Sustainable Textiles: Life Cycle and Environmental Impact Edited by R. S. Blackburn

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Sustainable Textiles: Life Cycle and Environmental Impact
Edited by R. S. Blackburn

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xv
Preface xxi 

Part I Sustainability through the supply chain 1
1 Achieving sustainable textiles: a designer’s perspective 3
A. Sherburne, Kingston University, UK
1.1 Introduction: key issues affecting textile and fashion design 3
1.2 Strategies for fashion and textile design 13
1.3 Strategies for textile and fashion designers: recycling and reuse – beginning to close the loop 22
1.4 The designer empowered 27
1.5 Sources of further information and advice 31
1.6 References 32
2 Sustainable cotton production 33
L. Grose, California College of the Arts
San Francisco, USA
2.1 Introduction 33
2.2 Cotton basics 33
2.3 Global ecological effects 34
2.4 Economic systems 35
2.5 Farm systems 37
2.6 Water 37
2.7 Chemicals 41
2.8 Conclusions 57
2.9 Future trends 59
2.10 References 60
3 Sustainable wool production and processing 63
I. M. Russell, CSIRO Division of Materials Science and
Engineering, Australia
3.1 Introduction 63
3.2 Wool uses 64
3.3 Consumer trends and environmental impacts 66
3.4 Wool fi bre: structure and properties 68
3.5 Wool and ecolabels 69
3.6 Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies 71
3.7 Outcomes 83
3.8 Sources of further information and advice 84
3.9 Acknowledgements 85
3.10 References 85
4 Sustainable synthetic fi bres: the case of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) and other fi bres 88
I. Chodák, Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy
of Sciences, Slovakia, and R. S. Blackburn, University of Leeds, UK
4.1 Introduction 88
4.2 Poly(hydroxyalkanoates)-based oriented structures 89
4.3 Poly(caprolactone)-based fi bres 100
4.4 Structure of drawn fi bres 103
4.5 Thermal properties 104
4.6 Enzymatic and hydrolytic degradation 105
4.7 Other biodegradable and sustainable polyesters 106
4.8 Application of polyester-based biodegradable fi bres 107
4.9 Future trends and concluding remarks 109
4.10 References 110
5 Enzyme biotechnology for sustainable textiles 113
P. H. Nielsen, H. Kuilderd, W. Zhou and X. Lu,
Novozymes A/S, Denmark
5.1 Introduction 113
5.2 Enzyme applications in textile processing 114
5.3 Life cycle assessments of enzymes used in the textile industry 116
5.4 Environmental assessment of the enzymatic scouring of package cotton yarn for dark-shade dyeing as an alternative to conventional chemical scouring 118
5.5 Environmental assessment of enzymatic bleach clean-up of light-coloured package yarn and knitted fabrics as an alternative to rinsing with hot water 128
5.6 Conclusions on environmental assessments of enzymatic scouring and bleach clean-up 134
5.7 Perspectives 134
5.8 Future trends and applications 135
5.9 Sources of further information and advice 137
5.10 References 138
6 Key sustainability issues in textile dyeing 139
J. R. Easton, DyStar, UK
6.1 Introduction 139
6.2 Key factors for improving sustainability in dyeing and fi nishing 140
6.3 What are ecotextiles? 149
6.4 Future trends 150
6.5 Conclusions 151
6.6 Sources of further information and advice 152
6.7 References 152
7 Environmentally friendly plasma technologies for textiles 155
T. Stegmaier, M. Linke, A. Dinkelmann, V. von Arnim
and H. Planck, Institute for Textile Technology and
Process Engineering (ITV) Denkendorf, Germany
7.1 Introduction 155
7.2 Atmospheric pressure plasma processes 158
7.3 Examples of applications 168
7.4 Environmental benefi ts of plasma technology 174
7.5 Future trends 176
7.6 Source of further information and advice 177
7.7 References 177
8 Understanding and improving textile recycling: a systems perspective 179
J. M. Hawley, Kansas State University, USA
8.1 Introduction 179
8.2 Systems theory 180
8.3 Understanding the textile and apparel recycling process 181
8.4 Textile recycling companies 184
8.5 The sorting process 186
8.6 The pyramid model 186
8.7 Textile recycling constituents 192
8.8 Discussion and future trends 197
8.9 References 198

