Plasma treatment of textiles for water and oil repellency 183
S. Coulson, P2i Ltd, UK
7.1 Introduction 183
7.2 Requirement for water and oil repellency 184
7.3 Theory and testing of water and oil repellency 187
7.4 Current solutions for rendering textiles water and oil repellent 190
7.5 Use of plasmas for imparting liquid repellency 194
7.6 What the future holds 200
7.7 References and sources of further information 201
8 Interfacial engineering of functional textiles for biomedical applications 202
U. Vohrer, Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial
Engineering and Biotechnology, Germany
8.1 Introduction 202
8.2 Technical textiles for biomedical applications 203
8.3 Plasma treatment for interfacial engineering of technical textiles 205
8.4 Plasma reactor techniques 210
8.5 Assessment of the functionalised textiles 212
8.6 Surface engineering of biomedical textiles 213
8.7 Outlook 221
8.8 References 222
9 Plasma modifi cation of wool 228
H. Thomas, DWI at the RWTH Aachen e.V., Germany
9.1 Introduction 228
9.2 Plasma systems relevant for application to wool 229
9.3 Plasma-induced chemical and morphological changes 231
9.4 Textile properties of plasma-treated wool 237
9.5 Finishing performance of plasma-treated wool 239
9.6 Future trends 244
9.7 Sources of further information 244
9.8 Acknowledgments 244
9.9 References 244
10 Plasma modifi cation of natural cellulosic fi bres 247
K. Johansson, Institute for Surface Chemistry,
Sweden
10.1 Introduction 247
10.2 Description of natural and man-made cellulosic fi bres 248
10.3 Mechanisms of interactions between plasmas and cellulose-based fibres 251
10.4 Plasma modification of cotton for textile applications 260
10.5 Plasma surface modifi cation in cellulosic fi bre-based composites 265
10.6 Plasma modification of solid wood and wood pulp fi bres 268
10.7 Plasma modifi cation of man-made cellulosics 272
10.8 References 275
11 Plasma treatments of fibres and textiles 282
B. Marcandalli, Stazione Sperimentale per la Seta,
Italy, and C. Riccardi, Università degli Studi di
Milano-Bicocca, Italy
11.1 Introduction 282
11.2 Principles of plasma processes 283
11.3 Plasma textile treatments 285
11.4 Advantages and problems of plasma treatments for textiles 295
11.5 Industrial applications 296
11.6 Acknowledgment 298
11.7 References 298
12 Characterisation of plasma-treated textiles 301
A. Neville, University of Leeds, UK; and
R.R. Mather and J.I.B. Wilson, Heriot-Watt
University, UK
12.1 Surface reactions in plasma treatment 301
12.2 Techniques for characterisation of plasma-treated textiles 305
12.3 Future trends – Nanoindentation 311
12.4 Surface characterisation challenges 311
12.5 References 313
Index 316

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