Benefit-Cost Analysis: Financial and Economic Appraisal using Spreadsheets by Harry F. Campbell and Richard P. C. Brown


Benefit-Cost Analysis: Financial and Economic Appraisal using Spreadsheets
By Harry F. Campbell and Richard P. C. Brown

Benefit-Cost Analysis - Financial And Economic Appraisal Using Spreadsheets

List of figures vi
List of tables ix
Preface xi
1 Benefit-Cost Analysis: Introduction and Overview 1
2 Investment Appraisal: Principles 18
3 Investment Appraisal: Decision-Rules 36
4 Private Benefit-Cost Analysis: Financial Analysis 62
5 Efficiency Benefit-Cost Analysis 92
6 Calculating the Net Benefits to the Referent Group 122
7 Consumer and Producer Surplus in Benefit-Cost Analysis 146
8 Valuing Traded and Non-traded Commodities in Benefit-Cost Analysis 177
9 Incorporating Risk in Benefit-Cost Analysis 194
10 The Social Discount Rate, Cost of Public Funds, and the Value of Information 221
11 Weighting Net Benefits to Account for Income Distribution 238
12 Valuation of Non-marketed Goods 261
13 Economic Impact Analysis 288
14 Writing the Benefit-Cost Analysis Report 304
Appendix 1: Case Study Assignment 332
Appendix 2: Discount and Annuity Tables 340
Index 342
1.1 The “With and Without” Approach to Benefit-Cost Analysis 3
1.2 Typical Time-Stream of Project Net Benefits 5
1.3 Relationship between the Project, Private, Efficiency and
Referent Group Net Benefits 7
1.4 The Benefit-Cost Analysis Spreadsheet 12
1.5 Project Appraisal and Evaluation as a Continuous Process 15
2.1 Investment Appraisal – a Private Perspective 19
2.2 A Country’s Inter-temporal Production Possibilities Curve 22
2.3 The Inter-temporal Effects of International Trade 23
2.4 Net Benefit Stream of a Two-period Investment Project 25
2.5 Net Present Value in Relation to the Discount Rate 26
2.6 Calculating Internal Rates of Return – One Positive Value 27
2.7 Calculating Internal Rates of Return – Two Positive Values 28
2.8 Net Present Value in Relation to the Discount Rate – the Two Positive
Internal Rates of Return Case 29
2.9 Net Present Value in Relation to the Discount Rate – the No Internal
Rate of Return Case 30
3.1 Switching 48
3.2 Spreadsheet Presentation of DCF Calculation 54
3.3 Using Built-In Spreadsheet Formulae 56
3.4 Referencing within the Spreadsheet 58
3.5 Selecting and Pasting a Built-in Formula 59
4.1 NFG Case Study: Key Variables Table 80
4.2 NFG Case Study: Project Cash Flow Table 81
4.3 NFG Case Study: Private Net Benefits Table 83
A4.1 ICP Project Solution: Key Input Variables 89
A4.2 ICP Project Solution: The Project Cash Flow 89
A4.3 ICP Project Solution: The Private Cash Flow 90
5.1 The Efficiency Benefit-Cost Analysis Pricing Rule 93
5.2 Competitive Market Equilibrium 94
5.3 The Effect of a Minimum Wage 97
5.4 An Individual’s Leisure Supply and Demand 99
5.5 The Market for Rental Units with Rent Control 100
5.6 The Market for an Imported Good Subject to a Tariff 101
5.7 The Market for Diesel Fuel Subject to a Subsidy 102
5.8 Demand and Costs in the Electricity Industry 103
5.9 Demand for Labour by a Monopoly 105
5.10 Supply for Labour to a Monopsony 106
5.11 Monopoly Output with and without a Subsidy 107
5.12 A Consumer Good Subject to an Indirect Tax 109
5.13 NFG Case Study: Key Variables Table with Efficiency Prices 115
5.14 NFG Case Study: Efficiency Cash Flow Table 116
A5.1 ICP Project Solution: The Efficiency Cash Flow 118
6.1 The Relationship between Referent Group and Non-referent Group
Net Benefits at Market Prices and Efficiency Prices 123
6.2 NFG Case Study: Referent Group Analysis Table 136
6.3 Distribution of Efficiency Net Benefits ($ thousands, @ 10% discount rate) 137
A6.1 ICP Project Solution: The Referent Group Cash Flow 139
A6.2 ICP Project Solution: Consolidated Tables 142
7.1 Consumer Surplus 148
7.2(a) Consumer Surplus with Inelastic Demand 150
7.2(b) Consumer Surplus with Elastic Demand 151
7.3 Benefits of a Bridge 153
7.4 Effect of a Bridge Toll 155
7.5 Subsidizing Bus Fares 156
7.6 Effects of Worker Training 159
7.7 Benefits of an Irrigation Project 161
7.8 Change in the Rental Value of Land 163
7.9 Irrigation Water Sold at Less than Market Value 165
7.10 Effect of an Increase in Demand for Labour 166
7.11 Effects of Building a Bridge on the Benefits from a Ferry 168
7.12 ICP Project Solution: Higher Skilled Wages 170
A7.1 Compensating and Equivalent Variation 173
8.1 Consumption Opportunities with and without an Import-Replacing Project 180
8.2 The UNIDO and LM Approaches to Project Appraisal 186
8.3 The Foreign Exchange Market with a Fixed Exchange Rate 188
8.4 Supply and Demand for Foreign Exchange with Tariffs and Subsidies 189
8.5 ICP Project Solution with a Shadow Exchange Rate 192
9.1 Triangular Probability Distribution 202
9.2 Cumulative Probability Distribution 203
9.3 Projects with Different Degrees of Risk 204
9.4 The Relationship between Utility and Wealth for a Risk Averse Individual 205
9.5 A Risk Averse Individual’s Indifference Map between Mean and
Variance of Wealth 207
9.6(a) Entering the Data 209
9.6(b) Entering the Simulation Settings 210
9.6(c) Running the Simulation 211
9.6(d) Reading the Results of the Simulation 211
9.6(e) Graphing the Probability Distribution 212
9.6(f) Generating a Cumulative Probability Distribution 212
9.6(g) Saving the Risk Analysis Results to a Spreadsheet 213
9.6(h) Selecting a Range of Values as Risk Analysis Outputs 213
9.6(i) Producing Summary Graphs for a Range of Outputs 214
9.7 ICP Project Risk Analysis: Programming a “Random Walk” 217
9.8 ICP Project Risk Analysis: Summary Statistics for Referent Group Net Benefits 218
9.9 ICP Project Risk Analysis: Summary Graph for a Range of Discount Rates 218
10.1 Taxation and Labour Supply 228
10.2 The Benefit and Cost of Delaying an Investment 231
10.3 ICP Project Solution with a Premium on Public Funds 235
11.1 The Lorenz Curve 240
11.2 Total Utility Curve 245
11.3 Marginal Utility Curve 246
11.4 Weighting Factors for Extra Income 249
12.1 Total Economic Value of Coral Reef Ecosystems 267
12.2 Measures of Value using the Replacement Cost Method 272
12.3 Willingness-to-pay and Consumer Surplus 274
12.4 Change in Consumer Surplus from Demand Curve Shift 275
12.5 Change in Consumer Surplus Resulting from a Price Change 275
12.6 Approximate Individual Demand Curve for Park Visits 277
13.1 The Circular Flow of Income 289

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