Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology Edited by J. McCann and D. Bryson

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Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology
Edited by J. McCann and D. Bryson
Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xvi
Preface xxi 

Part I The design of smart clothing and wearable technology 1
1 The emergence of wearable computing 3
M. Malmivaara, Tampere University of
Technology, Finland
1.1 The fi rst devices 3
1.2 The fi rst wearable computers 7
1.3 Wearable electronics 10
1.4 Intelligent clothing 13
1.5 Conclusion: ‘Where can I buy this?’ 22
1.6 References 23
2 Types of smart clothes and wearable technology 25
R. D. Hurford, University of Wales Newport, UK
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 A brief history 26
2.3 Industry sectors’ overview 39
2.4 Current trends 41
2.5 Market forecast 42
2.6 Conclusions 42
2.7 References 43
3 End-user based design of innovative smart clothing 45
J. M cCann, University of Wales Newport, UK
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 The garment layering system 46
3.3 Identification of design requirements 47
3.4 The technology layer: the impact of emerging smart technologies on the design process 54
3.5 Conclusion: a new hybrid design process 63
3.6 Future trends: commercial realities 65
3.7 References 66
4 The garment design process for smart clothing: from fibre selection through to product launch 70
J. M cCann, University of Wales Newport, UK
4.1 Introduction 70
4.2 The design brief 74
4.3 2-D design development 77
4.4 Textile development 79
4.5 Initial 3-D design development 81
4.6 Modern construction and joining technology 83
4.7 Integration of wearable technology 84
4.8 Final prototype development 86
4.9 Point of sale 89
4.10 End-of-life cycle 89
4.11 Future trends 90
4.12 References 94
5 Designing smart clothing for the body 95
D. Bryson, University of Derby, UK
5.1 Introduction 95
5.2 Anatomical, physiological and psychological considerations 96
5.3 How smart is smart? 101
5.4 Human–garment interaction 103
5.5 Demands of the body and wearable technology 104
5.6 References 106

Part II Materials and technologies for smart clothing 109
6 The influence of knitwear on smart wearables 111
F. Saifee, University of Wales Newport, UK
6.1 Introduction 111
6.2 Technical background of knitwear 112
6.3 Three-dimensional fabrics 115
6.4 Body scanning and texture mapping 118
6.5 Application of knitwear trends to the smart wearable industry 120
6.6 Relevance of knitwear to smart wearables, lifestyle trends and brand innovation 127
6.7 Future trends 128
6.8 Conclusion 129
6.9 Other areas of interest 129
6.10 Bibliography 130
7 Woven structures and their impact on the function and performance of smart clothing 131
L. Thomas, Woven Textiles Consultant, UK
7.1 Introduction 131
7.2 Analysing a fabric’s needs 132
7.3 Choosing an appropriate woven structure 134
7.4 Woven structures – ease of movement 143
7.5 Woven structures – wicking and thermoregulation 145
7.6 Woven structures – protection and safety 147
7.7 Three-dimensional fabrics and fully formed seamless woven garments 150
7.8 Woven structures: conductive fabrics 151
7.9 Future trends 152
7.10 Conclusion 154
7.11 Bibliography 154
8 Nonwovens in smart clothes and wearable technologies 156
F. Kane, De Montfort University, UK
8.1 Introduction 156
8.2 Nonwovens technologies and manufacturing processes 158
8.3 End-of-life considerations for nonwovens 173
8.4 Smart and performance clothing applications 174
8.5 Summary 179
8.6 Sources of further information and advice 179
8.7 References 180
9 Sensors and computing systems in smart clothing 183
A. J. Mart i n, University of Wales Newport, UK
9.1 Introduction 183
9.2 Transduction 183
9.3 Information processing 188
9.4 Application examples 192
9.5 Summary 202
9.6 Future trends 202
9.7 References 202
10 The application of communication technologies in smart clothing 205
P. Lam, Wireless Edge Communications Limited, UK
10.1 Introduction 205
10.2 Personal communications networks 206
10.3 Wide area networks 209
10.4 Monitoring systems and service 210
10.5 Opportunities and challenges 212
10.6 Applications 212
10.7 Future trends 213
10.8 References 213
11 Power supply sources for smart textiles 214
G. M i n, Cardiff University, UK
11.1 Introduction 214
11.2 Power requirements of portable devices 215
11.3 Established portable power sources 217
11.4 Energy harvesting devices 221
11.5 Energy storage and power management 227
11.6 Challenges and opportunities 228
11.7 References 230

