Shape Memory Polymers: Fundamentals, Advances and Applications | Jinlian Hu

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Shape Memory Polymers: Fundamentals, Advances and Applications
By Jinlian Hu
Shape Memory Polymers: Fundamentals, Advances and Applications

Contents
1 Shape-memory Polymers.............................................................................1
1.1 Introduction.....................................................................................1
1.2 Shape-memory Effect.......................................................................4
1.2.1 Shape-memory Effect in Shape-memory Polymers...............5
1.2.2 Shape-memory Effect in Shape-memory Polymers and Shape-memory Alloys.........................................................7
1.3 Structure of Shape-memory Polymers..............................................9
1.3.1 Thermally Induced Shape-memory Polymers....................10
1.3.2 Athermal Shape-memory Polymers...................................13
1.4 Classification of Shape-memory Polymers......................................15
1.5 Conclusions...................................................................................17
2 Shape-memory Polymers: Molecular Design, Shape-memory Functionality and Programming......................................................................................23
2.1 Introduction...................................................................................23
2.2 Molecular Design of Shape-memory Polymers...............................23
2.2.1 Thermally Sensitive Shape-memory Polymers...................24
2.2.1.1 Shape-memory Polymers based on the Amorphous Phase...............................................24
2.2.1.2 Shape-memory Polymers based on Semi-crystalline Phase.........................................25
2.2.1.3 Shape-memory Polymers based on Liquid Crystalline Phase.................................................26
2.2.2 Photosensitive Shape-memory Polymers............................26
2.2.3 Other Molecular Architectures of Shape-memory Polymers...........................................................................28
2.3 Shape-memory Programming.........................................................30
2.3.1 Processing One-way Shape-memory Effects......................30
2.3.1.1 Dual-shape Creation Process for One-way Dual-shape Shape-memory Effects......................31
2.3.1.2 Programming for One-way Triple-shape Shape-memory Effects.........................................33
2.3.2 Processing Two-way Shape-memory Effects......................34
2.3.2.1 Programming for Two-way Dual-shape Shape-memory Effects.........................................35
2.3.2.2 Programming for Two-way Triple-shape Shape-memory Effects.........................................35
2.3.3 Multiple Shape-memory Effects Programming..................38
2.4 Shape-memory Functionality.........................................................38
2.4.1 One-way Shape-memory Effects.......................................38
2.4.2 Two-way Shape-memory Effects.......................................40
2.4.2.1 Liquid Crystalline Elastomers.............................41
2.4.2.2 Shape-memory Polymers having a Semi-crystalline Phase under Constant Stress......42
2.4.2.3 Shape-memory Polymer Laminated Composites.43
2.4.3 Triple/Multiple Shape-memory Effects..............................44
2.4.4 Temperature-memory Effects............................................48
2.5 Conclusions...................................................................................48
3 Shape-memory Polymer Composites.........................................................57
3.1 Introduction...................................................................................57
3.2 Nanowhisker/Shape-memory Polymer Composites........................61
3.2.1 Cellulose Nanowhiskers....................................................61
3.2.2 Integration of Cellulose Nanowhiskers.............................62
3.3 Carbon/Shape-memory Polymer Composites.................................65
3.3.1 Carbon Nanotube and Carbon Nanofibre/Shape-memory Polymer Composites.........................................................66
3.3.2 Carbon Black/Shape-memory Polymer Composites...........67
3.3.3 Electrically Sensitive Shape-memory Polymer Nanocomposites...............................................................68
3.3.4 Light-sensitive Shape-memory Polymer Nanocomposites..70
3.3.5 Enhanced General Shape-memory Effect...........................71
3.4 Fibre/Fabric-reinforced Shape-memory Polymer Composites.........71
3.4.1 Microfibre or Fabric/Shape-memory Polymer Composites.71
3.4.2 Electrospun Nanofibre Shape-memory Polymer Nanocomposites...............................................................74
3.5 Metal and Metal Oxides/Shape-memory Polymer Composites.......75
3.6 Other Shape-memory Polymer Composites....................................76
3.6.1 Nanoclay/Shape-memory Polymer Composites.................76
3.6.2 Other Inorganic Filler/Shape-memory Polymer Composites.......................................................................78
3.6.3 Organic Filler/Shape-memory Polymer Composites..........78
3.6.4 Shape-memory Polymer Composites with Special Functions..........................................................................79
3.7 Conclusions...................................................................................81
4 Shape-memory Polymer Blends.................................................................89
4.1 Introduction...................................................................................89
4.2 Miscible Polymer Blends................................................................90
4.2.1 Shape-memory Polymer/Polymer Blends...........................90
4.2.2 Amorphous Polymer/Crystalline Polymer Blends..............95
4.3 Immiscible Polymer Blends............................................................97
4.3.1 Elastomer/Polymer Blends.................................................97
4.3.2 Other Types of Immiscible Blends...................................100
4.4 Blending and Post-crosslinking Polymers Networks.....................106
4.4.1 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks................................106
4.4.2 Crosslinked Polymer Blends............................................108
