Rubber Technology PDF by S. C. Bhatia and Avishek Goel, Volume I & II

By

Rubber Technology, Volume I-II

rubber technology volume 1rubber technology volume 2

By S. C. Bhatia and Avishek Goel

Volume I

Preface xvii

Section I: General considerations and engineering aspects 1

  1. Basic concepts of polymerisation 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Monomers and polymers 3

1.3 Addition and condensation polymers 10

1.4 Mechanism of polymerisation 13

1.5 Polymer degradation 13

1.6 Biopolymers 16

  1. Natural rubber 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Tapping techniques 20

2.3 Latex technology 22

2.4 Processing of latex compound 28

Section II: Synthetic rubbers—non-oil resistant, special purpose and other specialty rubbers 33

  1. Synthetic rubbers: An overview 35

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Classification of synthetic rubbers 36

3.3 Brief description of important synthetic rubbers 37

  1. Styrene butadiene rubber 41

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Chemical structure and properties 42

4.3 Production technology 44

4.4 Technical developments 47

4.5 Compounding and processing of SBR 48

  1. Polybutadiene rubber 55

5.1 Introduction 55

5.2 Chemistry and manufacturing process 55

5.3 Types of PBR 56

5.4 Application for styrenics modification 59

5.5 Properties of PBR 62

5.6 Uses of PBR 63

  1. Polyisoprene rubber 65

6.1 Introduction 65

6.2 Production of polyisoprene 66

6.3 Applications of polyisoprene 69

6.4 Properties of polyisoprene 70

  1. Butyl and halobutyl rubber 73

7.1 Introduction 73

7.2 Manufacture of butyl rubber 73

7.3 Properties of butyl rubber 75

7.4 Halogenated butyl rubber 77

7.5 Chlorobutyl vulcanisation and applications 82

  1. Ethylene propylene rubber 87

8.1 Introduction 87

8.2 Manufacturing processes of EPDM 87

8.3 Manufacture and processing of EPDM 89

8.4 Elements of compounding EPDM 92

8.5 Compounding EPDM for various applications 94

8.6 Polymer variables and properties 97

  1. Thermoplastic rubber (Elastomers) 101

9.1 Introduction 101

9.2 Thermoplastic elastomer 102

9.3 Thermodynamics of elasticity 108

9.4 Structure of thermoplastic elastomers 109

9.5 Synthesis of thermoplastic elastomers 110

9.6 Processing methods of thermoplastic elastomers 112

9.7 Future directions of thermoplastic elastomers 121

  1. Chloroprene rubber 125

10.1 Introduction 125

10.2 Compounding dry neoprenes 126

10.3 Processing dry neoprenes 129

10.4 Applications of neoprenes 130

10.5 Neoprene latex 132

  1. Chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber 137

11.1 Introduction 137

11.2 Process of manufacture of HYPALON 137

11.3 Processing of HYPALON 144

11.4 Properties of CSM 144

11.5 Applications of CSM 146

  1. Nitrile rubber 149

12.1 Introduction 149

12.2 Chemistry and manufacturing process of NBR 150

12.3 General types of NBR 151

12.4 Compounding of NBR 153

12.5 Hydrogenated NBR (H-NBR or ENM or HSN) 158

12.6 Latest developments of NBR 159

  1. Polyacrylic rubber 161

13.1 Introduction 161

13.2 Compounding and processing of ACM 162

13.3 General processing of polyacrylic rubber (ACM) 165

13.4 Future developments of polyacrylic rubber (ACM) 170