Part III Production technologies for smart clothing 233
12 Garment construction: cutting and placing of materials 235
J. M cCann, University of Wales Newport, UK,
S. Morsky, HAMK Poly, Finland, and X. Dong,
China Women’s University, PR China
12.1 Introduction 235
12.2 A user-led design approach 236
12.3 Considering the benefi ts of the military/sports layering system 237
12.4 The traditional approach to pattern development 243
12.5 Introducing a fl at pattern cutting system for functional clothing 245
12.6 Three-dimensional pattern making 251
12.7 Placing of materials 254
12.8 Future trends 257
12.9 References 259
13 Developments in fabric joining for smart clothing 262
I. C. Agnusdei, University of Wales Newport, UK
13.1 Introduction 262
13.2 Traditional manufacturing methods: the sewing machine 263
13.3 Bonding 264
13.4 Ultrasonic welding 271
13.5 ‘New’ technologies 274
13.6 Conclusion 276
13.7 Sources of further information and advice 277
13.8 References 277
13.9 Useful internet addresses 277
14 Digital embroidery techniques for smart clothing 279
A. Taylor, University of the West of England, UK
14.1 Introduction 279
14.2 The embroidery machine 281
14.3 Production methods 283
14.4 Engineering applications 289
14.5 Medical applications 291
14.6 Art 293
14.7 New technology and e-broidery 293
14.8 Future trends: what does the future hold? 296
14.9 Sources of further information and advice 297
14.10 References 298
15 Developments in digital print technology for smart textiles 300
C. Treadaway, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, UK
15.1 Introduction 300
15.2 Digital imaging and printed textile design 301
15.3 Digital ink-jet printing 303
15.4 The future: printing new structures, patterns and colours 309
15.5 Digital printing for smart clothes and wearable technologies 315
15.6 Acknowledgements 317
15.7 References 317
16 Environmental and waste issues concerning the production of smart clothes and wearable technology 319
M. Timmins, UK
16.1 Introduction 319
16.2 Textile waste 320
16.3 Environmental effects of the textile manufacturing process 321
16.4 Particular issues for smart clothes and wearable technology 323
16.5 Waste electrical and electronic equipment from smart clothes and wearable technology 326
16.6 Developing a strategy for minimising environmental effects 329
16.7 References 331

Part IV Smart clothing products 333
17 Smart clothing and wearable technology for the health and well-being market 335
D. Bryson, University of Derby, UK
17.1 Introduction 335
17.2 Quality of life, health and well-being 336
17.3 Diagnostic and health monitoring 337
17.4 Activity monitoring devices and systems 338
17.5 Technology, need, acceptability and use 341
17.6 Future trends 342
17.7 Sources of further information and advice 343
17.8 References 343
18 Smart clothing for the ageing population 346
J. M cCann, University of Wales Newport, UK
18.1 Introduction 346
18.2 Identifi cation of older user needs 347
18.3 Commercial realities 349
18.4 The culture of the user 351
18.5 The demands of the activity 355
18.6 The demands of the body 357
18.7 Aesthetic concerns 359
18.8 Technology design and development 364
18.9 Conclusion 365
18.10 Future trends 367
18.11 References 368
19 Smart clothing and disability: wearable technology for people with arthritis 371
S. Underwood, University of Wales Newport, UK
19.1 Introduction 371
19.2 Disability models 371
19.3 People-centred design 373
19.4 People-centred needs 373
19.5 Emotional design 375
19.6 Assistive devices 377
19.7 Case study of wrist splint for people with rheumatoid arthritis 381
19.8 Future trends 385
19.9 Sources of further information and advice 386
19.10 References 386
20 Wearable technology for the performing arts 388
J. Birringer, Brunel University, UK, and
M. Danjoux, Nottingham Trent University, UK
20.1 Introduction: wearables in performance 388
20.2 Design-in-motion: the emergent dress 392
20.3 Outlook: an overview of cutting edge experiments in intelligent fashion/wearables and performance 410
20.4 Sources of further information and advice 411
20.5 The future of embodied wearable performance 414
20.6 Textual notes 416
20.7 Bibliography 419
21 Branding and presentation of smart clothing
products to consumers 420
W. Stahl, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, UK
21.1 Introduction 420
21.2 Shopping for future clothing 422
21.3 Graphics in the area now 426
21.4 Graphics for smart clothing 429
21.5 Branding 429
21.6 Creation of brand/identity – a starting point 433
21.7 Rules for presentation? 436
21.8 Bringing it together 439
21.9 A concept 439
21.10 Conclusion 439
21.11 References 441
21.12 Bibliography 442
Index 445

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