Textiles, Polymers and Composites for Buildings Edited by Goeran Pohl

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Textiles, Polymers and Composites for Buildings
Edited by Goeran Pohl

Contents
Contributor contact details xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xvii
1 Introduction 1
G. Pohl, Saarland University of Applied Sciences,
Germany
1.1 Tall – broad – climate effi cient 2
1.2 High-tech textiles already infl uence our daily lives 4
1.3 Features of the constructive formation of buildings with textiles, fabrics and sheeting 5
1.4 Building with fi bre-reinforced polymers 6
1.5 From the fi rst experiences with the application of fibre-reinforced polymers up to modern buildings 7
1.6 Conclusion 9

Part I Main types of textiles and polymers used in building and construction 11
2 Types and production of textiles used for building and construction 13
M. Milwich, Insti tute for Textile Technology and Process
Engineering Denkendorf (ITV), Germany
2.1 Introduction 13
2. 2 Overview of textile formation technology 29
2.3 Foils for bu ilding and construction 34
2.4 Coatings for bu ilding and construction textiles 35
2.5 Top coats for building and construction 38
2. 6 Combining optimised materials to form buildtech composite materials 38
2. 7 Primary structures for building and construction 40
2. 8 Future trends 41
2 . 9 References and bibliography 48
3 Technical characteristics and requirements of textiles used for building and construction 49
B. Baier, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 Historical development of fabrics used for construction 50
3.3 Overview of textile materials currently used for construction 55
3.4 Technical characteristics and requirements of fabrics for modern structural engineering 62
3.5 Future trends 66
3.6 Sources of further information and advice 67
3.7 References and further reading 67
4 Fibre reinforced polymer composite materials for building and construction 69
M. Motavalli, C. Czaderski, A. Schumacher and
D. Gsell, Empa, Switzerland
4.1 Introduction 69
4.2 Constituent materials, material properties and manufacturing 72
4.3 Durability of composites 83
4.4 Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for strengthening of existing concrete structural members (fl exural, shear, confi nement) 91
4.5 Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for fl exural strengthening 94
4.6 Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for shear strengthening 101
4.7 Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for confinement 107
4.8 Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for strengthening of existing masonry structures 111
4.9 Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for internal reinforcement 114
4.10 Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for profi les 118
4.11 Future developments 121
4.12 References 123
5 Developing and testing textiles and coatings for tensioned membrane structures 129
T. Stegmaier, P. Schneider, A. Vohrer and H. Planck,
Institute of Textile Technology and Process Engineering
Denkendorf (ITV), Germany and R. Blum and
H. Bögner-Balz, Laboratorium Blum, Germany
5.1 Introduction 129
5.2 Material systems used for membranes 129
5.3 Test methods and characterization of membranes 132
5.4 Mechanical tests and behaviour of membranes 134
5.5 Strength of the connecting systems for membranes 142
5.6 Transmission of light through membranes 154
5.7 Heat and energy transport in membranes 155
5.8 Chemical, light and fi re durability of membranes 172
5.9 Surface cleaning properties of membranes 177
5.10 Overview of commonly used standards for membranes 179
5.11 Future trends: methods of improving membrane properties 179
5.12 Sources of further information and advice 185
5.13 Bibliography 188
6 Polymer foils used in construction 189
L. Schiemann, Mayr | Ludescher | Partner,
Germany and K. Moritz, seele cover GmbH, Germany
6.1 Introduction 189
6.2 Construction methods and types of ETFE-foil structures 190
6.3 Historical development: significant ETFE projects 193
6.4 Typology, basic shapes and range of application 203
6.5 ETFE-foils – morphology and production progress 205
6.6 Material properties 210
6.7 Load-bearing behaviour of ETFE-foil structures 215
6.8 Development potential of ETFE-foils in architecture 219
6.9 Future requirements for architecture and civil engineering 220
6.10 References 223
6.11 Appendix 223