4.5 Conclusions.................................................................................112
5 Shape-memory Polymers Sensitive to Different Stimuli............................117
5.1 Introduction.................................................................................117
5.2 Thermally sensitive Shape-memory Polymers...............................117
5.2.1 Shape-memory Effect based on Conventional Glass or Melting Transition..........................................................118
5.2.2 Shape-memory Effect by Indirect Heating.......................120
5.2.3 Shape-memory Effect based on a Thermally Reversible Reaction.........................................................................122
5.2.4 Shape-memory Effect based on Supermolecular Structure.........................................................................123
5.2.5 Two-way Shape-memory Effect based on Change in the Conformation of Anisotropic Chains........................125
5.2.6 Two-way Shape-memory Effect based on Cooling-induced Crystallisation Elongation.................................126
5.2.7 Two-way Shape-memory Effect based on Shape-memory Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Composites............127
5.2.8 Multiple Shape-memory Effect based on Combined Switches..........................................................................128
5.2.9 Thermally active and pH-active Polymeric Hydrogels.....131
5.3 Light-sensitive Shape-memory Polymers......................................132
5.3.1 Photodeformability Induced by Photoisomerisation........132
5.3.2 Photodeformability induced by Photoreactive Molecules.134
5.3.3 Photoactive Effect from the Addition–fragmentation Chain Transfer Reaction.................................................134
5.3.4 Light-active Polymeric Hydrogels...................................136
5.4 Magnetic-sensitive Shape-memory Polymers................................139
5.4.1 Shape-memory Polymer Matrices filled with Magnetic Particles..........................................................................139
5.4.2 Magnetic-active polymeric gels.......................................140
5.5 Water/solvent-sensitive Shape-memory Polymers.........................141
5.6 Electric-sensitive Shape-memory Polymers...................................144
5.7 Conclusions.................................................................................148
6 Modelling of Shape-memory Polymers....................................................157
6.1 Introduction.................................................................................157
6.2 Macroscale Constitutive Modelling.............................................158
6.2.1 Stress–strain Characteristics............................................160
6.2.2 Shape-memory Properties...............................................162
6.3 Mesoscale Modelling...................................................................166
6.4 Microscale Modelling..................................................................170
6.5 Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo Simulations.....................173
6.5.1 Reaction Characteristics.................................................173
6.5.2 Physical Properties..........................................................173
6.5.3 Microstructure................................................................174
6.5.4 Hydrogen bonding Interactions......................................176
6.5.5 Mechanical Properties.....................................................177
6.6 Mathematical Modelling..............................................................178
6.7 Modelling of Device Structures....................................................178
6.8 Modelling for Light-sensitive Shape-memory Polymers................179
6.8.1 Three-dimensional Finite Deformation Modelling..........179
6.8.2 Multiple Natural Configurations Modelling...................181
6.8.3 Multi-scale Modelling.....................................................182
6.9 Conclusions.................................................................................183
7 Supramolecular Shape-memory Polymers................................................189
7.1 Introduction.................................................................................189
7.2 Supramolecular Chemistry...........................................................190
7.2.1 Hydrogen Bonding..........................................................192
7.2.2 Relationship between Shape-memory Polymers and Supramolecular Polymer Networks.................................192
7.3 Polymers Containing Pyridine Moieties: a Pathway to Achieve Supramolecular Networks...........................................................194
7.3.1 Function of Pyridine Moieties in Supramolecular Chemistry.......................................................................194
7.3.2 Supramolecular Pyridine-containing Polymers................195
7.3.3 Supramolecular Liquid Crystalline Polymer-containing Pyridine Moieties............................................................196
7.4 Supramolecular Shape-memory Polymers based on Pyridine Moieties.......................................................................................197
7.4.1 Synthesis.........................................................................197
7.4.2 Structure and Morphology..............................................198
7.4.3 Thermally induced Shape-memory Effect........................204
7.4.4 Moisture-sensitive Shape-memory Effect.........................206
7.5 Supramolecular Shape-memory Polymers based on Cyclodextrins...............................................................................208
7.5.1 Cyclodextrins..................................................................208
7.5.2 Thermally induced Shape-memory Effect........................209
7.5.3 Non-thermally Induced Shape-memory Effects...............211
7.6 Potential Applications..................................................................215
7.6.1 Reshape Applications......................................................215
7.6.2 Shape-memory Effect for Hairstyles in Beauty Care........215
7.6.3 Two-way Shape-memory Polymer Laminates..................215
7.6.4 Medical Application: Antibacterial.................................216
