Textile Dyeing Edited by Peter J. Hauser

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Textile Dyeing
Edited by Peter J. Hauser
Textile Dyeing

Contents
Preface IX
Chapter 1 Effect of Radiation on Textile Dyeing 1
Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti, Shahid Adeel and Muhammad Abbas
Chapter 2 Dyeing Wool with
Metal-free Dyes – The Use of Sodium
Borohydride for the Application of Vat Dyes to Wool 17
John A. Rippon, Jackie Y. Cai and Shaun M. Smith
Chapter 3 Pretreatments of Textiles
Prior to Dyeing: Plasma Processing 33
R. R. Deshmukh and N. V. Bhat
Chapter 4 From Murex Purpura to Sensory Photochromic Textiles 57
Vedran Durasevic, Durdica Parac Osterman and Ana Sutlovic
Chapter 5 Dyeing of Environmentaly
Friendly Pretreated Cotton Fabric 77
Petra Forte Tavčer
Chapter 6 Improvement in Acrylic Fibres Dyeing 89
E. Giménez-Martín, A. Ontiveros-Ortega and M. Espinosa-Jiménez
Chapter 7 The Future of Dye House Quality Control with
the Introduction of Right-First Dyeing Technologies 119
Melih Günay
Chapter 8 Commercially Adaptable Coloration
Processes for Generic Polypropylene Fiber 155
Murari L. Gupta, Fred L. Cook and J. Nolan Etters
Chapter 9 Substrate Independent Dyeing of
Synthetic Textiles Treated with Low-Pressure Plasmas 173
Hossain Mohammad Mokbul and Hegemann Dirk
Chapter 10 Dyeing with Disperse Dyes 195
Joonseok Koh
Chapter 11 Pre-treatment of Textiles Prior to Dyeing 221
Edward Menezes and Mrinal Choudhari
Chapter 12 Polyamide 6.6 Modified by
DBD Plasma Treatment for Anionic Dyeing Processes 241
António Pedro Souto,
Fernando Ribeiro Oliveira and Noémia Carneiro
Chapter 13 Surface and Bulk Modification of
Synthetic Textiles to Improve Dyeability 261
Mazeyar Parvinzadeh Gashti, Julie Willoughby and Pramod Agrawal
Chapter 14 Pretreatment of Proteinic and
Synthetic Fibres Prior to Dyeing 299
A. Bendak and W. M. Raslan
Chapter 15 Effect of Plasma on Dyeability of Fabrics 327
Sheila Shahidi and Mahmood Ghoranneviss
Chapter 16 Dyeing and Fastness
Properties of Disperse Dyes on Poly(Lactic Acid) Fiber 351
Jantip Suesat and Potjanart Suwanruji
Chapter 17 Application of Cyclodextrins in Textile Dyeing 373
Bojana Voncina

Preface
Nearly all textile materials are colored after fabrication and before final finishing. The coloration of fibers and fabrics through dyeing is an integral part of textile manufacturing. This book discusses in detail several emerging topics on textile dyeing. The pretreatment of textiles prior to dyeing is addressed by several authors. Menezes and Choudhari present chemical alternatives to traditional pretreatment, while Tavcer discusses enzyme pretreatment procedures. Bendak and Raslan review pretreatment methods of protein and synthetic fibers, and Bhatti et al. introduce the concept of radiation induced pretreatment. Control of the dyeing process is discussed by Günay and enhancing the dyeability of fibers is reviewed by Gashti et al. Details for dyeing specific fiber types are given by Gupta et al (polypropylene), Suesat and Suwanruji (polylactic acid), and Giménez-Martín et al (acrylic). Individual dyestuff classes are addressed by Koh (disperse dyes), Rippon et al (vat dyes). The use of cyclodextrins as dye leveling agents is reviewed by Voncina while Durasevic et al. suggest that photochromic dyes can function as useful sensors. The interaction of plasma with textile material prior to dyeing is well represented with chapters by Durasevic et al, Souto et al, Deshmukh and Bhat, and Mokbul and Dirk.

“Textile Dyeing” will serve as an excellent addition to the libraries of both the novice and expert.

Effect of Radiation on Textile Dyeing

1. Introduction
Love for colours is a natural instinct and every individual has his own choice and liking for colour. The icy appearance of Hamaliyan ranges or lush green forests or fields of agriculture or trees laden with colorful fruits or butterflies moving from flower to flower presents the beauty of nature, generation after generations are being attracted. The choice of beautiful fascinating colours reflects the aesthetic sense of humans that varies.

Colour is visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, yellow, blue and others. It is a sensation that arises from the activity of retina of the eye and its attached nervous mechanism, and results in a specific response to the radiate energy of certain wavelength and intensity. Thus it is a quality of an object with respect to light (Mizzarini et al., 2002).Colorants may be either pigment or a dye which are characterized by their ability to absorb or emit light in the visible range 400-700nm.They may be organic or inorganic depending upon their structure and method of production.

Dyes are the coloured substances which are capable of imparting their colours to the matrix which may be fiber, paper or any object. They must have fixing tendency on a fabric that is impregnated with their solution and the coloured fixed dyes must be fast to light as well as resistant to action of water, dilute acids, alkalies, various organic solvents used in dry cleaning, soap solutions, detergent, etc ( Shukla, 1992 ) . A pigment generally is a substance which is insoluble in the medium in contrast to dye in which it is applied and has to be attached to a substrate by additional compounds e.g. polymer in paints and plastics (Taylor and Nonfiction, 2006)

A compound looks coloured because it has absorbed certain electromagnetic radiation from the visible region. The moieties, present in colouring substance, responsible for the absorption of electromagnetic radiation and reflect in the visible region are called chromophores (Younas, 2006).Ultraviolet radiation constitutes to 5% of the total incident sunlight on earth surface (visible light 50% and IR radiation 45%). Even though, its proportion is quite less, it has the highest quantum energy compared to other radiations. Light is electromagnetic in nature. Within the electromagnetic spectrum, human eye captures visible light in the range between about 380 nm and 700 nm (Mizzarini et al., 2002). Dyes absorb electromagnetic radiation of varying wavelength in the visible range of spectrum. Human eyes detect the visible radiations only for the respective complementary colours.

2. Classification of dyes: Natural & synthetic dyes
All colourants obtained from animals, plants and minerals without any chemical processing are called natural dyes.e.g.Alizarin a pigment extracted from madder, tyrian purple from snail and ochre which is a mineral of Fe2O3 (Gulrajani, 1992). Natural dyes may be vat dyes, substantive or mordant dyes as they require the inclusions of one or more metallic salts of tin, chromium, iron, copper, aluminum and other for ensuring reasonable fastness of the colours to sun light and washing. The natural dyes have several advantages such as: these dyes need no special care , wonderful and rich in tones , act as health cure, have no disposal problems, have no carcinogenic effect ,easily biodegradable, require simple dye house to apply on matrix and mild reactions conditions are involved in their extraction and application (Sachan and Kapoor,2004).There are some limitations of natural dyes which includes, lesser availability of colours, poor colour yield, complex dyeing processing, poor fastness properties and difficulty in blending dyes (Pan et al., 2003). Table 1 given below, shows the classification of dyes based upon both colours and structures.


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