Part II Applications and case studies 201
9 Consumer perceptions of recycled textile fi bers 203
M. Rucker, University of California, USA
9.1 Introduction 203
9.2 Consumer characteristics related to attitudes toward sustainable products 203
9.3 External factors infl uencing consumers’ attitudes toward sustainable products 204
9.4 Measures of consumer attitudes toward environmental issues 205
9.5 Textile and apparel industry response to green consumerism 205
9.6 Confusion in the marketplace 206
9.7 Meeting the needs of the green consumer 207
9.8 Consumer perceptions of textile products 207
9.9 Sources of further information and advice 211
9.10 References 211
10 Eco-labeling for textiles and apparel 214
S. B. Moore, Hohenstein Institute America, Inc., USA, and M. Wentz, Oeko-Tex Certifi cation Body, USA
10.1 Introduction 214
10.2 Key principles: eco-labeling and sustainability 214
10.3 Standards and eco-labeling defi ned for textiles 219
10.4 Examination and anatomy of eco-labels 224
10.5 Future trends 226
10.6 Summary and commentary 227
10.7 Sources of further information and advice 228
10.8 References 229
11 Organic cotton: production practices and post-harvest considerations 231
P. J. Wakelyn, National Cotton Council of America
(retired), USA, and M. R. Chaudhry, International
Cotton Advisory Committee, USA
11.1 Introduction 231
11.2 World organic cotton production 234
11.3 Why organic cotton? 235
11.4 Cotton production practices: historical background 248
11.5 Organic cotton production practices 250
11.6 Post-harvest handling/processing of organic cotton 263
11.7 Limitations to organic production 269
11.8 How to improve organic cotton production 272
11.9 National obligatory standards for organic cotton and organic cotton certifi ers 274
11.10 Optional/voluntary organic textile processing standards and eco-textile standards 280
11.11 Corporate social responsibility (CSR)/ethical production 286
11.12 Naturally colored cotton 289
11.13 Conclusions 290
11.14 Acknowledgements 291
11.15 References 291
Appendix 11.1 Chemicals allowed and prohibited for use
in preparation, dyeing, printing and fi nishing of organic
cotton textiles (Global Organic Textile Standards;
Organic Exchange Guidelines; Organic Trade Association) 300
12 The role of nanotechnology in sustainable textiles 302
S. Black, London College of Fashion, UK
12.1 Key principles of nanotechnology and its use in sustainability 302
12.2 How nanotechnology can be used to reduce environmental impacts 306
12.3 Surface coatings and treatment of textile fi bres 307
12.4 Coloration and structural colour 311
12.5 Nanofi bres 313
12.6 Electronic textiles 313
12.7 Risks versus benefi ts 318
12.8 Commercial and consumer applications 320
12.9 Future trends 324
12.10 Sources of further information and advice 325
12.11 References 326
13 The use of recovered plastic bags in nonwoven fabrics 329
B. R. George, B. A. Haines and E. Murphy,
Philadelphia University, USA
13.1 Introduction 329
13.2 Experimental approach 331
13.3 Results and discussion 332
13.4 Conclusions 337
13.5 Acknowledgements 337
13.6 References 338
14 Environmentally friendly fl ame-retardant textiles 339
S. Nazaré, University of Bolton, UK
14.1 Introduction 339
14.2 Key issues of fl ame retardants 341
14.3 Legislative and regulatory drives for minimising environmental implications 346
14.4 Desirable properties of an ideal fl ame-retardant chemical used in textile applications 353
14.5 Strategies for development of ‘environmentally friendly’ flame retardants 354
14.6 Future trends 360
14.7 Sources of further information and advice 361
14.8 References 362
15 Systems change for sustainability in textiles 369
K. Fletcher, London College of Fashion, UK
15.1 The blind men and the elephant 369
15.2 From a narrow to a holistic view of sustainability in the textile sector 370
15.3 Ways of thinking 371
15.4 Recognising the limits of eco-effi ciency 372
15.5 Making a transition 373
15.6 Places to intervene in a system 374
15.7 Working at the level of rules, goals and paradigms 378
15.8 References 380
Index 381

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