Eco-efficient Pavement Construction Materials PDF by Fernando Pacheco-Torgal, Serji Amirkhanian, Hao Wang and Erik Schlangen

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Eco-efficient Pavement Construction Materials
Edited by Fernando Pacheco-Torgal, Serji Amirkhanian, Hao Wang and Erik Schlangen
Eco-efficient Pavement Construction Materials

Contents
List of contributors xiii
1 Introduction to eco-efficient pavement materials 1
F. Pacheco-Torgal and Serji Amirkhanian
1.1 The state of the Planet 1
1.2 Scientific production on civil engineering and pavements 2
1.3 Outline of the book 6
References 8

Part 1 Pavements with recycled waste 11
2 Utilization of scrap plastics in asphalt binders 13
Serji Amirkhanian
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Background 13
2.3 Materials and experimental design 16
2.4 Brookfield rotational viscosity test 17
2.5 Performance grade determination 18
2.6 Multiple stress creep recovery test 18
2.7 Linear amplitude sweep test 18
2.8 Frequency sweep and amplitude sweep tests 19
2.9 Results and discussions 19
2.9.1 Virgin binders 19
2.10 PAV-aged binders 24
2.10.1 Low-temperature properties 24
2.11 Conclusions 29
References 30

3 Use of waste engine oil in materials containing asphaltic components 33
Abhary Eleyedath and Aravind Krishna Swamy
3.1 Introduction 33
3.1.1 Refining process of waste engine oil 35
3.2 Properties of waste engine oil 37
3.2.1 Physical properties 37
3.2.2 Chemical composition 38
3.3 Utilization of waste engine oil 40
3.3.1 Incorporation of waste engine oil into the asphaltic binder 41
3.3.2 Incorporation of waste engine oil into the asphaltic mixture 45
3.4 Future trends and challenges 46
3.5 Conclusions 47
References 47
4 Microstructure and performance characteristics of cold recycled
asphalt mixtures 51
J.T. Lin and Y. Xiao
4.1 Introduction 51
4.2 Material composition of cold recycled asphalt 52
4.2.1 Definition 52
4.2.2 Material composition 52
4.2.3 Mixture design 53
4.2.4 Construction technologies 53
4.3 Microstructure in cold recycled asphalt mixtures 54
4.3.1 Analysis methodologies 54
4.3.2 Microstructure formation 54
4.3.3 Air void distribution 56
4.3.4 Morphology of interface 56
4.4 Laboratory performance of cold recycled asphalt mixtures 59
4.4.1 Analysis methodologies 59
4.4.2 Early-stage strength 60
4.4.3 Dynamic modulus 60
4.4.4 Rutting resistance 62
4.4.5 Fatigue durability 62
4.5 Field performance of pavement with cold recycled asphalt mixtures 63
4.5.1 Performance in the wear course 65
4.5.2 Field properties 65
4.5.3 Pavement condition and evolution 69
4.6 Conclusions and future perspectives 71
References 72
5 Life-cycle assessment of asphalt pavement recycling 77
Xiaodan Chen and Hao Wang
5.1 Introduction 77
5.1.1 Asphalt pavement recycling techniques 77
5.2 Life-cycle assessment on recycled asphalt pavement 78
5.2.1 Life-cycle assessment methods 78
5.2.2 Summary of most recent studies 79
5.3 Environmental impacts of asphalt pavement recycling at different
phases 79
5.3.1 Raw material phase 79
5.3.2 Production phase 82
5.3.3 Construction phase 85
5.3.4 Maintenance phase 86
5.3.5 Use phase 87
5.3.6 End-of-life phase 89
5.4 Conclusion and recommendations for future research 90
References 91
Further reading 93
Part 2 Pavements for climate change mitigation 95
6 Cool pavements 97
Martin Hendel
Nomenclature 97
6.1 Introduction 97
6.2 The urban heat island effect and the urban energy balance 99
6.2.1 Urban heat island effect 99
6.2.2 The urban energy budget 99
6.2.3 Urban volume energy balance 100
6.2.4 Pavement surface energy balance 101
6.3 Overview of cool pavement technologies 104
6.3.1 Reflective pavements 104
6.3.2 Green and evaporative pavements 107
6.3.3 High-inertia pavements: phase-changing materials 110
6.3.4 High-conduction and heat-harvesting pavements 113
6.3.5 Photovoltaic pavements 114
6.3.6 Thermoelectric pavements 115
6.3.7 Heat-exchanger pavements 115
6.3.8 Combined cool pavement designs 116
References 117
7 Reflective coatings for high albedo pavement 127
Hui Li and Ning Xie
7.1 Introduction 127
7.2 Coating performance evaluation method 129
7.3 Optical properties 130
7.3.1 Optical properties of pigment powders 130
7.3.2 Optical properties of coatings 134
7.4 Temperature properties of the nominated coatings 138
7.5 Correlation between the optical and temperature properties
of reflective coatings 138
7.6 Conclusions and future trends 143
References 144
8 Influence of aging on the performance of cool coatings 147
Stella Tsoka
8.1 Introduction 147
8.2 Investigating the aging and weathering of cool coatings 149
8.2.1 Parameters contributing to the aging of cool coatings
and evaluation approaches 149
8.2.2 Methods for the albedo restauration 153
8.3 Assessing the effect of aging on the thermal performance of cool
coatings 154
8.3.1 Aged cool coatings and their effect on urban microclimate 154
8.3.2 Aged cool coatings and their effect on the buildings’
energy performance 159
8.4 Synopsis and conclusions 162
8.5 Future perspectives 162
Acknowledgments 163
Conflict of interest 163
References 163
Part 3 Self-healing pavements 169
9 Self-healing property and road performance of asphalt binder and
asphalt mixture containing urea-formaldehyde microcapsule 171
H. Zhang
9.1 Introduction 171
9.2 Preparation of microcapsule 172
9.2.1 Preparation of microcapsule 172
9.3 Characterization of microcapsule 173
9.3.1 Morphology 173
9.3.2 Size distribution 174
9.3.3 Chemical structure 175
9.3.4 Thermal stability 176
9.3.5 Mechanical resistance 178
9.3.6 Capsule survival rate 178
