Surface Modification of Textiles Edited by Q. Wei


Surface Modification of Textiles
Edited by Q. Wei

Surface modification of textiles


Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xiv
Preface xix
1 Surface modification and preparation techniques for textile materials 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Natural fibres 2
1.3 Synthetic fibres 4
1.4 Surface preparation techniques for textile materials 5
1.5 Surface modification techniques for textile materials 7
1.6 Recent studies on the modification of textiles 9
1.7 Future trends 22
1.8 References 23
2 Textile surface characterization methods 26
Q. WEI, F. HUANG AND Y. CAI, Jiangnan University, China
2.1 Introduction 26
2.2 Surface characterization by advanced microscopies 27
2.3 Surface characterization by advanced spectrometers 44
2.4 Surface wetting and contact angles 50
2.5 Future trends 53
2.6 References 54
3 Textile surface functionalization by physical vapor deposition (PVD) 58
Q. WEI, Y. XU AND Y. WANG, Jiangnan University, China
3.1 Introduction 58
3.2 Working principles of physical vapor deposition 59
3.3 Funtionalization of textiles by sputtering 63
3.4 Interfacial bonding 79
3.5 Future trends 86
3.6 References 86
4 Surface grafting of textiles 91
N. ABIDI, Texas Tech University, USA
4.1 Introduction 91
4.2 Techniques of surface grafting 91
4.3 Properties achieved and applications 101
4.4 Strengths and weaknesses of surface grafting 104
4.5 Future trends 105
4.6 Sources of further information and advice 105
4.7 References 105
5 Modification of textile surfaces using electroless deposition 108
S. Q. JIANG AND R. H. GUO, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
5.1 Introduction 108
5.2 The techniques and key principles of electroless deposition 109
5.3 Characterisation of electroless copper- and nickel-plated polyester fabrics 112
5.4 Strengths and weaknesses of electroless deposition 122
5.5 Future trends 123
5.6 Sources of further information and advice 123
5.7 References 124
6 Textile surface functionalisation by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) 126
J. I. B. WILSON, Heriot-Watt University, UK
6.1 Introduction 126
6.2 Practical methods for chemical vapour deposition 129
6.3 Characteristics of chemical vapour deposition coatings 132
6.4 Applications 133
6.5 Current trends and potential advances in uses and techniques 136
6.6 Further sources of information 137
6.7 References 137
7 Enzyme surface modification of textiles 139
V. A. NIERSTRASZ, Ghent University, Belgium
7.1 Introduction: principles of enzyme surface modification of textile materials 139
7.2 Enzymes, technologies and materials (natural materials, synthetic materials, biomaterials) 142
7.3 Strengths and weaknesses of enzyme surface modification 155
7.4 Future trends 156
7.5 Acknowledgements 157
7.6 References 158
8 Modification of textile surfaces using nanoparticles 164
N. VIGNESHWARAN, Central Institute for Research on Cotton
Technology, India
8.1 Introduction 164
8.2 Nanoparticles synthesis and characterization 165
8.3 Functional properties using nanoparticles 169
8.4 Commercialization of nanofinishing in textiles 180
8.5 Strengths and weaknesses of nanotechnology for surface modification 182
8.6 Future trends 182
8.7 References 182
9 Modification of textile surfaces using the sol-gel technique 185
T. TEXTOR, Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V.,
9.1 Introduction: the principles of the sol-gel technique 185
9.2 General aspects of textile finishing using (nano-)sols 190
9.3 Sol-gel-based finishing effects 197
9.4 Future trends 209
9.5 References 210
10 Nano-modification of textile surfaces using layer-by-layer deposition methods 214
P. LU, University of California, USA; and B. DING, Donghua
University, China
10.1 Introduction 214
10.2 The LbL deposition technique 218
10.3 LbL deposition on textile surfaces 221
10.4 Conclusions and future trends 232
10.5 Acknowledgements 233
10.6 References 233
11 Surface modification of textiles for composite and filtration applications 238
A. S. HOCKENBERGER, Uludag University, Turkey
11.1 Introduction 238
11.2 Surface modification of textiles for composites 239
11.3 Surface properties of reinforcing fibers and applications 246
11.4 Surface modification of textiles for filtration 257
11.5 Applications of surface-modified fibers used for filtration 260
11.6 Future trends 262
11.7 References 264
12 Surface modification of textiles by aqueous solutions 269
J. WANG, The Procter & Gamble Company, USA; and J. LIU,
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, China
12.1 Introduction 269
12.2 Mechanisms and chemistries of textile surface modifications 270
12.3 Applications of surface modification of textiles by aqueous solutions 280
12.4 Future trends 291
12.5 References 293
13 Surface modification of textiles by plasma treatments 296
R. R. MATHER, Heriot-Watt University, UK
13.1 Introduction 296
13.2 Nature of plasmas 297
13.3 Plasma generation 297
13.4 Low-pressure versus atmospheric-pressure treatments 299
13.5 Strengths and limitations of plasma treatments 300
13.6 Characterisation of plasma-treated textile surfaces 301
13.7 Modifications to textile surfaces 303
13.8 Applications 311
13.9 Future trends 313
13.10 Sources of further information and advice 314
13.11 References 314
14 Emerging approaches to the surface modification of textiles 318
Q. WEI, Jiangnan University, China
14.1 The expansion of textiles into technical applications 318
14.2 New techniques for surface modification 319
14.3 Future trends 321
14.4 References 322
Index 325

Textile industries have been experiencing fast development with versatile products for a wide spectrum of applications being developed through technological innovations. In various applications, the functions of textile materials are associated with phenomena such as wetting, biocompatibility, adsorption and electrical conductivity. Wetting, friction, adhesion, biocompatibility and adsorption all begin at the surface. In these cases, it is the surfaces, rather than the bulk compositions, that are critical to the material performance. The properties of textile surfaces depend closely on their surface chemical and physical structures, which vary according to differences in polymer composition, structures of fibers and fiber assemblies as well as treatment.

The surfaces of textiles offer a platform for functional modifications to meet specific requirements for a variety of applications. Surface modification of textiles refers to the use of a wide range of technologies designed to modify the surface properties of textiles to create the surface structures that give the textile product the desired properties. The surface modification of textiles may be achieved by various techniques ranging from traditional solution treatments to biological approaches. Functionalization of textile surfaces has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years, with the help of new technologies such as high energy beam processes, vapor deposition and nanoparticle coatings. In textiles, the fiber is the basis for creating structural forms and functional properties, and by manipulating the bulk and surface structures of fibers, the resulting textiles may possess new capabilities and functions to meet the demands for particular uses.

It has been recognized that surface analysis is an essential process in improving our understanding of surface structure and its relationship to the technical performance of textiles and the technologies used for the surface modification of textiles. New developments in surface analysis technologies allow surface characterizations to be achieved at the nano-scale level.

This book provides a detailed review of the surfaces of textiles, the surface characterization and modification of textiles, and the applications of the modified textiles. It is believed that this book will promote understanding of surface modification and the development of surface modification strategies for various applications of textiles.

Q. Wei

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