  1. Fluorocarbon rubber 171

14.1 Introduction 171

14.2 Manufacturing of fluorocarbon rubbers 172

14.3 Processing and curing of fluorocarbon rubbers 173

14.4 Compounding of FKM 176

14.5 Compounding of FKM for specific properties 177

14.6 Tetrafluoroethylene/propylene-copolymer 178

14.7 Properties of FKM vulcanisates 179

14.8 Advantages and disadvantages of fluorocarbon rubbers 180

14.9 Applications of fluorocarbon rubbers 180

14.10 Additional developments of fluoro elastomers 182

  1. Silicone rubber 185

15.1 Introduction 185

15.2 Vulcanisation of silicone rubber 186

15.3 Compounding ingredients 186

15.4 Compounding of silicone rubber 188

15.5 Advantages and disadvantages of silicone rubber 197

15.6 Properties of silicone rubber 197

15.7 Applications of silicone rubber 198

  1. Thermoplastic polyurethane 201

16.1 Introduction 201

16.2 Basic reactions in polyurethane chemistry 202

16.3 Polyurethane components 203

16.4 Polymerisation of polyurethane 204

16.5 Properties of polyurethane (AU) 204

16.6 Compounding of polyurethane (AU) 205

16.7 Processing of polyurethane (AU) 206

16.8 Properties and uses of polyurethane (AU) vulcanisates 206

16.9 Selection criteria for cast polyurethane elastomers 208

16.10 Advantages and limitations of polyurethane 209

16.11 Polyester and polyether 211

  1. PEVA, chlorinated polyethylene and ethylene acrylic elastomers 213

17.1 Introduction 213

17.2 Chemical structure of PEVA 213

17.3 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) 216

17.4 Ethylene acrylic elastomers 218

  1. Polysulphide, norbornene and polyphosphazene rubbers 223

18.1 Introduction 223

18.2 Polysulphide rubber 223

18.3 Polynorbornenes rubber 226

18.4 Polyphosphazene rubber 227

Section III: Vulcanisation mixing and calendering of rubber 231

  1. Chemistry and technology of vulcanisation 233

19.1 Introduction 233

19.2 Vulcanisation systems 234

19.3 Mechanism of rubber vulcanisation 235

  1. Materials for compounding and reinforcement 245

20.1 Introduction 245

20.2 Metal oxides 246

20.3 Accelerators 248

20.4 Retarders 251

20.5 Fillers 251

20.6 Antidegradants 258

20.7 Antioxidants 259

20.8 Softeners 261

20.9 Peptisers 262

20.10 Plasticisers 262

20.11 Colours and pigments 265

20.12 Tackyfying agents 266

20.13 Blowing agents 267

  1. Mixing and curing of rubber compounds 269

21.1 Introduction 269

21.2 Material flow to the mixer 270

21.3 Mixing process 274

21.4 Internal mixers 280

21.5 Take-off systems 291

21.6 Other mixing equipment 292

21.7 Custom compounding 294

21.8 Troubleshooting the mixing process 295

21.9 Curing process 296

21.10 Scorch or premature vulcanisation 298

  1. Calendering, extrusion and molding of rubber compounds 301

22.1 Introduction 301

22.2 Equipment for rubber calendering 301

22.3 Process of calendering 302

22.4 Troubleshooting problems in calendering 304

22.5 Extrusion of rubber 304

22.6 Extruder operation and control 310

22.7 Shaping of rubber 311

22.8 Take-off and curing 314

22.9 Troubleshooting the extrusion process 317

22.10 Molding of rubber 318

22.11 Compression and transfer molding 319

22.12 Injection molding of rubber 319

 