9.3.7 Flowability behavior of core material 179
9.4 Self-healing property of microcapsule-containing asphalt binder 179
9.4.1 Self-healing ductility 179
9.4.2 Self-healing dynamic shear rheological test results 180
9.5 Rheological properties of microcapsule-containing asphalt binder 183
9.5.1 Consistency property 184
9.5.2 Durability 185
9.5.3 High-temperature stability 187
9.5.4 Low-temperature crack resistance 188
9.6 Self-healing property of microcapsule-containing asphalt mixture 190
9.6.1 Fatigue life prolongation 190
9.6.2 Stiffness recovery 190
9.6.3 Crack observation 191
9.7 Mechanical and pavement performance of microcapsule-containing
asphalt mixture 191
9.7.1 Indirect tensile strength 191
9.7.2 Indirect tensile stiffness modulus 192
9.7.3 Antifatigue performance 192
9.7.4 High-temperature stability 192
9.7.5 Low-temperature crack resistance 193
9.7.6 Water stability 193
9.8 Future trends 194
9.9 Sources of further information and advice 194
References 194
Further reading 196
10 Self-healing biomimetic microvascular containing oily rejuvenator
for prolonging life of bitumen 197
Jun-Feng Su
10.1 Introduction of biomimetic microvascular self-healing 197
10.2 Preparation of hollow fibers as self-healing microvascular
by a one-step spinning technology 201
10.3 Characterization methods of hollow fibers 202
10.3.1 Fourier-transform infrared microscopy 202
10.3.2 Environmental scanning electron microscopy 202
10.3.3 Mechanical properties of fibers 203
10.3.4 Thermal stability 203
10.3.5 Contact angle 203
10.3.6 Permeability of hollow fibers 203
10.4 Microstructure and properties of hollow fibers 203
10.4.1 Physicochemical structure of hollow fibers 203
10.4.2 Microstructure of hollow fibers 208
10.4.3 Tensile strength of fibers 209
10.4.4 Thermal stability of fibers 210
10.4.5 Contact angle of fibers 211
10.4.6 Rejuvenator penetration behaviors 212
10.5 Diffusing behavior of rejuvenator in bitumen 214
10.6 State of hollow fibers in bitumen 220
10.6.1 Distribution and integrality of hollow fibers in bitumen 222
10.6.2 Thermal stability of hollow fibers in bitumen 224
10.6.3 Interface stability of hollow fibers/bitumen composites 226
10.6.4 Break and release behaviors of hollow fibers in bitumen 227
10.6.5 Penetration and diffusion behaviors of rejuvenator 230
10.7 Self-healing capability of bitumen using hollow fibers 232
10.7.1 Vascular self-healing efficiency evaluation method 233
10.7.2 Distribution of hollow fibers in bitumen samples 235
10.7.3 Self-healing capability influenced by fiber contents 236
10.7.4 Self-healing efficiency influenced by fiber orientation 240
10.7.5 Self-healing efficiency influenced by temperature
and time 241
10.8 Conclusion 244
10.9 Future work and outlook 245
References 246
Further reading 247
11 Self-healing pavements using microcapsules containing rejuvenator:
from idea to real application 249
Jun-Feng Su
11.1 Introduction 249
11.2 Design the microcapsules containing rejuvenator 251
11.2.1 Experimental methods 253
11.2.2 Results and discussion 256
11.3 The mechanism of self-healing of microcapsules 268
11.3.1 Characterization of microcapsules containing rejuvenator 269
11.3.2 Thermal analysis of microcapsules 271
11.3.3 Capillarity behaviors of rejuvenator in microcracks 272
11.3.4 Observation of rejuvenator diffusion in aged bitumen 276
11.3.5 Properties of virgin and rejuvenated bitumen 277
11.4 The mechanism of multi-self-healing of microcapsules 278
11.4.1 Observation of rejuvenator movement in bitumen 279
11.4.2 BOEF setup 279
11.4.3 Multi-self-healing tests 280
11.4.4 Mixture of microcapsules and bitumen 281
11.4.5 Observation of the self-healing process 283
11.4.6 Mechanical tests of multi-self-healing behaviors 284
11.4.7 Properties of virgin and rejuvenated bitumen 288
11.4.8 Mechanism analysis of multi-self-healing 288
11.4.9 Hypothesis and future work 292
11.5 States of microcapsules in asphalt binder 293
11.5.1 Experimental method 295
11.5.2 Results and discussion 297
11.6 Real application of microcapsules in pavement 308
11.7 Further advice 309
References 309
Further reading 314
12 Novel magnetically induced healing in road pavements 315
Filippo Giustozzi
12.1 Introduction 315
12.2 Principles of induction heating of ferrous and magnetic materials 316
12.3 Review of ferrous and ferromagnetic materials in road applications
to promote healing 318
12.4 Induction healing of bituminous mastics using ferromagnetic filler 319
12.5 Induction healing of asphalt mixes using metals and mixed-metal
alloy fibers and ferromagnetic filler 323
12.6 Engineered dual-layer asphalt healing systems 331
12.7 Conclusions and future developments 332
References 334
Part 4 Pavements with energy harvesting potential
and vehicle power charging ability 337
13 Thermoelectric technologies for harvesting energy from pavements 339
Wei Jiang and Yue Huang
13.1 Introduction 339
13.2 Principle of pavement thermoelectric technology 340
13.3 Pavement temperature characteristics 342
13.3.1 Pavement and ambient air temperature 342
13.3.2 Pavement and subgrade temperature 343
13.4 Design of road pavement thermoelectric generator system 348
13.4.1 Pavement-ambient thermoelectric system 348
13.4.2 Pavement-subgrade thermoelectric system 349
13.4.3 Design of thermoelectric generator 350
13.5 Energy output and influencing factors 352
13.5.1 Energy output 352
13.5.2 Influencing factors 357
13.6 Effect of thermoelectric system on pavement temperature 361
13.7 Conclusion and future developments 364
13.8 Sources of further information and advice 364
13.9 Acknowledgments 365
References 365

