Electrospinning of Nanofibers in Textiles by A. K. Haghi

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Electrospinning of Nanofibers in Textiles
By A. K. Haghi
Electrospinning of Nanofibers in Textiles

Contents
List of Abbreviations .......................................................................................... vii
Preface ................................................................................................................ ix
1. Electrospun Nanofi bers: An Introduction ....................................................... 1
Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1
Keywords ............................................................................................................. 5
2. Update on Effect of Systematic Parameters .................................................... 6
Introduction ......................................................................................................... 6
Effect of Systematic Parameters on Electrospun Nanofibers .............................. 8
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 11
3. Update on Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers ................................... 12
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 12
Concluding Remarks ......................................................................................... 14
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 15
4. Update on Fabrication of New Class of Electrospun Nanofibers ................ 16
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 16
Diameter Distribution of Nanofi bers ................................................................. 17
Nanofi ber Orientation Distribution .................................................................... 18
Concluding Remarks ......................................................................................... 18
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 20
5. Update on Instability in Electrospun Nanofi bers ......................................... 21
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 21
Concluding Remarks ......................................................................................... 23
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 24
6. Update on Control of Electrospun Nanofi ber Diameter––Part I ................ 25
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 25
Manual Method ................................................................................................. 26
Distance Transform ........................................................................................... 27
Direct Tracking .................................................................................................. 27
Concluding Remarks ......................................................................................... 28
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 29
7. Update on Control of Electrospun Nanofi ber Diameter––Part II ............... 30
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 30
Methodology ...................................................................................................... 31
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 41
8. Update on Control of Electrospun Web Pores Structure ............................. 42
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 42
Methodology ...................................................................................................... 43
Experiment ........................................................................................................ 48
Results and Discussion ...................................................................................... 49
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 58
9. Update on Control of some of the Governing Parameters in
Electrospinning ................................................................................................ 59
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 59
Experiment ........................................................................................................ 61
Results and Discussion ...................................................................................... 65
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 70
10. Effects of Electric Field and Sericin Content in the Blend on the
Nanofi bers Uniformity .................................................................................... 71
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 71
Experimental and Methods ................................................................................ 71
Results and Discussion ...................................................................................... 72
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 75
11. Update on Electroless plating of Fabrics with Nanoparticles ...................... 76
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 76
Experiment ........................................................................................................ 76
Results and Discussion ...................................................................................... 78
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 82
12. Update on Lamination of Nanofibers ............................................................ 83
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 83
Experiments: Case 1––Production of Nanofibers .............................................. 87
Experiment: Case 2––Production of Laminated Composites ............................ 88
Results and Discussion ...................................................................................... 88
Experimental Design ......................................................................................... 91
Appendix ........................................................................................................... 95
Keywords ......................................................................................................... 104
13. Update on New Class of Nonwovens ............................................................ 105
Introduction ..................................................................................................... 105
Experiment ...................................................................................................... 106
Results and Discussion .................................................................................... 108
Manual Method ............................................................................................... 115
Keywords ......................................................................................................... 118
14. Update on Control of Electrospun Nanofiber Diameter—Part III ............119
Introduction ..................................................................................................... 119
Methodology .................................................................................................... 120
Experiment ...................................................................................................... 124
Results and Discussion .................................................................................... 124
Keywords ......................................................................................................... 126
References ....................................................................................................... 127
Index ............................................................................................................... 128

List of Abbreviations
AFM Atomic force microscopy
CV Coefficient of variation
dB Decibels
DMF Dimethylformamide
EOS Equivalent opening size
FCCD Face-centered central composite design
MAT Medial axis transformation
MFD Mean fiber diameter
ODF Orientation distribution function
PAN Polyacrylonitrile
PDLA Poly D, L-lactide
PEOT/PBT Polyethylene oxide terephthalate/polybutylene terephthalate
POA Percent open area
PPSN Polypropylene spun-bond nonwoven
PSD Pore-opening size distribution
PVA Polyvinyl alcohol
PVdF Polyvinylidene fluoride
RMSE Root mean square errors
RSM Response surface methodology
SE Shielding effectiveness
SEM Scanning electron microscopy
SF Silk fibroin
StdFD Standard deviation of fiber diameter
TEM Transmission electron microscopy

Preface
Nanotechnology, refers to a field whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller, and involves developing materials or devices within that size. Nanotechnology is extremely diverse, ranging from novel extensions of conventional device physics, to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, to developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale, even to speculation on whether we can directly control matter on the atomic scale. There has been much debate on the future of implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has the potential to create many new materials and devices with wide-ranging applications, such as in medicine, electronics, and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as with any introduction of new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

Nanotechnology is now used in precision engineering, new materials development as well as in electronics; electromechanical systems as well as mainstream biomedical applications in areas such as gene therapy, drug delivery and novel drug discovery techniques. Nanofibers are defi ned as fi bers with diameters on the order of 100 nanometers.

They can be produced by interfacial polymerization and electrospinning. Nanofibers are included in garments, insulation and in energy storage. They are also used in medical applications, which include drug and gene delivery, artificial blood vessels, artificial organs and medical facemasks. Electrospinning is the cheapest and the most straightforward way to produce nanomaterials. Electrospun nanofi bres are very important for the scientifi c and economic revival of developing countries. It is now possible to produce a low-cost, high-value, high-strength fi bre from a biodegradable and renewable waste product for easing environmental concerns. Electrospun nanofi bres can be used in many applications. This book presents new research in this dynamic fi eld and covers all aspects of electrospinning as used to produce nanofi bres.

— A. K. Haghi


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