7.6.5 Intelligent Windows for Smart Textile Applications........216
7.7 Conclusions.................................................................................218
8 Applications of Shape-memory Polymers................................................223
8.1 Introduction.................................................................................223
8.2 Applications of Bulk Shape-memory Polymers.............................223
8.2.1 Fixation..........................................................................224
8.2.1.1 Orthodontic Wires............................................225
8.2.1.2 Medical Casts...................................................226
8.2.2 Actuation........................................................................226
8.2.2.1 Actuation Realised by Combining Shape-memory Polymers with Specific Structures........226
8.2.2.2 Actuation arising from a Two-way Shape-memory Effect..................................................228
8.2.3 Deployment....................................................................228
8.2.3.1 Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory of Shape-memory Polymer Foams...................................229
8.2.3.2 Expandable Stents.............................................229
8.2.3.3 Deployable Dialysis Needles, Coils and Neuronal Electrodes.........................................229
8.2.4 Self-healing.....................................................................231
8.2.4.1 Confined Shape-recovery Self-healing...............232
8.2.5 Fitting.................................................................................233
8.3 Applications in Surface Wrinkling and Patterning........................234
8.3.1 Principe of Surface Wrinkling.........................................234
8.3.2 Wetting and Spreading....................................................236
8.3.3 Adaptable Biological Devices for Modulating Cellular–substrate Interactions......................................................236
8.3.4 Biosensor and Micro-systems..........................................238
8.3.5 Programmable Surface Pattern........................................239
8.3.6 No-programming Reversible Shape-memory Surface Patterns...........................................................................239
8.4 Applications in Textiles................................................................239
8.4.1 Shape-memory Polymer Fibres........................................239
8.4.2 Shape-memory Polymer Yarns and Fabrics.....................242
8.4.3 Shape-memory Polymer Solutions for Finishing Fabrics..243
8.4.4 Shape-memory Polymer Nanofibres and their Nonwovens.....................................................................245
8.4.5 Shape-memory Polymer Film/Foam and Laminated Textiles...........................................................................247
8.5 Engineering Applications.............................................................249
8.5.1 Transportation................................................................249
8.5.2 Sensors and Actuators.....................................................249
8.5.3 Filtration.........................................................................251
8.5.4 Insulation........................................................................251
8.6 Conclusions.................................................................................252
9 Future Outlook.......................................................................................261
9.1 Introduction.................................................................................261
9.2 New Shape-memory Polymers with Novel Structures and Diversified Functionalities............................................................261
9.2.1 New Stimulus Switches...................................................262
9.2.2 Intrinsic Athermal Switches............................................262
9.2.3 Multi-responsive and Multi-functional Switches.............263
9.3 Development Trends of Shape-memory Polymer Composites and Blends...................................................................................263
9.3.1 Electric-Sensitive Shape-memory Effect...........................264
9.3.2 Light-Sensitive Shape-memory Effect..............................265
9.3.3 Magnetic-Sensitive Shape-memory Effect........................265
9.3.4 Water/Solvent-Sensitive Shape-memory Effect.................265
9.3.5 Shape-memory Effect based on Non-thermal Phase Transitions......................................................................266
9.4 Versatile Shape-memory Effects by Novel Programming Protocols......................................................................................266
9.4.1 Programmability.............................................................266
9.4.2 Imperfection or a New Shape-memory Effect..................267
9.5 Fundamental Understanding........................................................268
9.6 Comprehensive Study of Structure–property Relationships..........268
9.7 Modelling....................................................................................269
9.8 Application in Textiles.................................................................269
9.9 Biomedical Applications..............................................................271
9.10 Applications toward Commercial Success...................... ....274
9.10.1 Maturing and Broadening of Applications......................274
9.10.1.1 Existing Widely Researched Areas....................274
9.10.1.2 Broadening Areas..............................................275
9.10.1.3 Untouched Areas..............................................275
9.10.2 Integrated Approaches....................................................275
9.10.3 Challenging Issues in Applications..................................276
9.11 Supramolecular Shape-memory Polymers....................................277
9.12 Conclusions.................................................................................279
Abbreviations...................................................................................285
Index ..............................................................................................295

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