14 Piezoelectric energy harvesting from pavement 367
Hao Wang and Abbas Jasim
14.1 Introduction 367
14.2 Piezoelectric materials and principle of energy harvesting 368
14.3 Piezoelectric transducer designs and types 369
14.3.1 Cantilever beam transducer 369
14.3.2 Disk-/rod-shaped transducer 370
14.3.3 Cymbal and bridge transducer 370
14.3.4 PZT composite 373
14.3.5 Placement of piezoelectric transducer in pavement 373
14.4 Previous studies of piezoelectric energy harvesting in pavement 374
14.4.1 Theoretical studies 374
14.4.2 Laboratory and field studies 374
14.5 Use and storage of harvested energy 376
14.5.1 Challenges of piezoelectric energy harvesting in
pavement 377
14.6 Summary and recommendations 378
References 379

15 Inductive power transfer technology for road transport electrification 383
Feng Chen
15.1 Introduction 383
15.1.1 Background 383
15.1.2 IPT technology for on-the-road charging 384
15.1.3 Infrastructural challenges for IPT-based eRoad system 385
15.2 Structural analysis of the eRoad system 386
15.2.1 Mechanical loading on small-scale eRoad structural sample 386
15.2.2 Finite element modeling of eRoad structural responses 387
15.3 Road material’s dielectric influence on eRoad system 393
15.4 Sustainability assessment of eRoad system 395
15.5 Conclusions and recommendations 397
References 397
Index 401

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