Part II Applications of textiles and polymers in construction 227
7 Tensile structures – textiles for architecture and design 229
J. Chilton, Nottingham Trent University, UK
7.1 Introduction 229
7.2 Brief history and development of tensile structures 230
7.3 Concept of fabric architecture 231
7.4 General principles of tensile structures 231
7.5 Design development – form-finding, patterning and pre-stress 233
7.6 Common materials and their architectural properties 240
7.7 Applications and examples of tensile structures 244
7.8 Future trends 252
7.9 Sources of further information and advice 254
7.10 References 255
8 The role, properties and applications of textile materials in sustainable buildings 258
J. Pohl, Lightweight Constructions Institute, Germany
and G. Pohl, Saarland University of Applied Sciences, Germany
8.1 Introduction 258
8.2 The role of textile materials in sustainable buildings 259
8.3 Applications and properties of textiles used for roofi ng and fac¸ades of sustainable building concepts 260
8.4 Future trends 287
8.5 Sources of further information and advice 287
8.6 References and bibliography 288
9 Learning from nature: lightweight constructions using the ‘technical plant stem’ 290
M. Milwich, Institute for Textile Technology and Process
Engineering Denkendorf (ITV), Germany and T. Speck,
Universität Freiburg, Germany
9.1 Introduction 290
9.2 Using biomimetics to enhance the lightweight potential of composites 291
9.3 Exploiting plant role models for technical use 295
9.4 Production of the ‘technical plant stem’ 302
9.5 Applications of the ‘technical plant stem’ 304
9.6 Future trends 307
9.7 References 308
10 The role of textiles in providing biomimetic solutions for construction 310
G. Pohl, Saarland University of Applied Sciences,
Germany, T. Speck and O. Speck, Universität Freiburg,
Germany and J. Pohl, Lightweight Constructions Institute,
Germany
10.1 Introduction 310
10.2 Definitions of biomimetics, bionics and technical biology 311
10.3 Benefits of natural developments for technical purposes 312
10.4 Methodology of biomimetics in architecture and engineering 312
10.5 Applications of biomimetics in architecture 318
10.6 Future trends 321
10.7 Sources of further information and advice 326
10.8 References 327
11 Smart textile and polymer fibres for structural health monitoring 330
A. Güemes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain and T. B. Messervey, D’Appolonia S.p.A., Italy
11.1 Introduction: concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) 330
11.2 Smart fi bres for structural health monitoring (SHM) 333
11.3 Smart composites 340
11.4 Future trends 344
11.5 Smart textiles 346
11.6 Sources of further information and advice 349
11.7 References 350
12 Textiles for insulation systems, control of solar gains and thermal losses and solar systems 351
J. M. Cremers, Hochschule für Technik (HFT)
Stuttgart, Germany and Hightex GmbH, Rimsting, Germany
12.1 Introduction 351
12.2 Heat protection for membranes: fl exible translucent thermal insulation 352
12.3 Selective and low-E functional coatings for membrane materials (PTFE/ETFE) 358
12.4 Fully membrane-integrated photovoltaics: PV fl exibles (PTFE/ETFE) 364
12.5 Conclusion 373
12.6 References 374
13 Sustainable buildings: biomimicry and textile applications 375
E. Hertzsch, University of Melbourne, Australia
13.1 Introduction 375
13.2 Implementation of textile materials in Australia 377
13.3 Strategies for fac¸ades to reduce the operational energy demand 379
13.4 Contributions of textile materials to reduce the operational energy demand, and comparisons with examples from nature 381
13.5 Deliberations on future applications 392
13.6 References 395
13.7 Appendix 396
14 Challenges in using textile materials in architecture: the case of Australia 398
E. Hertzsch and K. Lau, University of Melbourne, Australia
14.1 Introduction 398
14.2 Aim, objectives and methodology of the study 399
14.3 Results of the interview 400
14.4 Summary of results 416
14.5 Conclusions and deliberations on future developments 417
14.6 References 418
15 Innovative composite-fi bre components in architecture 420
G. Pohl, Saarland University of Applied Sciences,
Germany and M. Pfalz, FIBER-TECH Products GmbH,
Germany
15.1 Introduction 420
15.2 Historical backgroud 421
15.3 Materials for composites 423
15.4 Design and manufacture of composites for buildings 431
15.5 Composites in building: the ‘Space Offi ce’ prototype 436
15.6 Composites in buildings: The Walbrook, London 442
15.7 Composites in buildings: The Feathered Wing, Feuchtwangen, Germany 460
15.8 Acknowledgements 467
15.9 Bibliography 469
Index 471

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