Volume II

Section IV: Manufacturing techniques of rubber products 329

  1. Tyres 331

23.1 Introduction 331

23.2 Tyre manufacturing process 331

23.3 Characteristics of manufacturing tyres 331

23.4 Preparation of materials for tyre manufacturing 333

23.5 Preparation of members 335

23.6 Manufacture of green tyres 336

23.7 Vulcanisation of tyres 337

23.8 Finishing of tyres operation 338

23.9 Manufacturing of rubber products and

energy consumption 340

23.10 Tyre manufacturing and energy conservation 341

23.11 Reduction in the energy cost 342

23.12 Energy conservation in the tyre manufacturing factories 342

23.13 Role of cooling tower in tyre factories 345

  1. Rubber conveyor belt 351

24.1 Introduction 351

24.2 Process of manufacture of conveyor belt 351

24.3 Rubber textile composites 354

24.4 Safety of using belt conveyor 357

  1. Rubber hose 359

25.1 Introduction 359

25.2 Manufacturing of hose 359

25.3 Type of hoses 361

25.4 Factors affecting hose service life 366

25.5 Steam hose warning 367

25.6 Chemical hose warning 368

25.7 Static electricity warning 368

25.8 Care maintenance and storage of hose 369

25.9 Testing methods for hose 372

  1. Rubber footwear 375

26.1 Introduction 375

26.2 Shoes and shoe making 375

26.3 Hand assembled shoe making process 376

26.4 Types of rubber footwear 379

  1. Cellular rubber 385

27.1 Introduction 385

27.2 Manufacture of cellular rubber 385

27.3 Sponge rubber 386

27.4 Standards for dimensional tolerances 389

  1. Sports goods 393

28.1 Introduction 393

28.2 Tennis balls 394

28.3 Golf balls 396

28.4 Squash balls 400

  1. Anti vibration mounts 405

29.1 Introduction 405

29.2 Role of rubber in anti vibration mounts 406

29.3 Manufacturing process of anti vibration mounts 408

29.4 Types of mounts of anti vibration mounts 408

  1. Rubber rollers 413

30.1 Introduction 413

30.2 Process of rubber roller manufacturing 414

30.3 Industrial rollers 418

30.4 Maintenance of rubber rollers 422

30.5 Production of rubber sheets from roller lines 424

  1. Rubber to metal bonding 429

31.1 Introduction 429

31.2 Bonding layer 430

31.3 Bonding process 431

31.4 Rubber to metal assemblies 433

31.5 Manufacturing methods 436

31.6 Testing of rubber to metal bond 441

31.7 Applications of rubber to metal bonding 443

  1. Manufacture of miscellaneous rubber products 445

32.1 Introduction 445

32.2 Engine mountings 445

32.3 Process of manufacture of engine mountings 445

32.4 Auto tubes and flaps 446

32.5 Rubber cables 446

32.6 Rubber gaskets 450

32.7 Rubber matting 452

32.8 Latex gloves 454

32.9 Microcellular rubber sheets 455

32.10 Products based on spread fabrics 456

Section V: Pollution control and energy conservation in rubber industry 459

  1. Pollution control in rubber industry 461

33.1 Introduction 461

33.2 Natural rubber processing industry 461

33.3 Emissions from rubber industry 473

33.4 Control of air emission and noise mitigation 475

33.5 Wastewater generation in tyre industry 477

33.6 Control and treatment technology 479

33.7 Reclaimed rubber 479

  1. Energy conservation in rubber industry 483

34.1 Introduction 483

34.2 Energy saving in rubber industry 484

34.3 Importance of steam in mixers and mills 486

34.4 High pressure hot water in tyre manufacturing 494

34.5 Cooling systems in mixing milling 494

34.6 Chilled water in rubber processing 497

34.7 Hydraulic systems in rubber processing 498

34.8 Compressed air in rubber processing 499

34.9 Ventilation systems in rubber processing 502

34.10 Role of insulation in rubber processing 504

34.11 Motors and drives in compounding and extrusion equipments 504

34.12 Lighting in rubber processing industry 505

34.13 Heating in curing and mixing rubber 507

Section VI: Carbon footprints and nanotechnology in rubber industry 509

  1. Carbon footprint in rubber industry 511

35.1 Introduction 511

35.2 Carbon footprint in rubber industry 511

35.3 Adverse effects of carbon footprint 512

35.4 Carbon footprint calculation 515

35.5 Cradle-to-grave 516

35.6 Greenhouse gas emissions from rubber tree plantations 520

35.7 Reducing of carbon footprint 522

  1. Role of nanotechnology in rubber industry 525

36.1 Introduction 525

36.2 Nanomaterials applications in rubber 525

36.3 Benefits of rubber industry from nanotechnology 527

36.4 Nanotechnology applications in automotive industry 530

36.5 Nanotechnology for tyres 533

36.6 Nano particles in automobile tyres 534

36.7 Reducing zinc oxide in rubber industry by mixed metal oxide nano particles 537

Section VII: Applications, safety and testing of rubber products 543

  1. Engineering and other applications of rubber products 545

37.1 Introduction 545

37.2 Applications of rubber in aerospace 545

37.3 Applications of rubber in railway engineering 547

37.4 Anti-static and conductive uses of rubber 549

37.5 Applications of rubber sheets 549

37.6 Applications of rubber bearings for bridges 550

37.7 Applications of rubber in piers and fenders 551

37.8 Applications of rubber in buildings 552

37.9 Applications of rubber in packaging 552

37.10 Application of rubber in automobiles and allied industries 552

37.11 Applications of rubber in construction and chemical industries 555

  1. Health and safety aspects in rubber industry 559

38.1 Introduction 559

38.2 Safety aspects in rubber compounding – powder handling, mixing and milling 559

38.3 Safety aspects in extrusion of rubber 562

38.4 Safety aspects in calendering of rubber products 563

38.5 Cloth coating 566

38.6 Fabrication (including tank lining, roller covering and hose winding) 567

38.7 Vulcanisation (including presses, autoclaves and continuous vulcanisation) 569

38.8 Latex processing 572

38.9 Polyurethanes (including PU foam production, re-constituted foam, foam conversion and rigid urethanes) 573

38.10 Tyre building 575

38.11 Tyre retreading 576

38.12 Summary of safety and precautions in rubber industry 577

  1. Testing of rubber products 579

39.1 Introduction 579

39.2 Testing of rubber compounds after mixing 580

39.3 Processability test instruments 582

39.4 Microprocessor control, automatic calibration 592

39.5 Testing of finished rubber product 593

39.6 Tests of filler distribution and dispersion 594

39.7 Tests on cured specimens 594

39.8 Improving rubber testing with microcomputers 597

Glossary 611

Appendices 637

References 653

Index 655

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